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1.  Multicenter clinical study on Fuzhenghuayu capsule against liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis B 
AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of Fuzhenghuayu capsule (FZHY capsule, a capsule for strengthening body resistance to remove blood stasis) against liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis B.
METHODS: Multicenter, randomized, double blinded and parallel control experiment was conducted in patients (aged from 18 to 65 years) with liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis B. Hepatic histologic changes and HBV markers were examined at wk 0 and 24 during treatment. Serologic parameters (HA, LM, P-III-P, IV-C) were determined and B ultrasound examination of the spleen and liver was performed at wk 0, 12 and 24. Liver function (liver function and serologic parameters for liver fibrosis) was observed at wk 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24. Blood and urine routine test, renal function and ECG were examined before and after treatment.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between experimental group (110 cases) and control group (106 cases) in demographic features, vital signs, course of illness, history for drug anaphylaxis and previous therapy, liver function, serologic parameters for liver fibrosis, liver histologic examination (99 cases in experimental group, 96 cases in control group), HBV markers, and renal function. According to the criteria for liver fibrosis staging, mean score of fibrotic stage(s) in experimental group after treatment (1.80) decreased significantly compared to the previous treatment (2.33, P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in mean score of fibrotic stage(s) (2.11 and 2.14 respectively). There was a significant difference in reverse rate between experimental group (52%) and control group (23.3%) in liver biopsy. With marked effect on decreasing the mean value of inflammatory activity and score of inflammation (P<0.05), Fuzhenghuayu capsule had rather good effects on inhibiting inflammatory activity and was superior to that of Heluoshugan capsule. Compared to that of pretreatment, there was a significant decrease in HA, LM, P-III-P and IV-C content in experimental group after 12 and 24 wk of treatment. The difference in HA, LM, P-III-P and IV-C content between 12 and 24 wk of treatment and pretreatment in experimental group was significantly greater than that in control group (P<0.01-0.05). The effect, defined as two of four parameters lowering more than 30% of the baseline, was 72.7% in experimental group and 27.4% in control group (P<0.01). Obvious improvement in serum Alb, ALT, AST and GGT was seen in two groups. Compared to that of control group, marked improvement in GGT and Alb was seen in experimental group (P<0.05). The effective rate of improvement in serum ALT was 72.7% in experimental group and 59.4% in control group. No significant difference was seen in blood and urine routine and ECG before and after treatment. There was also no significant difference in stable rate in ALT and serologic parameters for liver fibrosis between experimental group and control group after 12 wk of withdrawal.
CONCLUSION: Fuzhenghuayu capsule has good therapeutic effects on alleviating liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis B without any adverse effect and is superior to that of Heluoshugan capsule.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i19.2892
PMCID: PMC4305655  PMID: 15902724
Chronic hepatitis B; Fuzhenghuayu capsule
2.  Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang alleviates biliary obstructive cirrhosis in rats by inhibiting biliary epithelial cell proliferation and activation 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2015;11(42):417-425.
Background:
Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) consists of three aqueous extracts from Artemisia capillaris, Gardenia sp., and prepared Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) (3:2:1). YCHT is characterized by its anti-inflammatory properties in liver regulation and relief of jaundice. We aimed to study the effects and mechanisms of action of YCHT on biliary obstructive cirrhosis.
Materials and Methods:
Secondary biliary fibrosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL) and scission. One week after BDL, rats were randomly divided into a saline-treated BDL or YCHT-treated BDL group for 4 weeks. Liver function and hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were assessed. Types I and IV collagen (Col-IV), laminin, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were assessed with immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results:
In the YCHT-treated BDL group, serum total bilirubin, total bile acids, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase were lower than those in the sham-operated BDL group. The proliferation of bile ducts in hepatic tissues and the Hyp content and Col deposition were also significantly lower than those in control rats. In addition, α-SMA and Col-IV staining was less obvious, and mRNA expression of Procol-α1 (IV), platelet derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF)-B, connective tissue growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta in proliferative biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in the YCHT-treated BDL group was significantly lower than those in controls.
Conclusions:
YCHT effectively reduces the formation of biliary obstructive cirrhosis mainly via inhibition of BEC proliferation by down-regulation of PDGF-B mRNA expression, inhibition of BEC profibrogenic paracrines, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathological process.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.153098
PMCID: PMC4378143  PMID: 25829784
Biliary epithelium cells; biliary obstructive cirrhosis; platelet derived growth factor subunit B; Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang
3.  Fuzheng Huayu recipe alleviates hepatic fibrosis via inhibiting TNF-α induced hepatocyte apoptosis 
Background
What was the relationship of Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation at different stage of liver fibrosis? In order to answer this question, the study was carried out to dynamically observe FZHY’s effect on hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation and further explored underling mechanism of FZHY against hepatocyte apoptosis.
Methods
Mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal, model, FZHY, and N-acetylcystein (NAC) groups. Acute hepatic injury and liver fibrosis in mice were induced by CCl4. Three days before the first CCl4 injection, treatment with FZHY powder or NAC respectively was started. In vitro, primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FZHY medicated serum or Z-VAD-FMK and then incubated with ActD and TNF-α. Primary HSCs were treated with DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes incubated by Act D/TNF-α or FZHY medicated. Liver sections were analyzed for HE staining and immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis. Serum ALT and AST, Alb content and TNF-α expression in liver tissue were detected. Hyp content was assayed and collagen deposition was visualized. Expressions of α-SMA and type I collagen were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and DNA ladder for hepatocyte apoptosis and immunoblotting for TNF-R1, Bcl-2 and Bax were also analyzed.
Results
Mice showed characteristic features of massive hepatocytes apoptosis in early stage of liver injury and developed severe hepatic fibrosis in later phase. FZHY treatment significantly alleviated acute liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, and inhibited liver fibrosis by decreasing α-SMA expression and hepatic Hyp content. In vitro, primary hepatocytes were induced by TNF-α and Act D. The anti-apoptotic effect of FZHY was generated by reducing TNFR1 expression and balancing the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile, the nuclear DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes stimulated HSC activation in a dose dependent manner, and the DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes treated with FZHY or Z-VAD-FMK reduced HSC activation and type I collagen expression.
Conclusion
These findings suggested that FZHY suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis through regulating mediators in death receptor and mitochondrial pathways, and the effect of FZHY on hepatocyte apoptosis might play an important role in inhibiting liver fibrosis.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-449
PMCID: PMC4289302  PMID: 25407538
Fuzheng Huayu recipe; Hepatocyte; Hepatic stellate cell; Apoptosis; Liver fibrosis
4.  Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway 
Background
Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078), and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD) markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL). However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD.
Methods
A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL) in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy.
Results
Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression.
Conclusion
IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-33
PMCID: PMC3419610  PMID: 22471627
Ingredients of Huangqi decoction; Cholestatic liver fibrosis; Transforming growth factor beta 1; Smad-signaling pathway, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
5.  Preventive effects of 1,25-(OH)2VD3 against ConA-induced mouse hepatitis through promoting vitamin D receptor gene expression 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2010;31(6):703-708.
Aim:
To investigate the immunosuppressive effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2VD3) on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis and elucidate the action mechanism.
Methods:
Female BALB/C mice were intravenously administered ConA (20 mg/kg) to induce acute immunological liver injury. Liver damage was evaluated in respect to serum alanine transaminase (ALT) level and liver histological changes. The proliferation of splenocytes was measured by using [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The cytokine level in the cultured splenocyte supernatant was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The percentage of different splenic T cell subtypes was analyzed by using flow cytometry. The expression of splenic vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein was detected by using real-time qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively.
Results:
1,25-(OH)2VD3 (2.5 μg/kg, ip) significantly decreased the serum ALT levels and markedly attenuated the histological liver damage. The beneficial effect of 1,25-(OH)2VD3 was associated with: (i) inhibition of CD4+ T cell activation; (ii) reduction of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and elevation of both IL-4 and IL-5 in supernatants of cultured splenocytes; and (iii) elimination of activated T cells by increasing VDR mRNA and protein expression in the spleen.
Conclusion:
1,25-(OH)2VD3 had a significant protective effect against ConA-induced hepatitis, and its mechanism of action was associated with down-regulation of T cell-mediated immunity and up-regulation of VDR gene expression.
doi:10.1038/aps.2010.53
PMCID: PMC4002975  PMID: 20523341
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; concanavalin A; hepatitis; vitamin D receptor; interferon-γ; interleukin 4; interleukin 5
6.  Salvianolic acid B prevents epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through the TGF-β1 signal transduction pathway in vivo and in vitro 
BMC Cell Biology  2010;11:31.
Background
Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble component from Danshen (a traditional Chinese herb widely used for chronic renal diseases) with anti-oxidative and cell protective properties. Sal B also has potential protective effects on renal diseases. Tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and is mainly regulated by TGF-β1/Smads pathway. The aims of the study are to investigate the effect of Sal B on tubular EMT in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-β1/Smads pathway.
Results
For in vivo experiments, RIF was induced in rats by oral administration of HgCl2 and prophylaxised with Sal B and vitamin E. The protein expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, while the expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TβR-I, p-Smad2/3 and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were up-regulated in kidneys of model rats when compared with those of normal rats. In contrast, Sal B and vitamin E significantly attenuated the expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TβR-I, p-Smad2/3, and MMP-2 activity, but increased E-cadherin expression. For in vitro experiments, HK-2 cells were incubated with TGF-β1 to induce EMT, and the cells were co-cultured with 1 and 10 μM Sal B or SB-431542 (a specific inhibitor of TβR-I kinase). TGF-β1 induced a typical EMT in HK-2 cells, while it was blocked by Sal B and SB-431542, as evidenced by blocking morphologic transformation, restoring E-cadherin and CK-18 expression, inhibiting α-SMA expression and F-actin reorganization, and down-regulating MMP-2/9 activities in TGF-β1 mediated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B and SB-431542 profoundly down-regulated the expressions of TβR-I and p-Smad2/3 but prevented the decreased expression of Smad7 in TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells.
Conclusions
Sal B can prevent tubular EMT in the fibrotic kidney induced by HgCl2 as well as HK-2 cells triggered by TGF-β1, the mechanism of Sal B is closely related to the regulation of TGF-β1/Smads pathway, manifested as the inhibition of TGF-β1 expression, suppression of TβR-I expression and function, down-regulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and restoration of the down-regulation of Smad7, as well as inhibition of MMP-2 activity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-11-31
PMCID: PMC2874764  PMID: 20441599

Results 1-6 (6)