Feed additives such as ractopamine and salbutamol are pharmacologically active compounds, acting primarily as β-adrenergic agonists. This study was designed to investigate whether the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol may occur under the metabolic conditions and to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of sulfating two major feed additive compounds, ractopamine and salbutamol. A metabolic labelling study showed the generation and release of [35S]sulfated ractopamine and salbutamol by HepG2 human hepatoma cells labelled with [35S]sulfate in the presence of these two compounds. A systematic analysis using 11 purified human SULTs revealed SULT1A3 as the major SULT responsible for the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol. The pH dependence and kinetic parameters were analyzed. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of ractopamine and salbutamol on SULT1A3-mediated dopamine sulfation were investigated. Cytosol or S9 fractions of human lung, liver, kidney and small intestine were examined to verify the presence of ractopamine-/salbutamol-sulfating activity in vivo. Of the four human organs, the small intestine displayed the highest activity towards both compounds. Collectively, these results imply that the sulfation mediated by SULT1A3 may play an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of ractopamine and salbutamol.
feed additive; ractopamine; salbutamol; sulfation; SULT
By searching the GenBank database, we identified sequences encoding three new zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). These three new zebrafish SULTs, designated SULT1 ST9, SULT3 ST4, and SULT3 ST5, were cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized. SULT1 ST9 appeared to be mostly involved in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics such as β-naphthol, β-naphthylamine, caffeic acid and gallic acid. SULT3 ST4 showed strong activity toward endogenous compound such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnenolone, and 17β-estradiol. SULT3 ST5 showed weaker, but significant, activities toward endogenous compounds such as DHEA and corticosterone, as well as xenobiotics including mestranol, β-naphthylamine, β-naphthol, and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). pH-dependency and kinetic constants of these three enzymes were determined with DHEA, β-naphthol, and 17β-estradiol as substrates. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression of these three new zebrafish SULTs at different developmental stages during embryogenesis, through larval development, and on to maturity.
Cytosolic sulfotransferase; SULT; 17β-estradiol; dehydroepiandrosterone; molecular cloning; developmental expression; zebrafish
The current study was designed to examine the sulfation of bile acids and bile alcohols by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) SULTs in comparison with human SULTs. A systematic analysis using the fifteen Zebra danio SULTs revealed that SULT3 ST2 and SULT3 ST3 were the major bile acid/alcohol-sulfating SULTs. Among the eleven human SULTs, only SULT2A1 was found to be capable of sulfating bile acids and bile alcohols. To further investigate the sulfation of bile acids and bile alcohols by the two Zebra danio SULT3 STs and the human SULT2A1, pH-dependence and kinetics of the sulfation of bile acids/alcohols were analyzed. pH-dependence experiments showed that the mechanisms underlying substrate recognition for the sulfation of lithocholic acid (a bile acid) and 5α-petromyzonol (a bile alcohol) differed between the human SULT2A1 and the Zebra danio SULT3 ST2 and ST3. Kinetic analysis indicated that both the two Zebra danio SULT3 STs preferred petromyzonol as substrate compared to bile acids. In contrast, the human SULT2A1 was more catalytically efficient toward lithocholic acid than petromyzonol. Collectively, the results imply that the Zebra danio and human SULTs have evolved to serve for the sulfation of, respectively, bile alcohols and bile acids, matching the cholanoid profile in these two vertebrate species.
Sulfotransferase; Sulfation; Zebra danio; Bile acid
To establish the zebrafish as a model for investigating the methylation pathway of drug metabolism, we embarked on the molecular cloning of the zebrafish catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT). By searching the GenBank database, a zebrafish nucleotide sequence encoding a putative COMT was identified. Based on the sequence information, we designed and synthesized oligonucleotides corresponding to its 5’- and 3’-coding regions of this zebrafish COMT. Using the first-strand cDNA reverse-transcribed from the total RNA isolated from a 3-month-old adult female zebrafish as the template, the cDNA encoding the zebrafish COMT was PCR-amplified. The recombinant zebrafish COMT protein was subsequently expressed in and purified from BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli cells transformed with the pGEX-2TK expression vector harboring the zebrafish COMT cDNA. Upon enzymatic characterization, purified COMT displayed methylating activity toward dopamine, dopa, and catecholestrogens, as well as three representative catechol drugs, methyldopa, dobutamine, and isoproterenol. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed developmental stage-dependent expression of the zebrafish COMT during embryonic development and throughout the larval stage onto maturity. These results provide a foundation for investigating the involvement of COMT-mediated methylation in protection against the adverse effects of catechol drugs and other xenobiotic catechols during the developmental process.
Catechol O-methyltransferase; developmental expression; methylation; molecular cloning; zebrafish
A simple methodology for the identification of hemostatic proteins that are subjected to post-translational tyrosine sulfation was developed. The procedure involved sequence analysis of members of the three hemostatic pathways using Sulfinator prediction algorithm, followed by [35S]sulfate-labeling of cultured HepG2 human hepatoma cells, immunoprecipitation of targeted [35S]sulfate-labeled hemostatic proteins, and tyrosine O[35S]sulfate analysis of immunoprecipitated proteins. Three new tyrosine-sulfated hemostatic proteins, protein S, prekallikrein and plasminogen, were identified. Such a target-specific approach will allow for investigation of tyrosine-sulfated proteins of other biochemical/physiological pathways/processes and contribute to a better understating of the functional role of post-translational tyrosine sulfation.
Hemostasis; tyrosine sulfation; post-translational protein modification
Ventricular septal defects (VSD) are the most common form of congenital heart disease, which is the leading non-infectious cause of death in children; nevertheless, the exact cause of VSD is not yet fully understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play key roles in various biological processes, such as imprinting control, circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation, immune responses and chromosome dynamics. Notably, a growing number of lncRNAs have been implicated in disease etiology, although an association with VSD has not been reported. In the present study, we conducted an integrated analysis of dysregulated lncRNAs, focusing specifically on the identification and characterization of lncRNAs potentially involving in initiation of VSD. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of cardiac tissues from VSD-affected and normal hearts was performed using a second-generation lncRNA microarray, which covers the vast majority of expressed RefSeq transcripts (29,241 lncRNAs and 30,215 coding transcripts). In total, 880 lncRNAs were upregulated and 628 were downregulated in VSD. Furthermore, our established filtering pipeline indicated an association of two lncRNAs, ENST00000513542 and RP11-473L15.2, with VSD. This dysregulation of the lncRNA profile provides a novel insight into the etiology of VSD and furthermore, illustrates the intricate relationship between coding and ncRNA transcripts in cardiac development. These data may offer a background/reference resource for future functional studies of lncRNAs related to VSD.
Resistive switching (RS) based on the formation and rupture of conductive filament (CF) is promising in novel memory and logic device applications. Understanding the physics of RS and the nature of CF is of utmost importance to control the performance, variability and reliability of resistive switching memory (RRAM). Here, the RESET switching of HfO2-based RRAM was statistically investigated in terms of the CF conductance evolution. The RESET usually combines an abrupt conductance drop with a progressive phase ending with the complete CF rupture. RESET1 and RESET2 events, corresponding to the initial and final phase of RESET, are found to be controlled by the voltage and power in the CF, respectively. A Monte Carlo simulator based on the thermal dissolution model of unipolar RESET reproduces all of the experimental observations. The results contribute to an improved physics-based understanding on the switching mechanisms and provide additional support to the thermal dissolution model.
Better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor initiating events. Herein, transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA editing of antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) displays a high modification rate in HCC specimens. A-to-I editing of AZIN1 transcripts is specifically regulated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1). The serine (S) → glycine (G) substitution at residue 367, located in β-strand 15 (β15), predicted a conformational change, induced a cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation, and conferred “gain-of-function” phenotypes manifested by augmented tumor initiating potential and more aggressive behavior. Compared with wild-type AZIN1 protein, the edited form possesses stronger affinity to antizyme, and the resultant higher protein stability promotes cell proliferation via the neutralization of antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclin D1 (CCND1). Collectively, A-to-I RNA editing of AZIN1 may be a potential driver in the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly HCC.
A-to-I; RNA editing; AZIN1; ADAR1; antizyme; ODC; CCND1; HCC
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of ATF-3 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods: Expression of ATF-3 was examined using immunohistochemistry methods in samples from 83 cases of LSCC carcinoma. MTT assay was used to detect proliferation of Hep-2 cells after ATF-3 knocked down by siRNA lentivirus. A mouse model was used to investigate the inhibitive role of ATF-3 siRNA in LSCC xenografts. Realtime RCR was used to detect Cyclin D1 expression after ATF-3 downregulation in Hep-2 cells. Results: The expression of ATF-3 was positively detected in all the 83 cases of LSCC cancer tissues while Only 4 cases of adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were detected with positive ATF-3 expression. The ATF-3 expression was statistically related with T stage, neck nodal metastasis, clinical stage and prognosis of LSCC. Both cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were suppressed after ATF-3 knockdown. Furthermore, the expression of Cyclin D1 was decreased after ATF-3 downregulation in Hep-2 cells. Conclusion: ATF-3 is involved in the progress of LSCC, and may provide clinical information for evaluation of prognosis of LSCC. The oncologic role of ATF-3 may be correlated with Cyclin D1 regulation.
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; activating transcription factor 3; Cyclin D1
Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the best characterized effectors of the small G-protein RhoA, and play a role in enhanced vasoconstriction in animal models of congestive heart failure (CHF). This study examined if ROCK activity is increased in CHF and how it is associated with the outcome in CHF.
Methods and results
Patients admitted with CHF (n =178), disease controls (n =31), and normal subjects (n =30) were studied. Baseline ROCK activity was measured by phosphorylation of themyosin-binding subunit in peripheral leucocytes. The patients were followed up for 14.4 ± 7.2 months (range 0.5–26 months) or until the occurrence of cardiac death. The ROCK activity in CHF patients (2.93 ± 0.87) was significantly higher than that of the disease control (2.06 ± 0.38, P < 0.001) and normal control (1.57 ± 0.43, P < 0.001) groups. Similarly, protein levels of ROCK1 and ROCK2 as well as the activity of RhoA in CHF were significantly higher than in disease controls and normal controls (all P < 0.05). Dyspnoea at rest (β =0.338, P < 0.001), low left ventricular ejection fraction (β = –0.277, P < 0.001), and high creatinine (β =0.202, P =0.006) were independent predictors of the baseline ROCK activity in CHF. Forty-five patients died within 2 years follow-up (25.3%). Combining ROCK activity and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) had an incremental value (log rank χ2 =11.62) in predicting long-term mortality when compared with only NT-proBNP (log rank χ2 =5.16, P < 0.05).
ROCK activity is increased in CHF and it might be associated with the mortality in CHF. ROCK activity might be a complementary biomarker to CHF risk stratification.
Rho kinases; Congestive heart failure; Mortality
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of the mechanisms of apoptotic cell death. Inhibiting the apoptosis induced by ERS may be a novel therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Icariin, a flavonoid isolated from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been demonstrated to have cardiovascular protective effects, but its effects on ERS are unknown. In the present study, we focused on icariin and investigated whether it might protect the cardiac cell from apoptosis via inhibition of ERS. In H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, pretreatment of icariin significantly inhibited cell apoptosis by tunicamycin, an ERS inducer. Icariin also decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, icariin inhibited upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum markers, GRP78, GRP94 and CHOP, elicited by tunicamycin. These results indicated that icariin could protect H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells from ERS-mitochondrial apoptosis in vitro, the mechanisms may be associated with its inhibiting of GRP78, GRP94 and CHOP and decreasing ROS generation directly. It may be a potential agent for treating cardiovascular disease.
icariin; endoplasmic reticulum stress; apoptosis; cardioprotection
An imbalance in the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is significant in the onset and progression of vascular diseases, including arteriosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Rosuvastatin, a selective inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, has pharmacological properties including the ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, slow atherosclerosis progression and improve coronary heart disease outcomes. However, little is known concerning the molecular mechanism by which rosuvastatin affects vascular cell dynamics. In this study, we studied the inhibitory role of rosuvastatin on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. MTT data showed that rosuvastatin markedly inhibited the proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs in a time-dependent manner. VSMCs are able to dedifferentiate into a proliferative phenotype in response to PDGF-BB stimulation; however, rosuvastatin effectively attenuated this phenotype switching. Moreover, we also showed that rosuvastatin significantly suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration, which may be a result of its inhibitory effect on the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9. Investigation into the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that rosuvastatin inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway by downregulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK, although the phosphorylation level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) was not altered following rosuvastatin treatment. In conclusion, the present study showed that rosuvastatin suppressed PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, indicating that rosuvastatin has the potential to become a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis and restenosis.
rosuvastatin; vascular smooth muscle cell; platelet-derived growth factor; proliferation; migration; mitogen-activated protein kinase
The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity and the behavioral and biochemical effects of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) extracts on fatigued rats. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: untreated control (UC), running control (RC), RC treated with 13 mg/kg/day modafinil and RC treated with KXS at dosages of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively. The treatments were administered orally. Anti-fatigue activity was assessed using the treadmill running test and serum biochemical parameters were determined using an autoanalyzer and commercially available kits. Furthermore, the standardization of the KXS extracts was ensured using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fingerprint. The extracts were shown to increase exhaustive running time in the treadmill running test and reverse the fatigue-induced reduction in hepatic/muscle glycogen and testosterone, in addition to reducing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and β-endorphin levels in the serum of the fatigued rats. Moreover, the extracts enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum of the fatigued rats. The results of this preliminary study indicated that KXS exhibits anti-fatigue activity. This was reflected in the effects on the biochemical markers for fatigue.
anti-fatigue effect; Kai-Xin-San; treadmill running test; traditional Chinese medicinal formula
The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of deep sea water (DSW) on osteoporosis. Previously, we have established the ovariectomized senescence-accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8) and demonstrated strong recovery of osteoporosis by stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Deep sea water at hardness (HD) 1000 showed significant increase in proliferation of osteoblastic cell (MC3T3) by MTT assay. For in vivo animal study, bone mineral density (BMD) was strongly enhanced followed by the significantly increased trabecular numbers through micro-CT examination after a 4-month deep sea water treatment, and biochemistry analysis showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was decreased. For stage-specific osteogenesis, bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested and examined. Deep sea water-treated BMSCs showed stronger osteogenic differentiation such as BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, and enhanced colony forming abilities, compared to the control group. Interestingly, most untreated OVX-SAMP8 mice died around 10 months; however, approximately 57% of DSW-treated groups lived up to 16.6 months, a life expectancy similar to the previously reported life expectancy for SAMR1 24 months. The results demonstrated the regenerative potentials of deep sea water on osteogenesis, showing that deep sea water could potentially be applied in osteoporosis therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
Shigellosis is rare in Taiwan, with an average annual incidence rate of 1.68 cases per 100,000 persons in 2000–2007. However, the incidence rate for a mountainous township in eastern Taiwan, Zhuoxi, is 60.2 times the average rate for the entire country. Traveling between Zhuoxi’s 6 villages (V1–V6) is inconvenient. Disease transmission among the villages/tribes with endemic shigellosis was investigated in this study.
Demographic data were collected in 2000–2010 for epidemiological investigation. Thirty-eight Shigella flexneri 2a isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST).
Fifty-five shigellosis cases were identified in 2000–2007, of which 38 were caused by S. flexneri 2a from 2000–2007, 16 cases were caused by S. sonnei from 2000–2003, and 1 case was caused by S. flexneri 3b in 2006. S. flexneri 2a caused infections in 4 of the 6 villages of Zhuoxi Township, showing the highest prevalence in villages V2 and V5. PFGE genotyping categorized the 38 S. flexneri 2a isolates into 2 distinct clusters (clones), 1 and 2. AST results indicated that most isolates in cluster 1 were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (ACSSuX); all isolates in cluster 2 were resistant to ACSSuX and tetracycline. Genotypes were primarily unique to different villages or tribes. Tribe V2-1 showed the highest endemic rates. Eighteen isolates recovered from V2-1 tribe members fell into 6 genotypes, where 5 were the same clone (cluster 1). An outbreak (OB2) in 2004 in village V2 was caused by different clonal strains; cases in tribe V2-1 were caused by 2 strains of clone 1, and those in tribe V2-2 were infected by a strain of clone 2.
From 2000–2007, 2 S. flexneri 2a clones circulated among 4 villages/tribes in the eastern mountainous township of Zhuoxi. Genotyping data showed restricted disease transmission between the villages and tribes, which may be associated with difficulties in traveling between villages and limited contact between different ethnic aborigines. Transmission of shigellosis in this township likely occurred via person-to-person contact. The endemic disease was controlled by successful public health intervention.
Shigella; Molecular epidemiology; Disease transmission/control; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Antibiotic resistance
Ferroelectric BaTiO3/SrTiO3 with optimized c-axis-oriented multilayered thin films were epitaxially fabricated on (001) MgO substrates. The microstructural studies indicate that the in-plane interface relationships between the films as well as the substrate are determined to be (001)SrTiO3//(001)BaTiO3//(001)MgO and SrTiO3//BaTiO3//MgO. The microwave (5 to 18 GHz) dielectric measurements reveal that the multilayered thin films have excellent dielectric properties with large dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high dielectric tunability, which suggests that the as-grown ferroelectric multilayered thin films can be developed for room-temperature tunable microwave elements and related device applications.
BaTiO3//SrTiO3; Multilayer; Ferroelectric thin films; Epitaxial behavior; Microwave dielectric properties
Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol (sesamol) has been reported to have potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sesamol on water immersion restraint- (WIR-) induced SRMD in rats. Rat gastric ulcer and hemorrhage were induced by WIR. Rats were pretreated orally with various doses of sesamol (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, resp.) 30 min before WIR. Gastric mucosal ulceration, hemoglobin, lipid peroxidation, mucus secretion, proinflammatory cytokines, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB levels were determined 4 h after WIR. In addition, the infiltration of neutrophil and macrophage into gastric mucosa was also determined after WIR. Water immersion restraint increased gastric mucosal ulcer and hemorrhage, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels but failed to affect mucosal lipid peroxidation and mucus secretion compared with non-WIR. Sesamol significantly decreased gastric ulceration and hemorrhage and inhibited mucosal TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production and NF-κB activity in WIR-treated rats. In addition, increased myeloperoxidase and CD68 levels in gastric mucosa were found in WIR-treated rats compared to non-WIR rats. Sesamol did not affect myeloperoxidase but decreased CD68 levels in mucosa in WIR-treated rats. Sesamol may protect against SRMD by inhibiting gastric mucosal proinflammatory cytokines in rats.
This paper aims to design a wearable terrain recognition system, which might assist the control of powered artificial prosthetic legs. A laser distance sensor and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors were mounted on human body. These sensors were used to identify the movement state of the user, reconstruct the geometry of the terrain in front of the user while walking, and recognize the type of terrain before the user stepped on it. Different sensor configurations were investigated and compared. The designed system was evaluated on one healthy human subject when walking on an obstacle course in the laboratory environment. The results showed that the reconstructed terrain height demonstrated clearer pattern difference among studied terrains when the laser was placed on the waist than that when the laser was mounted on the shank. The designed system with the laser on the waist accurately recognized 157 out of 160 tested terrain transitions, 300ms–2870ms before the user switched the negotiated terrains. These promising results demonstrated the potential application of the designed terrain recognition system to further improve the control of powered artificial legs.
In this study, we aimed to improve the performance of a locomotion-mode-recognition system based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion by introducing additional information about the walking environment. Linear-discriminant-analysis-based classifiers were first designed to identify a lower limb prosthesis user’s locomotion mode based on electromyographic signals recorded from residual leg muscles and ground reaction forces measured from the prosthetic pylon. Nine transfemoral amputees who wore a passive hydraulic knee or powered prosthetic knee participated in this study. Information about the walking terrain was simulated and modeled as prior probability based on the principle of maximum entropy and integrated into the discriminant functions of the classifier. When the correct prior knowledge of walking terrain was simulated, the classification accuracy for each locomotion mode significantly increased and no task transitions were missed. In addition, simulated incorrect prior knowledge did not significantly reduce system performance, indicating that our design is robust against noisy and imperfect prior information. Furthermore, these observations were independent of the type of prosthesis applied. The promising results in this study may assist the further development of an environment-aware adaptive system for locomotion-mode recognition for powered lower limb prostheses or orthoses.
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA); neuromuscular-mechanical fusion; orthotics; prior probability; prosthetics
The present study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of lung cancer development using a microarray to identify the differentially-expressed genes associated with the various tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages of lung adenocarcinoma. This subtype of lung cancer has increased in incidence within recent years in China. A 35K oligo gene array covering ~25,100 genes was used to screen the differentially-expressed genes among 90 lung adenocarcinoma samples of various TNM stages. To verify the data from the gene arrays, three genes [human zinc finger-containing, Miz1, PIAS-like protein on chromosome 7 (Zimp7), GINS complex subunit 2 (GINS2) and NSAID activated gene 1 (NAG-1)] were validated using quantitative (q)PCR in an alternative set of samples to the gene array. A total of 640 genes were identified that were differentially-expressed in lung adenocarcinoma compared with the surrounding normal lung tissues. From these 640 candidate genes, 10 were observed to be differentially-expressed among TNM stages I, II and IIIA, of which, the Zimp7, GINS2 and NAG-1 genes were reported for the first time to be expressed at high levels in lung adenocarcinoma. The results of the qPCR for the three genes were consistent with those from the gene array. In total, 10 candidate genes were identified to be associated with the various TNM stages of lung adenocarcinoma in the population studied, which may provide new insights into the molecular basis underlying the development of lung adenocarcinoma and offer new targets for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.
lung adenocarcinoma; tumor-node-metastasis stage; gene expression profile
Graphene exhibits unique electronic properties, and its low dimensionality, structural robustness, and high work-function make it very promising as the charge storage media for memory applications. Along with the development of miniaturized and scaled up devices, nanostructured graphene emerges as an ideal material candidate. Here we proposed a novel non-volatile charge trapping memory utilizing isolate and uniformly distributed nanographene crystals as nano-floating gate with controllable capacity and excellent uniformity. Nanographene charge trapping memory shows large memory window (4.5 V) at low operation voltage (±8 V), good retention (>10 years), chemical and thermal stability (1000°C), as well as tunable memory performance employing with different tunneling layers. The fabrication of such memory structure is compatible with existing semiconductor processing thus has promise on low-cost integrated nanoscale memory applications.
To date, most studies of Rho GTPase regulation have focused on the classic GTPase cycle – GTP binding and hydrolysis – controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). Recent investigations have unveiled important additional regulatory mechanisms: microRNA (miRNA) regulating post-transcriptional processing of Rho GTPase-encoding mRNAs; palmitoylation and nuclear targeting affecting intracellular distribution; post-translational phosphorylation, transglutamination and AMPylation impacting Rho GTPase signaling; and ubiquitination controlling Rho GTPase protein stability and turnover. These modes of regulation add to the complexity of the Rho GTPase signaling network and allow precise spatiotemporal control of individual Rho GTPases. This review will discuss these ‘unconventional’ modes of regulation and their contribution to cellular function, focusing on post-transcriptional and post-translational events beyond the classic GTPase cycle regulatory model.
small GTPases; microRNAs; ubiquitination; phosphorylation; transglutamination
Post-translational protein modification by tyrosine-sulfation plays an important role in extracellular protein-protein interactions. The protein tyrosine sulfation reaction is catalyzed by the Golgi-enzyme called the tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). To date, no crystal structure is available for TPST. Detailed mechanism of protein tyrosine sulfation reaction has thus remained unclear. Here we present the first crystal structure of the human TPST isoform 2 (TPST2) complexed with a substrate peptide (C4P5Y3) derived from complement C4 and 3’-phosphoadenosine-5’-phosphate (PAP) at 1.9Å resolution. Structural and complementary mutational analyses revealed the molecular basis for catalysis being an SN2-like in-line displacement mechanism. TPST2 appeared to recognize the C4 peptide in a deep cleft by using a short parallel β-sheet type interaction, and the bound C4P5Y3 forms an L-shaped structure. Surprisingly, the mode of substrate peptide recognition observed in the TPST2 structure resembles that observed for the receptor type tyrosine kinases.
Fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, and is primarily expressed in cardiac muscle tissue. Previously, we found that FABP3 is highly expressed in patients with ventricular-septal defects and is often used as a plasma biomarker in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and may play a significant role in the development of these defects in humans. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of FABP3 in the embryonic development of the zebrafish heart, and specifically how morpholino (MO) mediated knockdown of FABP3 would affect heart development in this species. Our results revealed that knockdown of FABP3 caused significant impairment of cardiac development observed, including developmental delay, pericardial edema, a linear heart tube phenotype, incomplete cardiac loop formation, abnormal positioning of the ventricles and atria, downregulated expression of cardiac-specific markers and decreased heart rate. Mechanistically, our data showed that the retinoic acid (RA) catabolizing enzyme Cyp26a1 was upregulated in FABP3-MO zebrafish, as indicated by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR. On the other hand, the expression level of the RA synthesizing enzyme Raldh2 did not significantly change in FABP3-MO injected zebrafish. Collectively, our results indicated that FABP3 knockdown had significant effects on cardiac development, and that dysregulated RA signaling was one of the mechanisms underlying this effect. As a result, these studies identify FABP3 as a candidate gene underlying the etiology of congenital heart defects.
FABP3; zebrafish; cardiac development; RA
To evaluate the longitudinal change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the influence of initial PSA on the PSA change. We retrospectively analysed health examination data collected at Beijing Hospital from March 2007 to November 2011. Men with an initial PSA levels less than 4 ng ml−1 and an annual PSA test for 5 years were enrolled into the study. The men were separated into four groups by the initial PSA level (0–0.99, 1–1.99, 2–2.99 and 3–3.99 ng ml−1), and the difference in PSA change among the four groups was analysed. A total of 1330 men were enrolled into the study. The mean age, initial PSA and PSA velocity (PSAV) were 58.17±14.63 (range 24–91) years, 1.18±0.79 (range 0–4) ng ml−1 and 0.04±0.25 (range −1.34–2.02) ng ml−1 year−1. Pearson's correlation analysis showed no correlation between initial PSA and PSAV (r=−0.036, P=0.189). The PSAV of the 0–0.99, 1–1.99, 2–2.99 and 3–3.99 ng ml−1 initial PSA groups was 0.03±0.11, 0.07±0.32, 0.03±0.34 and −0.01±0.43 ng ml−1 year−1, respectively (P=0.06). As the initial PSA increased, the percentage of having a PSAV over 0.75 ng ml−1 year−1 and a negative PSAV both significantly increased. Males with a baseline PSA of 0–0.99, 1–1.99, 2–2.99 and 3–3.99 ng ml−1 had a 1.88%, 6.16%, 16.30% and 57.81% chance, respectively, that their PSA would increase above 4.0 ng ml−1 over the following 4 years (P<0.0001). The PSAV has no correlation with the initial PSA level. However, as the initial PSA increases, the chance that males will have an abnormal PSA or PSAV in the future increases.
male; prostate cancer (PCa); prostate carcinoma tumour antigen; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); PSA velocity