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author:("Liu, guzhen")
1.  The E3 ligase OsPUB15 interacts with the receptor-like kinase PID2 and regulates plant cell death and innate immunity 
BMC Plant Biology  2015;15:49.
Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive diseases of rice worldwide. We previously cloned the rice blast resistance gene Pid2, which encodes a transmembrane receptor-like kinase containing an extracellular B-lectin domain and an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain. However, little is known about Pid2-mediated signaling.
Here we report the functional characterization of the U-box/ARM repeat protein OsPUB15 as one of the PID2-binding proteins. We found that OsPUB15 physically interacted with the kinase domain of PID2 (PID2K) in vitro and in vivo and the ARM repeat domain of OsPUB15 was essential for the interaction. In vitro biochemical assays indicated that PID2K possessed kinase activity and was able to phosphorylate OsPUB15. We also found that the phosphorylated form of OsPUB15 possessed E3 ligase activity. Expression pattern analyses revealed that OsPUB15 was constitutively expressed and its encoded protein OsPUB15 was localized in cytosol. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsPUB15 at early stage displayed cell death lesions spontaneously in association with a constitutive activation of plant basal defense responses, including excessive accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, up-regulated expression of pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance to blast strains. We also observed that, along with plant growth, the cell death lesions kept spreading over the whole seedlings quickly resulting in a seedling lethal phenotype.
These results reveal that the E3 ligase OsPUB15 interacts directly with the receptor-like kinase PID2 and regulates plant cell death and blast disease resistance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0442-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4330927
U-box; E3 ligase; Protein interaction; Blast resistance; Cell death; Rice
2.  Cutaneous manifestations in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia involving the head, neck and distal extremities 
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) infiltrating the skin is uncommon and can present in many different ways. The present study reports a case of CLL infiltrating multiple body areas. A 57-year-old male with a 10-year history of subclinical B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) presented with skin hypertrophic changes of the ears, eyebrows, tip of the nose, toes and fingers. In addition, the patient had erythematous plaques on the buttocks. Histopathology revealed a lymphocytic infiltrate. The patient rejected the recommended chemotherapy and, following a three-year follow-up, remained alive with mildly aggravated symptoms. It has previously been reported that infiltrative CLL can involve the head and neck; however, involvement of multiple body areas, particularly toes and fingers is rare. This case highlights the importance of considering leukemia cutis in patients with underlying CLL who present with unusual clinical features.
PMCID: PMC4316976  PMID: 25667645
chronic lymphocytic leukemia; infiltrative; skin
3.  Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Three Super-Hybrid Rice Combinations 
Utilization of heterosis has significantly increased rice yields. However, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptional profiles of three super-hybrid rice combinations, LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9, at the flowering and filling stages, were created using rice whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray. The LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9 hybrids yielded 1193, 1630 and 1046 differentially expressed genes (DGs), accounting for 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.8% of the total number of genes (36,926), respectively, after using the z-test (p < 0.01). Functional category analysis showed that the DGs in each hybrid combination were mainly classified into the carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism categories. Further analysis of the metabolic pathways showed that DGs were significantly enriched in the carbon fixation pathway (p < 0.01) for all three combinations. Over 80% of the DGs were located in rice quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the Gramene database, of which more than 90% were located in the yield related QTLs in all three combinations, which suggested that there was a correlation between DGs and rice heterosis. Pathway Studio analysis showed the presence of DGs in the circadian regulatory network of all three hybrid combinations, which suggested that the circadian clock had a role in rice heterosis. Our results provide information that can help to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying rice heterosis.
PMCID: PMC3975368  PMID: 24595241
rice; transcriptional profiling; heterosis; photosynthesis; circadian clock
4.  Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:738.
The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB).
Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization, between a transgenic crop and a plant from MAB breeding. We compared a transgenic rice line (DXT) and a MAB rice line (DXB), both of which contain the gene Xa21 providing resistance to bacterial leaf blight. By using Next-Generation sequencing data of DXT, DXB and their parental line (D62B), we compared the transcriptome variation of DXT and DXB. Remarkably, DXT had 43% fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than DXB. The genes exclusively expressed in DXT and in DXB have pathogen and stress defense functions. Functional categories of DEGs in DXT were comparable to that in DXB, and seven of the eleven pathways significantly affected by transgenesis were also perturbed by MAB breeding.
These results indicated that the transgenic rice and rice from MAB breeding are substantial equivalent at the transcriptome level, and paved a way for further study of transgenic rice, e.g., understanding the chemical and nutritional properties of the DEGs identified in the current study.
PMCID: PMC4007521  PMID: 24165682
Transgenesis; Marker-assisted backcrossing; Substantial equivalence; Transcriptome profile; Xa21
5.  The Effect of miR-338-3p on HBx Deletion-Mutant (HBx-d382) Mediated Liver-Cell Proliferation through CyclinD1 Regulation 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43204.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA integration and HBV X (HBx) deletion mutation occurs in HBV-positive liver cancer patients, and C-terminal deletion in HBx gene mutants are highly associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. Our previous study found that the HBx-d382 deletion mutant (deleted at nt 382–400) can down-regulate miR-338-3p expression in HBx-expressing cells. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of miR-338-3p in the HBx-d382-mediated liver-cell proliferation.
We established HBx-expressing LO2 cells by Lipofectamine 2000 transfection. A miR-338-3p mimics or inhibitor was transfected into LO2/HBx-d382 and LO2/HBx cells using miR-NC as a control miRNA. In silico analysis of potential miR-338-3p targets revealed that miR-338-3p could target the cell cycle regulatory protein CyclinD1. To confirm that CyclinD1 is negatively regulated by miR-338-3p, we constructed luciferase reporters with wild-type and mutated CyclinD1-3′UTR target sites for miR-338-3p binding. We examined the CyclinD1 expression by real-time PCR and western blot, and proliferation activity by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, Edu incorporation, and soft agar colony.
HBx-d382 exhibited enhanced proliferation and CyclinD1 expression in LO2 cells. miR-338-3p expression inhibited cell proliferation in LO2/HBx-d382 cells (and LO2/HBx cells), and also negatively regulated CyclinD1 protein expression. Of the two putative miR-338-3p binding sites in the CyclinD1-3′UTR region, the effect of miR-338-3p on the second binding site (nt 2397–2403) was required for the inhibition.
miR-338-3p can directly regulate CyclinD1 expression through binding to the CyclinD1-3′UTR region, mainly at nt 2397–2403. Down-regulation of miR-338-3p expression is required for liver cell proliferation in both LO2/HBx and LO2/HBx-d382 mutant cells, although the effect is more pronounced in LO2/HBx-d382 cells. Our study elucidated a novel mechanism, from a new miRNA-regulation perspective, underlying the propensity of HBx deletion mutants to induce hepatocarcinogenesis at a faster rate than HBx.
PMCID: PMC3422285  PMID: 22912826
6.  miR-338-3p Is Down-Regulated by Hepatitis B Virus X and Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Targeting the 3′-UTR Region of CyclinD1 
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is recognized as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx regulates microRNA expression, including down-regulating miR-338-3p in LO2 cells. Here, we investigated miR-338-3p function in HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. In 23 HBV-infected HCC clinical patient tumor and adjacent non-tumor control tissues, 17 and 19 tumors expressed HBx mRNA and protein, respectively. When considered as a group, HBV-infected HCC tumors had lower miR-338-3p expression than controls; however, miR-338-3p was only significantly down-regulated in HBx-positive tumors, indicating that HBx inversely correlated with miR-338-3p. Functional characterization of miR-338-3p indicated that miR-338-3p mimics inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase as assessed by EdU and cell cycle assays in HBx-expressing LO2 cells. CyclinD1, containing two putative miR-338-3p targets, was confirmed as a direct target using 3′-UTR luciferase reporter assays from cells transfected with mutated binding sites. Mutating the 2397–2403 nt binding site conferred the greatest resistance to miR-338-3p suppression of CyclinD1, indicating that miR-338-3p suppresses CyclinD1 at this site. Overall, this study demonstrates that miR-338-3p inhibits proliferation by regulating CyclinD1, and HBx down-regulates miR-338-3p in HCC. This newly identified miR-338-3p/CyclinD1 interaction provides novel insights into HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis and may facilitate therapeutic development against HCC.
PMCID: PMC3430248  PMID: 22942717
hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatitis B virus X protein; miR-338-3p; CyclinD1; cell proliferation
7.  Identification and validation of rice reference proteins for western blotting 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2011;62(14):4763-4772.
Studies of rice protein expression have increased considerably with the development of rice functional genomics. In order to obtain reliable expression results in western blotting, information on appropriate reference proteins is necessary for data normalization. To date, no published study has identified and systematically validated reference proteins suitable for the investigation of rice protein expression. In this study, nine candidate proteins were selected and their specific antibodies were obtained through immunization of rabbits with either recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli or synthesized peptides. Western blotting was carried out to detect the expression of target proteins in a set of 10 rice samples representing different rice tissues/organs at different developmental stages. The expression stability of the proteins was analysed using geNorm and Microcal Origin 6.0 software. The results indicated that heat shock protein (HSP) and elongation factor 1-α (eEF-1α) were the most constantly expressed among all rice proteins tested throughout all developmental stages, while the proteins encoded by conventional internal reference genes fluctuated in amount. Comparison among the profiling of translation and transcription [expressed sequence tags (EST) and massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS)] revealed that a correlation existed. Based on the standard curves derived from the antigen–antibody reaction, the concentrations of HSP and eEF-1α proteins in rice leaves were ∼0.12%. Under the present experimental conditions, the lower limits of detection for HSP and eEF-1α proteins in rice were 0.24 ng and 0.06 ng, respectively. In conclusion, the reference proteins selected in this study, and the corresponding antibodies, can be used in qualitative and quantitative analysis of rice proteins.
PMCID: PMC3192993  PMID: 21705388
Antibody-based proteomics; rice (Oryza sativa L.); reference gene; reference protein; western blotting
8.  Novel Autoimmune Hepatitis-Specific Autoantigens Identified Using Protein Microarray Technology 
Journal of proteome research  2010;9(1):30-39.
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necroinflammatory disease of the liver with a poorly understood etiology. Detection of non-organ-specific and liver-related autoantibodies using immunoserological approaches has been widely used for diagnosis and prognosis. However, unambiguous and accurate detection of the disease requires the identification and characterization of disease-specific autoantigens. In the present study, we have profiled the autoantigen repertoire of patients with AIH versus those with other liver diseases, identifying and validating three novel and highly specific biomarkers for AIH. In Phase I we fabricated a human protein chip of 5,011 non-redundant proteins and used it to quickly identify 11 candidate autoantigens with relative small serum collection. In Phase II we fabricated an AIH-specific protein chip and obtained autoimmunogenic profiles of serum samples from 44 AIH patients, 50 healthy controls, and 184 additional patients suffering from hepatitis B, hepatitis C, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. Using this two-phase approach, we identified three new antigens, RPS20, Alba-like, and dUTPase, as highly AIH-specific biomarkers, with sensitivities of 47.5% (RPS20), 45.5% (Alba-like), and 22.7% (dUTPase). These potential biomarkers were further validated with additional AIH samples in a double-blind design. Finally, we demonstrated that these new biomarkers could be readily applied to ELISA-based assays for use in clinical diagnosis/prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2801765  PMID: 19545157
AIH; biomarker; human protein chip; autoantigens; serum; autoimmune; human liver; clinical proteomics
9.  DroID: the Drosophila Interactions Database, a comprehensive resource for annotated gene and protein interactions 
BMC Genomics  2008;9:461.
Charting the interactions among genes and among their protein products is essential for understanding biological systems. A flood of interaction data is emerging from high throughput technologies, computational approaches, and literature mining methods. Quick and efficient access to this data has become a critical issue for biologists. Several excellent multi-organism databases for gene and protein interactions are available, yet most of these have understandable difficulty maintaining comprehensive information for any one organism. No single database, for example, includes all available interactions, integrated gene expression data, and comprehensive and searchable gene information for the important model organism, Drosophila melanogaster.
DroID, the Drosophila Interactions Database, is a comprehensive interactions database designed specifically for Drosophila. DroID houses published physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and computationally predicted interactions, including interologs based on data for other model organisms and humans. All interactions are annotated with original experimental data and source information. DroID can be searched and filtered based on interaction information or a comprehensive set of gene attributes from Flybase. DroID also contains gene expression and expression correlation data that can be searched and used to filter datasets, for example, to focus a study on sub-networks of co-expressed genes. To address the inherent noise in interaction data, DroID employs an updatable confidence scoring system that assigns a score to each physical interaction based on the likelihood that it represents a biologically significant link.
DroID is the most comprehensive interactions database available for Drosophila. To facilitate downstream analyses, interactions are annotated with original experimental information, gene expression data, and confidence scores. All data in DroID are freely available and can be searched, explored, and downloaded through three different interfaces, including a text based web site, a Java applet with dynamic graphing capabilities (IM Browser), and a Cytoscape plug-in. DroID is available at .
PMCID: PMC2572628  PMID: 18840285
10.  OCPAT: an online codon-preserved alignment tool for evolutionary genomic analysis of protein coding sequences 
Rapidly accumulating genome sequence data from multiple species offer powerful opportunities for the detection of DNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic tree construction and codon-based tests for natural selection are the prevailing tools used to detect functionally important evolutionary change in protein coding sequences. These analyses often require multiple DNA sequence alignments that maintain the correct reading frame for each collection of putative orthologous sequences. Since this feature is not available in most alignment tools, codon reading frames often must be checked manually before evolutionary analyses can commence.
Here we report an online codon-preserved alignment tool (OCPAT) that generates multiple sequence alignments automatically from the coding sequences of any list of human gene IDs and their putative orthologs from genomes of other vertebrate tetrapods. OCPAT is programmed to extract putative orthologous genes from genomes and to align the orthologs with the reading frame maintained in all species. OCPAT also optimizes the alignment by trimming the most variable alignment regions at the 5' and 3' ends of each gene. The resulting output of alignments is returned in several formats, which facilitates further molecular evolutionary analyses by appropriate available software. Alignments are generally robust and reliable, retaining the correct reading frame. The tool can serve as the first step for comparative genomic analyses of protein-coding gene sequences including phylogenetic tree reconstruction and detection of natural selection. We aligned 20,658 human RefSeq mRNAs using OCPAT. Most alignments are missing sequence(s) from at least one species; however, functional annotation clustering of the ~1700 transcripts that were alignable to all species shows that genes involved in multi-subunit protein complexes are highly conserved.
The OCPAT program facilitates large-scale evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses of entire biological processes, pathways, and diseases.
PMCID: PMC2093931  PMID: 17877817
11.  A proteome-wide protein interaction map for Campylobacter jejuni 
Genome Biology  2007;8(7):R130.
'Systematic identification of protein interactions for the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni using high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screens detected interactions for 80% of the organism's proteins.
Data from large-scale protein interaction screens for humans and model eukaryotes have been invaluable for developing systems-level models of biological processes. Despite this value, only a limited amount of interaction data is available for prokaryotes. Here we report the systematic identification of protein interactions for the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne pathogen and a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide.
Using high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screens we detected and reproduced 11,687 interactions. The resulting interaction map includes 80% of the predicted C. jejuni NCTC11168 proteins and places a large number of poorly characterized proteins into networks that provide initial clues about their functions. We used the map to identify a number of conserved subnetworks by comparison to protein networks from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also demonstrate the value of the interactome data for mapping biological pathways by identifying the C. jejuni chemotaxis pathway. Finally, the interaction map also includes a large subnetwork of putative essential genes that may be used to identify potential new antimicrobial drug targets for C. jejuni and related organisms.
The C. jejuni protein interaction map is one of the most comprehensive yet determined for a free-living organism and nearly doubles the binary interactions available for the prokaryotic kingdom. This high level of coverage facilitates pathway mapping and function prediction for a large number of C. jejuni proteins as well as orthologous proteins from other organisms. The broad coverage also facilitates cross-species comparisons for the identification of evolutionarily conserved subnetworks of protein interactions.
PMCID: PMC2323224  PMID: 17615063
12.  Profiling Caenorhabditis elegans non-coding RNA expression with a combined microarray 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;34(10):2976-2983.
Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are encoded by genes that function at the RNA level, and several hundred ncRNAs have been identified in various organisms. Here we describe an analysis of the small non-coding transcriptome of Caenorhabditis elegans, microRNAs excepted. As a substantial fraction of the ncRNAs is located in introns of protein-coding genes in C.elegans, we also analysed the relationship between ncRNA and host gene expression. To this end, we designed a combined microarray, which included probes against ncRNA as well as host gene mRNA transcripts. The microarray revealed pronounced differences in expression profiles, even among ncRNAs with housekeeping functions (e.g. snRNAs and snoRNAs), indicating distinct developmental regulation and stage-specific functions of a number of novel transcripts. Analysis of ncRNA–host mRNA relations showed that the expression of intronic ncRNA loci with conserved upstream motifs was not correlated to (and much higher than) expression levels of their host genes. Even promoter-less intronic ncRNA loci, though showing a clear correlation to host gene expression, appeared to have a surprising amount of ‘expressional freedom’, depending on host gene function. Taken together, our microarray analysis presents a more complete and detailed picture of a non-coding transcriptome than hitherto has been presented for any other multicellular organism.
PMCID: PMC1474057  PMID: 16738136
13.  A database and tool, IM Browser, for exploring and integrating emerging gene and protein interaction data for Drosophila 
BMC Bioinformatics  2006;7:195.
Biological processes are mediated by networks of interacting genes and proteins. Efforts to map and understand these networks are resulting in the proliferation of interaction data derived from both experimental and computational techniques for a number of organisms. The volume of this data combined with the variety of specific forms it can take has created a need for comprehensive databases that include all of the available data sets, and for exploration tools to facilitate data integration and analysis. One powerful paradigm for the navigation and analysis of interaction data is an interaction graph or map that represents proteins or genes as nodes linked by interactions. Several programs have been developed for graphical representation and analysis of interaction data, yet there remains a need for alternative programs that can provide casual users with rapid easy access to many existing and emerging data sets.
Here we describe a comprehensive database of Drosophila gene and protein interactions collected from a variety of sources, including low and high throughput screens, genetic interactions, and computational predictions. We also present a program for exploring multiple interaction data sets and for combining data from different sources. The program, referred to as the Interaction Map (IM) Browser, is a web-based application for searching and visualizing interaction data stored in a relational database system. Use of the application requires no downloads and minimal user configuration or training, thereby enabling rapid initial access to interaction data. IM Browser was designed to readily accommodate and integrate new types of interaction data as it becomes available. Moreover, all information associated with interaction measurements or predictions and the genes or proteins involved are accessible to the user. This allows combined searches and analyses based on either common or technique-specific attributes. The data can be visualized as an editable graph and all or part of the data can be downloaded for further analysis with other tools for specific applications. The database is available at
The Drosophila Interactions Database described here places a variety of disparate data into one easily accessible location. The database has a simple structure that maintains all relevant information about how each interaction was determined. The IM Browser provides easy, complete access to this database and could readily be used to publish other sets of interaction data. By providing access to all of the available information from a variety of data types, the program will also facilitate advanced computational analyses.
PMCID: PMC1458360  PMID: 16603075
14.  A Drosophila protein-interaction map centered on cell-cycle regulators 
Genome Biology  2004;5(12):R96.
A Drosophila protein-protein interaction map was constructed using the LexA system, complementing a previous map using the GAL4 system and adding many new interactions.
Maps depicting binary interactions between proteins can be powerful starting points for understanding biological systems. A proven technology for generating such maps is high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening. In the most extensive screen to date, a Gal4-based two-hybrid system was used recently to detect over 20,000 interactions among Drosophila proteins. Although these data are a valuable resource for insights into protein networks, they cover only a fraction of the expected number of interactions.
To complement the Gal4-based interaction data, we used the same set of Drosophila open reading frames to construct arrays for a LexA-based two-hybrid system. We screened the arrays using a novel pooled mating approach, initially focusing on proteins related to cell-cycle regulators. We detected 1,814 reproducible interactions among 488 proteins. The map includes a large number of novel interactions with potential biological significance. Informative regions of the map could be highlighted by searching for paralogous interactions and by clustering proteins on the basis of their interaction profiles. Surprisingly, only 28 interactions were found in common between the LexA- and Gal4-based screens, even though they had similar rates of true positives.
The substantial number of new interactions discovered here supports the conclusion that previous interaction mapping studies were far from complete and that many more interactions remain to be found. Our results indicate that different two-hybrid systems and screening approaches applied to the same proteome can generate more comprehensive datasets with more cross-validated interactions. The cell-cycle map provides a guide for further defining important regulatory networks in Drosophila and other organisms.
PMCID: PMC545799  PMID: 15575970
15.  Notch1IC Partially Replaces EBNA2 Function in B Cells Immortalized by Epstein-Barr Virus 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(13):5899-5912.
Immortalization of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) depends on the virally encoded EBNA2 protein. Although not related by sequence, the cellular Notch protein and EBNA2 share several biochemical and functional properties, such as interaction with CBF1 and the ability to activate transcription of a number of cellular and viral genes. Whether these similarities are coincidental or exemplify EBNA2 mimicry of evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathways is unclear. We therefore investigated whether activated forms of Notch could substitute for EBNA2 in maintaining the immortalized phenotype of EBV-infected B cells. To address this question, we devised a transcomplementation system using EREB2.5 cells. EREB2.5 cells are immortalized by EBV expressing a conditional estrogen receptor EBNA2 fusion protein (EREBNA2), and cellular proliferation is dependent on the availability of estrogen. Withdrawal of estrogen results in inactivation of EREBNA2, leading to growth arrest and eventually to cell death. Transduction of EREB2.5 cells with a lentiviral vector expressing wild-type EBNA2 rescued EREB2.5 cells from the growth-inhibitory effects of estrogen deprivation, in contrast to transduction with the lentivirus vector alone. EREB2.5 cells were also rescued by enforced expression of human Notch1IC after estrogen starvation, but this effect was restricted to cells expressing high levels of the transcription factor. Compared to wild-type EBNA2-expressing EREB2.5 cells, the Notch-expressing cells expanded more slowly after estrogen starvation, and once established, they continued to display a lower proliferation rate. Analysis of viral and cellular gene expression from transduced EREB2.5 cells after estrogen withdrawal indicated that both wild-type EBNA2- and Notch1IC-positive cells expressed c-Myc at levels similar to those found in parental EREB2.5 cells. However, the latter cells expressed LMP-1 far less efficiently than cells transduced with the wild-type EBNA2 gene. Cells rescued by either wild-type EBNA2 or Notch1IC expressed surface CD21 and CD23 proteins, but not CD10, indicating that induction of relevant type III latency markers was maintained. The data imply that both Notch and EBNA2 activate an important subset of cellular genes associated with type III latency and B-cell growth, while EBNA2 more efficiently induces important viral genes, such as LMP-1. Thus, exploitation of conserved Notch-related signaling pathways may represent a key mechanism by which EBNA2 contributes to EBV-induced cell immortalization.
PMCID: PMC114305  PMID: 11390591

Results 1-15 (15)