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1.  Factors Associated with Myopia in School Children in China: The Beijing Childhood Eye Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52668.
Purpose
To assess factors associated with myopia in school children in rural and urban parts of Greater Beijing.
Methods
The Beijing Pedriatic Eye Study was a population-based cross-sectional study, in which one school of each level (primary, junior high, senior high) was randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts out of 18 districts of Greater Beijing. The children underwent non-cylcoplegic refractometry and their parents an interview.
Results
Of 16,771 eligible students, 15,066 (89.8%) children (7,769 (51.6%) girls) participated, with 8,860 (58.8%) participants living in the rural region. Mean age was 13.2±3.4 years (range:7–18 years). In multivariate analysis, prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤−1.00 diopters) was associated with higher age (Odds ratio(OR):1.37; 95% confidence interval(CI):1.35,1.39), female gender (OR:1.35;95%CI:1.25,1.47), key school type (OR:0.77;95%CI: 0.70,0.85), higher family income (OR:1.04;95%CI:1.01,1.07), parental myopia (OR:1.46;95%CI:1.40,1.53), dim reading illumination (OR:0.93;95%CI: 0.88,0.98), longer daily studying duration (OR:1.10;95%CI:1.06,1.15), shorter duration of watching television (or computer) (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.97), higher self-reported protein intake (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.90,0.99), feeling well about life and status (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.98), and feeling tired or dizzy (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97). Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤−6.00 diopters) was associated with higher age (OR:1.43;95%CI:1.38, 1.48), key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0.49,0.74), family income (OR:1.07;95%CI:1.02,1.13), parental myopia (OR:1.65;95%CI:1.54,1.76), dim reading illumination (OR:0.86;95%CI:0.77,0.96), less rest during studying (OR:1.18;95%CI:1.10,1.27), feeling well about life and studying (OR:0.88;95%CI: 0.81,0.96) and feeling dizzy or tired (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.87,0.99). Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤−8.00 diopters) was significantly associated with higher age (OR:1.39;95%CI:1.31,1.48;), key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0.42,0.88) and parental myopia (OR:1.87;95%CI:1.66,2.12).
Conclusions
Myopia in school children in Greater Beijing was associated with higher age, female gender, school type, parental myopia, higher socioeconomic background, dim reading illumination, longer daily studying duration, less rest during study, shorter duration of watching television (or computer), higher self-reported protein intake, feeling well about life and status, and feeling tired and dizzy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052668
PMCID: PMC3531363  PMID: 23300738
3.  Discovery of a Natural Product-Like iNOS Inhibitor by Molecular Docking with Potential Neuroprotective Effects In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e92905.
In this study, we applied structure-based virtual screening techniques to identify natural product or natural product-like inhibitors of iNOS. The iNOS inhibitory activity of the hit compounds was characterized using cellular assays and an in vivo zebrafish larvae model. The natural product-like compound 1 inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophages, without exerting cytotoxic effects on the cells. Significantly, compound 1 was able to reverse MPTP-induced locomotion deficiency and neurotoxicity in an in vivo zebrafish larval model. Hence, compound 1 could be considered as a scaffold for the further development of iNOS inhibitors for potential anti-inflammatory or anti-neurodegenerative applications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092905
PMCID: PMC3972188  PMID: 24690920
4.  B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Prognosis of End-Stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79302.
Background
The prognostic importance of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We conducted an unrestricted search from the MEDLINE and EMBASE in all languages that were published between 1966 and Augest2013. Twenty-seven long-term prospective studies met our inclusion criterias. From the pooled analysis, elevated BNP/NT-proBNP was significantly associated with increased all cause mortality [odds ratio (OR), 3.85; 95% CI, 3.11 to 4.75], cardiovascular mortality (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.53 to 6.84), and cardiovascular events (OR, 7.02; 95% CI, 2.21 to 22.33). The funnel plot showed no evidence of publication bias. The corresponding pooled positive and negative likelihood ratio for prediction of all cause mortality were 1.86 (95% CI, 1.66 to 2.08) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.55), respectively.
Conclusions/Significance
BNP/NT-proBNP is a promising prognostic tool to risk-stratify the patients with ESRD. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the specific pathogenic mechanisms and the impact of other potential prognostic factors.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079302
PMCID: PMC3827377  PMID: 24236118
5.  Myopic Shift and Outdoor Activity among Primary School Children: One-Year Follow-Up Study in Beijing 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75260.
Purpose
To assess whether a change in myopia related oculometric parameters of primary school children in Beijing was associated with indoors and outdoors activity.
Methods
The longitudinal school-based study included school children who were examined in 2011 and who were re-examined in 2012. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including ocular biometry by optical low-coherence reflectometry and non-cycloplegic refractometry. Parents and children had a detailed interview including questions on time spent indoors and outdoors.
Results
Out of 681 students examined at baseline, 643 (94.4%) returned for follow-up examination. Within the one-year period, mean time spent daily outdoors increased by 0.4±0.9 hours, mean axial length by 0.26±0.49 mm, the ratio of axial length divided by anterior corneal curvature (AL/CC) by 0.03±0.06, and myopic refractive error by −0.06±0.89 diopters. In multivariate analysis, elongation of axial length was significantly associated with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.02; standardized coefficient beta −0.12) and more time spent indoors with studying (P = 0.007; beta: 0.14) after adjustment for maternal myopia (P = 0.02; beta: 0.12). An increase in AL/CC was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors (P = 0.01; beta:−0.12) after adjustment for paternal myopia (P = 0.003; beta: 0.15) and if region of habitation was excludedors for leisure (P = 0.006; beta:−0.13), with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.04; beta:−0.10), or with more time spent i. An increase in myopic refractive error, after adjustment for age, was significantly associated with less time spent outdo ndoors with studying (P = 0.005; beta: 0.13).
Conclusions
A change in oculometric parameters indicating an increase in myopia was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors and more time spent indoors in school children in Greater Beijing within a study period of one year. Our study provides additional information on the potentially helpful role of outdoors activity in the prevention of myopia. Public health care measures such as school agendas may potentially take it into account.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075260
PMCID: PMC3782472  PMID: 24086484
6.  Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care, Glycemic Control and the Utilization of Community Health Care among the Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Shanghai, China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73010.
Objectives
To evaluate the relationship between Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care in community health centers and self-management behaviors and glycemic control and to examine the relationship between Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care in community health centers and the utilization of community health centers for monitoring and treating diabetes among the patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
A questionnaire including self-management behaviors, glycemic control, Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care in community health centers and the most often utilized medical institutions for monitoring and treating diabetes (community health centers vs. hospitals) was administered to 960 patients with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. The relationships between Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care and self-management behaviors, self-management behaviors and glycemic control, Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care and glycemic control, Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care and the most often utilized medical institutions for monitoring and treating diabetes were examined.
Results
Wilcoxon rank sum tests showed that the high scores of total Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care and five subscales in community health centers were positively related to almost all the proper self-management behaviors and good glycemic control (p<0.05). Almost all of the proper self-management behaviors were positively related to good glycemic control (p<0.01). High summary score of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care was positively associated with the utilization of community health centers for monitoring and treating diabetes (p<0.001).
Conclusions
Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (implementation of the Chronic Care Model) in community health centers was associated with patients' self-management behaviors and glycemic control, and finally was associated with the utilization of community health centers for monitoring and treating diabetes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073010
PMCID: PMC3769367  PMID: 24039847
7.  A Highly Selective and Non-Reaction Based Chemosensor for the Detection of Hg2+ Ions Using a Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e60114.
We report herein a novel luminescent iridium(III) complex with two hydrophobic carbon chains as a non-reaction based chemosensor for the detection of Hg2+ ions in aqueous solution (<0.002% of organic solvent attributed to the probe solution). Upon the addition of Hg2+ ions, the emission intensity of the complex was significantly enhanced and this change could be monitored by the naked eye under UV irradiation. The iridium(III) complex shows high specificity for Hg2+ ions over eighteen other cations. The system is capable of detecting micromolar levels of Hg2+ ions, which is within the range of many chemical systems.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060114
PMCID: PMC3606269  PMID: 23533670
9.  Circulation of Coxsackievirus A10 and A6 in Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in China, 2009–2011 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52073.
Coxsackieviruses A10 (CV-A10) and A6 (CV-A6) have been associated with increasingly occurred sporadic hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) cases and outbreak events globally. However, our understanding of epidemiological and genetic characteristics of these new agents remains far from complete. This study was to explore the circulation of CV-A10 and CV-A6 in HFMD and their genetic characteristics in China. A hospital based surveillance was performed in three heavily inflicted regions with HFMD from March 2009 to August 2011. Feces samples were collected from children with clinical diagnosis of HFMD. The detection and genotyping of enteroviruses was performed by real-time PCR and sequencing of 5′UTR/VP1 regions. Phylogenetic analysis and selection pressure were performed based on the VP1 sequences. Logistic regression model was used to identify the effect of predominant enterovirus serotypes in causing severe HFMD. The results showed 92.0% of 1748 feces samples were detected positive for enterovirus, with the most frequently presented serotypes as EV-71 (944, 54.0%) and CV-A16 (451, 25.8%). CV-A10 and CV-A6 were detected as a sole pathogen in 82 (4.7%) and 44 (2.5%) cases, respectively. Infection with CV-A10 and EV-71 were independently associated with high risk of severe HFMD (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.40–5.06; OR = 4.81, 95% CI: 3.07–7.53), when adjusted for age and sex. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that distinct geographic and temporal origins correlated with the gene clusters based on VP1 sequences. An overall ω value of the VP1 was 0.046 for CV-A10 and 0.047 for CV-A6, and no positively selected site was detected in VP1 of both CV-A10 and CV-A6, indicating that purifying selection shaped the evolution of CV-A10 and CV-A6. Our study demonstrates variety of enterovirus genotypes as viral pathogens in causing HFMD in China. CV-A10 and CV-A6 were co-circulating together with EV-71 and CV-A16 in recent years. CV-A10 infection might also be independently associated with severe HFMD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052073
PMCID: PMC3525556  PMID: 23272213
10.  Co-detection in the pathogenesis of severe hand-foot-mouth disease 
Archives of Virology  2012;157(11):2219-2222.
It still needs to be elucidated whether co-detection of EV71 with other intestinal tract viruses plays a role in the pathogenesis of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). A total of 680 stool specimens collected from clinically diagnosed mild and severe-HFMD patients were tested for EV71, CA16, norovirus, bocavirus and rotavirus. The results showed that EV71 was significantly associated with severe-HFMD patients. Co-detection of EV71 with norovirus and rotavirus was also significantly associated with severe-HFMD patients: The OR (95 % CI) value was 6.466 (2.735, 15.283) and 7.561 (3.560, 16.057), p < 0.001, respectively. Co-detection of EV71 with rotavirus or norovirus is probably associated with severe HFMD.
doi:10.1007/s00705-012-1396-6
PMCID: PMC3488190  PMID: 22791110
Hand-foot-mouth disease; enterovirus 71; co-detection
11.  N-tert-Butyl O-2-isopropyl-5-methyl­cyclo­hexyl phenyl­phospho­namidate 
In the title compound, C20H34NO2P, the P atom has an irregular tetra­hedral environment and exhibits S p chirality. In the crystal, weak inter­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains extending in [010].
doi:10.1107/S1600536811012864
PMCID: PMC3089078  PMID: 21754537
12.  (R p)-2-Isopropyl-5-methyl­cyclo­hexyl isoprop­yl(phen­yl)phosphinate 
The title compound, C19H31O2P, features a distorted tetra­hedral P atom that bonds to the phenyl ring, isopropyl and 2-isopropyl-5-methyl­cyclo­hexyl groups, and is determined as having an R p configuration. A chair conformation is observed for the cyclo­hexyl ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains running along the a axis by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hodrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811013390
PMCID: PMC3089224  PMID: 21754488
13.  Identification of Norovirus as the Top Enteric Viruses Detected in Adult Cases with Acute Gastroenteritis 
To elucidate the importance of the norovirus and other enteric viruses, and the difference of the genetic relatedness on norovirus between the outbreak and sporadic cases, a total of 557 stool samples, consisting of 503 sporadic cases and 54 samples of 4 outbreaks were collected and tested for norovirus and other enteric viruses in Beijing, China, July 2007–June 2008. The data showed norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus, were detected in 26.6%, 6.1%, 1.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. Norovirus was detected almost throughout the surveillance period, norovirus co-infecting with rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus, respectively, were identified both in outbreak and the sporadic cases. GII.4/2006 was identified as the predominant strain circulating both in outbreak and sporadic cases. The results showed that norovirus was rather the important agent than other enteric viruses affected adults with acute gastroenteritis; no significant genetic relatedness of the dominant strains was found between the outbreak and sporadic cases.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0491
PMCID: PMC2844560  PMID: 20348525
14.  2-Isopropyl-5-methyl­cyclo­hexyl cyclo­hex­yl(phen­yl)phosphinate 
In the title mol­ecule, C22H35O2P, the two cyclo­hexyl rings exhibit chair conformations. In the crystal, mol­ecules related by translation along the b axis are linked by the weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811010592
PMCID: PMC3099872  PMID: 21754248
15.  Exhaled nitric oxide in neonates with or without hypoxemic respiratory failure 
BACKGROUND:
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is one of the airway condensate derived markers, reflecting mainly airway inflammation in asthma and other lung diseases. The changes of eNO levels as pathophysiology of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) in early postnatal life have not been thoroughly studied. The present study was to establish a method for measuring eNO concentrations in neonates with or without HRF.
METHODS:
Twenty-two newborn infants with HRF and 26 non-NRF controls were included within the first 24 hours of postnatal life. Their eNO levels were detected with a rapid-response chemiluminescence analyzer daily during the first week of their postnatal life, and lung mechanics and gas exchange efficiency were monitored at the same time, such as pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO2) and other parameters.
RESULTS:
During the first two days of postnatal life, eNO values of HRF neonates were significantly higher than those of the control neonates (day 1, 7.9±3.2 vs. 5.8±1.8 parts per billion [ppb], P<0.05; day 2, 8.8±3.2 vs. 6.0±2.4 ppb, P<0.05), but there were no significant differences in the following days. With SpO2/FiO2 increasing, difference of eNO values between the HRF and non-HRF neonates became narrowed, but there was still a two-fold difference of eNO/[SpO2/(FiO2×100)] on days 5-7.
CONCLUSION:
We established a method for measuring eNO and found difference in neonates with or without HRF, which diminished with prolonged postnatal days, reflecting pathophysiological characteristics of HRF.
doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2011.03.007
PMCID: PMC4129703  PMID: 25215009
Neonates; Respiratory failure; Respiratory therapy; Nitric oxide; Respiratory physiology; Nitric oxide synthase
16.  2-Isopropyl-5-methyl­cyclo­hexyl N-cyclo­hexyl-P-phenyl­phospho­namidate 
The title compound, C22H36NO2P, features a P atom bonded to a phenyl ring, a cyclo­hexyl­amine unit and the O atom of a menthyl group. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect mol­ecules into a one-dimensional chain in the b direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536810032319
PMCID: PMC3007901  PMID: 21588695
17.  A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:32.
Background
Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups.
Methods
Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale.
Results
The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children.
Conclusions
The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from their parents could not be fully replaced by that from their guardians.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-32
PMCID: PMC2823702  PMID: 20096124

Results 1-17 (17)