Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078), and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD) markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL). However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD.
A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL) in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy.
Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression.
IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
Ingredients of Huangqi decoction; Cholestatic liver fibrosis; Transforming growth factor beta 1; Smad-signaling pathway, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
We have designed and fabricated a novel chemotactic gradient Labchip for studying cell migration quantitatively. Owing to the great potential of garlic and its preparations in developing antiinflammatory drugs, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of garlic oil on the locomotion of a neutrophil-like cell by measuring the dynamic features of cell migration including migration direction, average migration speed, chemotactic index (CI), and motility index (MI) with the newly designed Labchip. We found that garlic oil treatment lowered the values of CI and MI and reduced the average speed of cell migration from 13 to 8 μm/min. The results indicate that garlic oil is a potential inhibitor for neutrophil-like cell migration and chemotactic responsiveness. By comparing with the effects of nocodazole and cytochalasin B, we also suggest that the antiinflammatory activity exhibited by garlic oil was mainly through inhibiting the assembly-disassembly processes of the cytoskeleton.
Single Molecule; FRET; DNA repair; Homologous Recombination; E. coli
auristatins; cytotoxins; legumain; prodrugs; proteases
Novel monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) prodrug 8 was designed and prepared that bound cell surface glycoprotein integrin αvβ3, and was activated using legumain protease as a catalyst. Upon activation, prodrug 8 strongly induced the death of MDA-MB-435 cells that express integrin αvβ3 on cell surface. Efficacies of prodrug 8 were determined in vivo using animal models of 4T1 murine breast cancer, D121 Lewis lung carcinoma, and MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer. The results demonstrated that prodrug 8 decreased tumor growth and metastasis effectively. In comparison to the parent cytotoxin, MMAE, and prodrug 3, prodrug 8 was less toxic to mould white blood cells. The latter caused no loss in weight gain of mice at a dose 3 mg/kg, which is over 30 times in excess to MMAE (0.1 mg/kg). We hypothesize that overexpression and co-localization of integrin αvβ3 and legumain protease on tumor cells, tumor vasculature, and/or tumor microenvironments can be exploited to enhance the efficacy and selectivity of potent cytotoxins, such as MMAE, which is otherwise too toxic to use for therapy.
Monomethyleauristatin E (MMAE); Prodrug; Integrin; Legumain; Prodrug activation
Cisplain, a platinum-containing anticancer drug, has been shown to enhance DNA repair and to inhibit cell apoptosis, leading to drug resistance. Thus, the combination of anticancer drugs with nutritional factors is a potential strategy for improving the efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of a combination of fucoxanthin, the major non-provitamin A carotenoid found in Undaria Pinnatifida, and cisplatin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We found that fucoxanthin (1–10 μΜ) pretreatment for 24 h followed by cisplatin (10 μΜ) for 24 h significantly decreased cell proliferation, as compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Mechanistically, we showed that fucoxanthin attenuated cisplatin-induced NFκB expression and enhanced the NFκB-regulated Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio. Cisplatin alone induced mRNA expression of excision repair cross complementation 1 (ERCC1) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) through phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways. However, fucoxanthin pretreatment significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced ERCC1 and TP mRNA expression, leading to improvement of chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The results suggest that a combined treatment with fucoxanthin and cisplatin could lead to a potentially important new therapeutic strategy against human hepatoma cells.
fucoxanthin; cisplatin; NFκB; DNA repair; MAPK; PI3K/AKT
15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active metabolites and is implicated in physiological membrane remodelling, inflammation and apoptosis. Its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse cancer and immune diseases. Recent experimental evidence reveals that dynamic histone methylation/demethylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays a critical role in regulation of chromatin remodelling and gene expression. In the present study, we compared the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4) methylation status of the 15-LOX-1 promoter region of the two Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines L1236 and L428 with abundant and undetectable 15-LOX-1 expression, respectively. We identified a potential role of H3-K4 methylation in positive regulation of 15-LOX-1 transcription. Furthermore, we found that histone methyltransferase SMYD3 inhibition reduced 15-LOX-1 expression by decreasing promoter activity in L1236 cells. SMYD3 knock down in these cells abolished di−/trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the transactivator STAT6, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing H3-K4 tri-demethylase, upregulated 15-LOX-1 expression through induction of H3-K4 trimethylation, histone acetylation and STAT6 recruitment at the 15-LOX-1 promoter in L428 cells. In addition, we observed strong SMYD3 expression in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its inhibition led to decreased 15-LOX-1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that regulation of histone methylation/demethylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter is important in 15-LOX-1 expression.
The -493G/T polymorphism in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene is associated with lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels and longevity in several populations, but the results are inconsistent in different racial/ethnic groups. The current study was to investigate the plausible association of MTP -493G/T polymorphism with serum lipid levels and longevity in Zhuang long-lived families residing in Bama area, a famous home of longevity in Guangxi, China.
The MTP -493G/T was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 391 Bama Zhuang long-lived families (BLF, n = 1467, age 56.60 ± 29.43 years) and four control groups recruited from Bama and out-of-Bama area with or without a familial history of exceptional longevity: Bama non-long-lived families (BNLF, n = 586, age 44.81 ± 26.83 years), Bama non-Zhuang long-lived families (BNZLF, n = 444, age 52.09 ± 31.91 years), Pingguo long-lived families (PLF, n = 658, age 50.83 ± 30.30 years), and Pingguo non-long-lived families (PNLF, n = 539, age 38.74 ± 24.69 years). Correlation analyses between genotypes and serum lipid levels and longevity were then performed.
No particularly favorable lipoprotein and clinical phenotypes were seen in BLF as compared to general families in the same area. Instead, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were significantly higher in the three Bama families as compared to the two non-Bama families (P < 0.01 for all). There were no differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the tested cohorts (P > 0.05 for all), but the TT genotype tended to enrich in the three long-lived cohorts from both areas. In addition, the individuals harboring TT genotype exhibited lower LDL-C and TC levels in the overall populations and Bama populations with a region- and sex-specific pattern. Multiple linear regression analyses unraveled that LDL-C levels were correlated with genotypes in Bama combined population, BNLF, and the total population (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Pingguo populations; TC and HDL-C levels were correlated with genotypes in Bama combined population and BLF, respectively (P < 0.05 for each).
MTP -493G/T polymorphism may play an important role in fashioning the serum lipid profiles of Bama populations, despite no direct association between MTP -493G/T and longevity was detected.
During homologous recombination, RecA forms a helical filament on a single stranded (ss) DNA that searches for a homologous double stranded (ds) DNA and catalyzes the exchange of complementary base pairs to form a new heteroduplex. Using single molecule fluorescence imaging tools with high spatiotemporal resolution we characterized the encounter complex between the RecA filament and dsDNA. We present evidence in support of the ‘sliding model’ wherein a RecA filament diffuses along a dsDNA track. We further show that homology can be detected during sliding. Sliding occurs with a diffusion coefficient of approximately 8000 bp2/s allowing the filament to sample several hundred base pairs before dissociation. Modeling suggests that sliding can accelerate homology search by as much as 200 fold. Homology recognition can occur for as few as 6 nt of complementary basepairs with the recognition efficiency increasing for higher complementarity. Our data represents the first example of a DNA bound multi-protein complex which can slide along another DNA to facilitate target search.
The DNA molecules in cells are continuously bombarded with radiation, chemicals and other agents, and it is important for cells to repair the damage caused by these before the process of cell division begins. Most DNA molecules consist of two single strands of DNA that are held together by hydrogen bonds in the familiar double-helix structure. Of the various types of damage that DNA molecules are prone to, double-strand breaks are among the most dangerous because they can lead to cancer if they are not repaired.
DNA molecules use four bases—adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine—to store genetic information. In single-stranded DNA these bases are attached to a backbone made of alternating sugar and phosphate groups. A crucial feature of double-stranded DNA is that the sequences of bases in the two strands are complementary to each other—adenine is always paired with thymine, and cytosine is always paired with guanine. However, the hydrogen bonds that hold the pairs of bases together are quite weak, which means that the two strands of the double helix can be pulled apart quite easily. The ease with which these bonds can be formed and broken is crucial for many genetic processes.
One way to repair a double strand break is to replace the damaged stretch of DNA with an undamaged stretch from another DNA molecule. This process of swapping DNA molecules, which is called strand exchange, is catalyzed by a protein that is able to interact with two DNA molecules at the same time. An important first step within this process is identifying the stretch of DNA that can be used to repair the break.
Ragunathan et al. now report evidence from experiments on Escherichia coli that support a model in which the protein catalyst (RecA in the case of E. coli) combines with a single strand of DNA to form a filamentous DNA–protein complex (RecA filament) that can then slide along a double-stranded DNA molecule to search for a complementary sequence of base pairs. High-resolution fluorescent imaging reveals that the RecA filament is able to sample several hundred base pairs before the filament dissociates from the DNA and rebinds at a different location. The sliding was largely driven by electrostatic interactions between the RecA filament and the double-stranded DNA, and the filament was capable of identifying matching sequences that contained as few as six matching bases.
Ragunathan et al. estimate that sliding is about two orders of magnitude faster at finding matching sequences compared to mechanisms that do not involve sliding, such as models that rely solely on chance encounters between DNA molecules and the RecA filament. By showing that a DNA–protein complex can slide along another DNA molecule to search for a target, these results could lead to new insights into other systems in which it is necessary for protein-nucleic acid complexes to locate a particular sequence of bases.
Single Molecule; FRET; DNA repair; Homologous Recombination; E. coli
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an oncogenic γ-herpesvirus that capably establishes both latent and lytic modes of infection in host cells and causes malignant diseases in humans. Nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2)-mediated transcription of both cellular and viral genes is essential for the establishment and maintenance of the EBV latency program in B lymphocytes. Here, we employed a protein affinity pull-down and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify nucleophosmin (NPM1) as one of the cellular proteins bound to EBNA2. Additionally, the specific domains that are responsible for protein-protein interactions were characterized as EBNA2 residues 300 to 360 and the oligomerization domain (OD) of NPM1. As in c-MYC, dramatic NPM1 expression was induced in EBV positively infected B cells after three days of viral infection, and both EBNA2 and EBNALP were implicated in the transactivation of the NPM1 promoter. Depletion of NPM1 with the lentivirus-expressed short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) effectively abrogated EBNA2-dependent transcription and transformation outgrowth of lymphoblastoid cells. Notably, the ATP-bound state of NPM1 was required to induce assembly of a protein complex containing EBNA2, RBP-Jκ, and NPM1 by stabilizing the interaction of EBNA2 with RBP-Jκ. In a NPM1-knockdown cell line, we demonstrated that an EBNA2-mediated transcription defect was fully restored by the ectopic expression of NPM1. Our findings highlight the essential role of NPM1 in chaperoning EBNA2 onto the latency-associated membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promoters, which is coordinated with the subsequent activation of transcriptional cascades through RBP-Jκ during EBV infection. These data advance our understanding of EBV pathology and further imply that NPM1 can be exploited as a therapeutic target for EBV-associated diseases.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infects human B cells to establish a permanent infection in hosts, which can cause diseases ranging from infectious mononucleosis to a broad spectrum of human malignancies. The conversion of human primary B cells into indefinitely proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by in vitro EBV infection provides a suitable model for virus-mediated cellular transformation. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) 2-mediated transcription is essential for the establishment and maintenance of EBV latent infection. In this report, we have extensively explored the mechanism by which EBNA2 activates the latency-specific LMP1 promoter to establish a permanent infection in B cells. We have identified and characterized the protein-protein interaction of EBNA2 with the nuclear shuttle protein nucleophosmin (NPM1) in vivo and in vitro. In particular, we have determined that the expression of NPM1 is promptly induced upon EBV infection and that EBNA2 has a role in activating NPM1 gene expression. Furthermore, we have shown that oligomerized NPM1 is charged by ATP and binds to EBNA2, which is crucial for its ability to stabilize its interaction with the DNA binding protein RBP-Jκ, which is in turn essential for supporting the transcriptional cascades of EBV latent infection. Our findings provide striking evidence to illustrate a new model for understanding EBV pathology.
Macrophages in other organs (e.g. kidneys, lungs, and spleen, et. al) have rarely been reported in the development of liver fibrosis. Therefore, it is important to investigate macrophage activation in the main organs in liver fibrosis. We investigated the potential antifibrogenic effects of paeoniflorin (PF) in a dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced rat model with special focus on inhibiting macrophage activation in the main organs.
Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by treatment with DMN three times weekly over a 4-week period. DMN rats were treated with water, PF, or gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) from the beginning of the 3rd week. The expression of CD68, marker of macrophage, was investigated using immunohistochemical, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis.
Hepatic hydroxyproline content markedly decreased and histopathology improved in the DMN-PF rats. Expression of desmin and collagen 1 decreased notably in DMN-PF liver. CD68 expression in the liver, spleen and kidney increased markedly after 2 weeks but decreased in DMN-water rats. PF and GdCl3 decreased CD68 expression in the liver and spleen and there was no effect on kidney. CD68 expression in the lung increased gradually during the course of DMN-induced liver fibrosis, and PF inhibited CD68 expression in the lung significantly while GdCl3 increased CD68 markedly. Expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was decreased significantly by GdCl3 in the liver, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. However, GdCl3 could not decrease TNF-α level in the serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Macrophage activation was disrupted in the liver, spleen, lung and kidney during development of DMN-induced liver fibrosis. PF administration attenuated DMN-induced liver fibrosis at least in part by regulating macrophage disruption in the main organs.
Liver fibrosis; Macrophage; Paeoniflorin
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2), a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent, has greatly challenged global public health. The encoding proteins with unknown functions the bacterium encodes are an obstruction to studies of the pathogenesis. A novel surface protective antigen HP0197 is one of these proteins which have no sequence homology to any known protein. In the present study, the protein was determined to be involved in bacterial virulence through an evaluation of the isogenic mutant (Δhp0197) in both mice and pigs. The experimental infection also indicated that Δhp0197 could be cleared easily during infection, which could be attributed to the reduced thickness of the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and the significantly reduced phagocytotic resistance. Microarrays-based comparative transcriptome analysis suggested that the suppressed expression of the operon responsible for CPS synthesis might be reversed by CcpA activity, which controlled global regulation of carbon catabolite through the binding of the CcpA and HPr-Ser-46-P to the catabolite-responsive elements (cre) of the target operons. The hypothesis was approved by the fact that the purified FLAG-tagged HPr from WT stain exhibited a higher binding activity to cre with CcpA compared to the Δhp0197 by the Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, suggesting lower level of phosphorylation of the phosphocarrier protein HPr at residue Ser-46 (HPr-Ser-46P) in Δhp0197. These indicated that HP0197 could enhance CcpA activity to control the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and CPS synthesis, thus contributing to the virulence of S. suis.
A major hurdle for molecular mechanistic studies of many proteins is the lack of a general method for fluorescent labeling with high efficiency, specificity, and speed. By incorporating an aldehyde motif genetically into a protein and improving the labeling kinetics substantially under mild conditions, we achieved fast, site-specific labeling of a protein with ~100% efficiency while maintaining the biological function. We demonstrate that an aldehyde-tagged protein can be specifically labeled in cell extracts without protein purification and then can be used in single-molecule pull-down analysis. We further show the unique power of our method in a series of single-molecule studies on the transient interactions and switching between two quantitatively labeled DNA polymerases on their processivity factor.
To assess the feasibility of visualizing hand and foot tendon anatomy and disorders by Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) high-definition CT (HDCT).
Materials and Methods
Thirty-five patients who suffered from hand or foot pain were scanned with GSI mode HDCT and MRI. Spectrum analysis was used to select the monochromatic images that provide the optimal contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for tendons. The image quality at the best selected monochromatic level and the conventional polychromatic images were compared. Tendon anatomy and disease were also analyzed at GSI and MRI.
The monochromatic images at about 65 keV (mean 65.09 ± 2.98) provided the optimal CNR for hand and foot tendons. The image quality at the optimal selected monochromatic level was superior to conventional polychromatic images (p = 0.005, p < 0.05). GSI was useful in visualizing hand and foot tendon anatomy and disorders. There were no statistical differences between GSI and MRI with regard to tendon thickening (χ2 = 0, p > 0.05), compression (χ2 = 0.5, p > 0.05), absence (χ2 = 0, p > 0.05) and rupture (χ2 = 0, p > 0.05). GSI was significantly less sensitive than MRI in displaying tendon adhesion (χ2 = 4.17, p < 0.05), degeneration (χ2 = 4.17, p < 0.05), and tendinous sheath disease (χ2 = 10.08, p < 0.05).
GSI with monochromatic images at 65 keV displays clearly the most hand and foot tendon anatomy and disorders with image quality improved, as compared with conventional polychromatic images. It may be used solely or combined with MRI in clinical work, depending on individual patient disease condition.
Dual energy CT; Spectral imaging; Magnetic resonance imaging; Tendon
No-reflow phenomenon is a risk factor which severely compromises the benefits of coronary revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Inflammatory response, as an essential component of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, has been suggested to contribute to the myocardial no-reflow. Since nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a key mediator of inflammation, we reasoned that inhibition of NF-κB might reduce the extent of no-reflow. To test this hypothesis, the left circumflex coronary arteries of New Zealand white male rabbits were ligated for 1.5 h, followed by reperfusion for 1 h to induce I/R injury. Pretreatment of the rabbits with a specific NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the no-reflow area as well as the expansion of no-reflow. These beneficial effects were associated with a marked reduction in the serum levels of myocardial induced I/R tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and CXCL16. Consistently, simulative I/R culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) resulted in an increase of TNF-α, ICAM-1 and CXCL16, and all of these changes were significantly suppressed by pretreatment of the cells with PDTC or with siRNA-mediated p65 knockdown. Our data thus suggest that inhibition of NF-κB may reduce I/R-associated myocardial no-reflow through reduction of myocardial inflammation.
The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels.
Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors.
The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between ABCG5/G8 SNPs and some serum lipid parameters.
Physical loading leads to a deformation of bone microstructure and may influence quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. This study aims at evaluating the effect of physical loading on bone QUS measurement, and further, on the potential of diagnosing osteoporosis using QUS method under physical loading condition.
16 healthy young females (control group) and 45 postmenopausal women (divided into 3 groups according to the years since menopause (YSM)) were studied. QUS parameters were measured at calcaneus under self-weight loading (standing) and no loading (sitting) conditions. Weight-normalized QUS parameter (QUS parameter measured under loading condition divided by the weight of the subject) was proposed to evaluate the influence of loading. T-test, One-Way analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were applied for analysis.
In QUS parameters, mainly normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA), measured with loading significantly differed from those measured without loading (p < 0.05). The relative changes of weight-normalized QUS parameters on postmenopausal women with respect to premenopausal women under loading condition were larger than those on traditional QUS parameters measured without loading. In ROC analysis, weight-normalized QUS parameters showed their stronger discriminatory ability for menopause.
Physical loading substantially influenced bone QUS measurement (mainly nBUA). Weight-normalized QUS parameters can discriminate menopause more effectively. By considering the high relationship between menopause and osteoporosis, an inference was drawn that adding physical loading during measurement may be a probable way to improve the QUS based osteoporosis diagnosis.
Quantitative ultrasound; Osteoporosis; Physical loading; Menopause
Inconsistent expression and regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are common causes of adverse drug effects in some drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (TI). An important cytochrome, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), is predominantly regulated by a nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR). Sesamin, a major lignan constituent in sesame seeds and oil, exhibits a variety of biological functions; however, the effect of sesamin on the modulation of CYP3A4 is not well understood. In this study, the effects of sesamin on the PXR-CYP3A4 pathway were characterized, as well as the underlying mechanisms of those effects. Sesamin potently attenuated CYP3A4 induction in a dose-dependent manner by blocking the activation of PXR. The PXR inducer-mediated inhibition of CYP3A4 was further evidenced by the ability of sesamin to attenuate the effects of several PXR ligands in the CYP3A4 reporter assay. Further mechanistic studies showed that sesamin inhibited PXR by interrupting the interacting with coregulators. These results may lead to the development of new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of inducer-drug interaction. Sesamin was established as a novel inhibitor of PXR and may be useful for modulating DMEs expression and drug efficacies. Modification of CYP3A4 expression and activity by consumption of sesamin may have important implications for drug safety.
The hippocampus is involved at the onset of the neuropathological pathways leading to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of AD. Hippocampal volume has been shown to predict which MCI subjects will convert to AD. Our aim in the present study was to produce a fully automated prognostic procedure, scalable to high throughput clinical and research applications, for the prediction of MCI conversion to AD using 3D hippocampal morphology. We used an automated analysis for the extraction and mapping of the hippocampus from structural magnetic resonance scans to extract 3D hippocampal shape morphology, and we then applied machine learning classification to predict conversion from MCI to AD. We investigated the accuracy of prediction in 103 MCI subjects (mean age 74.1 years) from the longitudinal AddNeuroMed study. Our model correctly predicted MCI conversion to dementia within a year at an accuracy of 80% (sensitivity 77%, specificity 80%), a performance which is competitive with previous predictive models dependent on manual measurements. Categorization of MCI subjects based on hippocampal morphology revealed more rapid cognitive deterioration in MMSE scores (p < 0.01) and CERAD verbal memory (p < 0.01) in those subjects who were predicted to develop dementia relative to those predicted to remain stable. The pattern of atrophy associated with increased risk of conversion demonstrated initial degeneration in the anterior part of the cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal subregion. We conclude that automated shape analysis generates sensitive measurements of early neurodegeneration which predates the onset of dementia and thus provides a prognostic biomarker for conversion of MCI to AD.
Neuroimaging; Hippocampus; Prognosis; Automated methods; Alzheimer’s disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment
Previously, Huangqi decoction (HQD) has been found to have a potential therapeutic effect on DMN-induced liver cirrhosis. Here, the mechanisms of HQD action against liver fibrosis were investigated in relation to hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic inflammation regulation.
Liver fibrosis was induced by DMN administration for 2 or 4 weeks. Hepatocyte apoptosis and of Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) interaction were investigated using confocal microscopy. The principle cytokines, fibrogenic proteins and apoptotic factors were investigated using western blot analysis.
Compared with the DMN-water group, HQD showed decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and reduced expression of apoptotic effectors, cleaved-caspase-3, and fibrotic factors, such as smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1). However, the KC marker CD68 increased significantly in DMN-HQD liver. Confocal microscopy demonstrated widespread adhesion of KCs to HSCs in DMN-water and DMN-HQD rats liver.
HQD exhibited positive protective effects against liver fibrosis; its mechanism of action was associated with protection from hepatocyte apoptosis and the promotion of CD68 expression in the devolopment of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis development.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of type 2 diabetes and to determine the status of type 2 diabetes awareness, treatment, and control in Xinjiang, China. Our data came from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14 122 persons (5583 Hans, 4620 Uygurs, and 3919 Kazaks) completed the survey and examination. Diabetes was defined by the American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria.
Overall, 9.26% of the Han, 6.23% of the Uygur, and 3.65% of the Kazak adults aged ≥35 years had diabetes. Among diabetes patients, only 53.0% were aware of their blood glucose level, 26.7% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 10.4% achieved blood glucose control in Han, 35.8% were aware of their blood glucose level, 7.3% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 3.13% achieved blood glucose control in Uygur, and 23.8% were aware of their blood glucose level, 6.3% were taking hypoglycemic agents, and 1.4% achieved blood glucose control in Kazak, respectively.
Our results indicate that diabetes is highly prevalent in Xinjiang. The percentages of those with diabetes who are aware, treated, and controlled are unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve prevention, detection, and treatment of diabetes in Xinjiang, the west China.
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex process that may be influenced by many factors, including polymorphism in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene. Previous work suggests an association between the EGF 61*A/G polymorphism (rs4444903) and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of several studies covering a large population to address this controversy.
PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Data were abstracted independently by two reviewers. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between EGF 61*A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to HCC. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
Eight studies were chosen in this meta-analysis, involving 1,304 HCC cases (1135 Chinese, 44 Caucasian and 125 mixed) and 2,613 controls (1638 Chinese, 77 Caucasian and 898 mixed). The EGF 61*G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC based on allelic contrast (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.16–1.44, p<0.001), homozygote comparison (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.39–2.29, p<0.001) and a recessive genetic model (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.16–1.54, p<0.001), while patients carrying the EGF 61*A/A genotype had significantly lower risk of HCC than those with the G/A or G/G genotype (A/A vs. G/A+G/G, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.53–0.83, p<0.001).
The 61*G polymorphism in EGF is a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis while the EGF 61*A allele is a protective factor. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.
Objective. To explore possible corelationship between the cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) and unilateral auditory neuropathy (AN). Methods. From a database of 85 patients with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, eight who presented with evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) or cochlear microphonic (CM) in the affected ear were diagnosed with unilateral AN. Audiological and radiological records in eight patients with unilateral AN were retrospectively reviewed. Results. Eight cases were diagnosed as having unilateral AN caused by CND. Seven had type “A” tympanogram with normal EOAE in both ears. The other patient had unilateral type “B” tympanogram and absent OAE but CM recorded, consistent with middle ear effusion in the affected ear. For all the ears involved in the study, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were either absent or responded to the maximum output and the neural responses from the cochlea were not revealed when viewed by means of the oblique sagittal MRI on the internal auditory canal. Conclusion. Cochlear nerve deficiency can be seen by electrophysiological evidence and may be a significant cause of unilateral AN. Inclined sagittal MRI of the internal auditory canal is recommended for the diagnosis of this disorder.
TaqIB polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene has been reported to be associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and longevity in several populations, but controversial results also arose probably due to racial/ethnic diversity. Bama is a remote and mountainous county located in the northwest of Guangxi, People's Republic of China, which has been well known for its longevity for centuries. The current study was to investigate the possible association of CETP TaqIB polymorphism with serum lipid levels and longevity in the Bama Zhuang population.
The CETP TaqIB genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in 523 long-lived inhabitants (long-lived group, LG; aged 90-107 years) and 498 healthy controls without longevity family history (non-long-lived group, non-LG; aged 40-69 years) residing in Bama County.
The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were higher but TG, HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were lower in LG than in non-LG (P < 0.001 for all). There were no differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies between the two groups (P > 0.05). Serum HDL-C levels and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio in LG were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01 for each), the subjects with B2B2 and B1B2 genotyes had higher HDL-C levels and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio than the subjects with B1B1genotye, whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C in non-LG were different among/between the genotypes (P < 0.01 for each), the B2 allele carriers had lower TC and higher HDL-C levels than the B2 allele noncarriers. Serum TG and HDL-C levels and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio were correlated with genotypes in LG, whereas serum TC and HDL-C levels were associated with genotypes in non-LG (P < 0.05-0.001).
The association of CETP TaqIB polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is different between LG and non-LG in the Chinese Bama Zhuang population. CETP TaqIB polymorphism might be one of the longevity-related genetic factors in this population.
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been reported to regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) family and transporters, such as multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1). Fucoxanthin, the major carotenoid in brown sea algae, is a putative chemopreventive agent. In this study, we determined whether fucoxanthin could overcome drug resistance through attenuation of rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by PXR-mediated pathways in HepG2 hepatoma cells. We found that fucoxanthin (1–10 μM) significantly attenuated rifampin (20 μM)-induced CYP3A4, MDR1 mRNA and CYP3A4 protein expression at 24 h of incubation. Mechanistically, fucoxanthin strongly attenuated the PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In addition, fucoxanthin attenuated constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)- and rPXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in this cell line. Using the mammalian two-hybrid assay, we found that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the interaction between PXR and SRC-1, a PXR co-activator. Thus, fucoxanthin can decrease rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression through attenuation of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activation and interaction between PXR and co-activator. These findings could lead to potentially important new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of adverse drug reactions.
fucoxanthin; PXR; CYP3A4; MDR1; drug resistance; rifampin