MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. To test the hypothesis that there is a specific miRNA expression signature which characterizes male breast cancers, we performed miRNA microarray analysis in a series of male breast cancers and compared them with cases of male gynecomastia and female breast cancers.
Paraffin blocks were obtained at the Department of Pathology of Thomas Jefferson University from 28 male patients including 23 breast cancers and five cases of male gynecomastia, and from 10 female ductal breast carcinomas. The RNA harvested was hybridized to miRNA microarrays (~1,100 miRNA probes, including 326 human and 249 mouse miRNA genes, spotted in duplicate). To further support the microarray data, an immunohistochemical analysis for two specific miRNA gene targets (HOXD10 and VEGF) was performed in a small series of male breast carcinoma and gynecomastia samples.
We identified a male breast cancer miRNA signature composed of a large portion of underexpressed miRNAs. In particular, 17 miRNAs with increased expression and 26 miRNAs with decreased expression were identified in male breast cancer compared with gynecomastia. Among these miRNAs, some had well-characterized cancer development association and some showed a deregulation in cancer specimens similar to the one previously observed in the published signatures of female breast cancer. Comparing male with female breast cancer miRNA expression signatures, 17 significantly deregulated miRNAs were observed (four overexpressed and 13 underexpressed in male breast cancers). The HOXD10 and VEGF gene immunohistochemical expression significantly follows the corresponding miRNA deregulation.
Our results suggest that specific miRNAs may be directly involved in male breast cancer development and that they may represent a novel diagnostic tool in the characterization of specific cancer gene targets.
Colorectal cancer develops through two main genetic instability pathways characterized by distinct pathologic features and clinical outcome.
We investigated colon cancer samples (23 characterized by microsatellite stability, MSS, and 16 by high microsatellite instability, MSI-H) for genome-wide expression of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA. Based on combined miRNA and mRNA gene expression, a molecular signature consisting of twenty seven differentially expressed genes, inclusive of 8 miRNAs, could correctly distinguish MSI-H versus MSS colon cancer samples. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, various members of the oncogenic miR-17-92 family were significantly up-regulated in MSS cancers. The majority of protein coding genes were also up-regulated in MSS cancers. Their functional classification revealed that they were most frequently associated with cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, repair, gastrointestinal disease and immune response.
This is the first report that indicates the existence of differences in miRNA expression between MSS versus MSI-H colorectal cancers. In addition, the work suggests that the combination of mRNA/miRNA expression signatures may represent a general approach for improving bio-molecular classification of human cancer.
The Structural Maintenance of Chromosome 3 protein (SMC3) plays an essential role during the sister chromatid separation, is involved in DNA repair and recombination and participates in microtubule-mediated intracellular transport. SMC3 is frequently elevated in human colon carcinoma and overexpression of the protein transforms murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of SMC3-mediated tumorigenesis a gene expression profiling was performed on human 293 cells line stably overexpressing SMC3.
Biotinylated complementary RNA (cRNA) was used for hybridization of a cDNAmicroarray chip harboring 18,861 65-mer oligos derived from the published dEST sequences. After filtering, the hybridization data were normalized and statistically analyzed. Sixty-five genes for which a putative function could be assigned displayed at least two-fold change in their expression level. Eighteen of the affected genes is either a transcriptional factor or is involved in DNA and chromatin related mechanisms whereas most of those involved in signal transduction are members or modulators of the ras-rho/GTPase and cAMP signaling pathways. In particular the expression of RhoB and CRE-BPa, two mediators of cellular transformation, was significantly enhanced. This association was confirmed by analyzing the RhoB and CRE-BPa transcript levels in cells transiently transfected with an SMC3 expression vector. Consistent with the idea that the activation of ras-rho/GTPase and cAMP pathways is relevant in the context of the cellular changes following SMC3 overexpression, gene transactivation through the related serum (SRE) and cAMP (CRE) cis-acting response elements was significantly increased.
We have documented a selective effect of the ectopic expression of SMC3 on a set of genes and transcriptional signaling pathways that are relevant for tumorigenesis. The results lead to postulate that RhoB and CRE-BPa two known oncogenic mediators whose expression is significantly increased following SMC3 overexpression play a significant role in mediating SMC3 tumorigenesis.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) have tumor suppressive and oncogenic potential in human cancer, but whether and how miRNAs control cell cycle progression is not understood. To address this question, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression during serum stimulation of quiescent human cells. Time course analyses revealed that four miRNAs are up-regulated and >100 miRNAs are down-regulated, as cells progress beyond the G1-S phase transition. We analyzed the function of two up-regulated miRNAs (miR-221 and miR-222) that are both predicted to target the cell growth suppressive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p57. Our results show that miR-221 and miR-222 both directly target the 3′ untranslated regions of p27 and p57 mRNAs to reduce reporter gene expression, as well as diminish p27 and p57 protein levels. Functional studies show that miR-221 and miR-222 prevent quiescence when elevated during growth factor deprivation and induce precocious S-phase entry, thereby triggering cell death. Thus, the physiologic upregulation of miR-221 and miR-222 is tightly linked to a cell cycle checkpoint that ensures cell survival by coordinating competency for initiation of S phase with growth factor signaling pathways that stimulate cell proliferation.
Ultraconserved regions (UCR) are genomic segments of more than 200 base pairs that are evolutionarily conserved among mammalian species. They are thought to have functions as transcriptional enhancers and regulators of alternative splicing. Recently, it was shown that numerous RNAs are transcribed from these regions. These UCR-encoded transcripts (ucRNAs) were found to be expressed in a tissue- and disease-specific manner and may interfere with the function of other RNAs through RNA: RNA interactions. We hypothesized that ucRNAs have unidentified roles in the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. In a pilot study, we examined ucRNA expression profiles in human prostate tumors.
Using a custom microarray with 962 probesets representing sense and antisense sequences for the 481 human UCRs, we examined ucRNA expression in resected, fresh-frozen human prostate tissues (57 tumors, 7 non-cancerous prostate tissues) and in cultured prostate cancer cells treated with either epigenetic drugs (the hypomethylating agent, 5-Aza 2′deoxycytidine, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A) or a synthetic androgen, R1881. Expression of selected ucRNAs was also assessed by qRT-PCR and NanoString®-based assays. Because ucRNAs may function as RNAs that target protein-coding genes through direct and inhibitory RNA: RNA interactions, computational analyses were applied to identify candidate ucRNA:mRNA binding pairs.
We observed altered ucRNA expression in prostate cancer (e.g., uc.106+, uc.477+, uc.363 + A, uc.454 + A) and found that these ucRNAs were associated with cancer development, Gleason score, and extraprostatic extension after controlling for false discovery (false discovery rate < 5% for many of the transcripts). We also identified several ucRNAs that were responsive to treatment with either epigenetic drugs or androgen (R1881). For example, experiments with LNCaP human prostate cancer cells showed that uc.287+ is induced by R1881 (P < 0.05) whereas uc.283 + A was up-regulated following treatment with combined 5-Aza 2′deoxycytidine and trichostatin A (P < 0.05). Additional computational analyses predicted RNA loop-loop interactions of 302 different sense and antisense ucRNAs with 1058 different mRNAs, inferring possible functions of ucRNAs via direct interactions with mRNAs.
This first study of ucRNA expression in human prostate cancer indicates an altered transcript expression in the disease.
Ultraconserved region; Gene expression; Prostate cancer
Fusion genes are chromosomal aberrations that are found in many cancers and can be used as prognostic markers and drug targets in clinical practice. Fusions can lead to production of oncogenic fusion proteins or to enhanced expression of oncogenes. Several recent studies have reported that some fusion genes can escape microRNA regulation via 3′–untranslated region (3′-UTR) deletion. We performed whole transcriptome sequencing to identify fusion genes in glioma and discovered FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in 4 of 48 glioblastoma samples from patients both of mixed European and of Asian descent, but not in any of 43 low-grade glioma samples tested. The fusion, caused by tandem duplication on 4p16.3, led to the loss of the 3′-UTR of FGFR3, blocking gene regulation of miR-99a and enhancing expression of the fusion gene. The fusion gene was mutually exclusive with EGFR, PDGFR, or MET amplification. Using cultured glioblastoma cells and a mouse xenograft model, we found that fusion protein expression promoted cell proliferation and tumor progression, while WT FGFR3 protein was not tumorigenic, even under forced overexpression. These results demonstrated that the FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion is expressed in human cancer and generates an oncogenic protein that promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastoma.
MicroRNAs are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and cancer development. A rare population of hepatocellular cancer stem cells (HSCs) holds the extensive proliferative and self-renewal potential necessary to form a liver tumor. We postulated that specific transcriptional factors might regulate the expression of microRNAs and subsequently modulate the expression of gene products involved in phenotypic characteristics of HSCs. We evaluated the expression of microRNA in human HSCs by microarray profiling, and defined the target genes and functional effects of two groups of microRNA regulated by IL-6 and transcriptional factor Twist. A subset of highly chemoresistant and invasive HSCs was screened with aberrant expressions of cytokine IL-6 and Twist. We demonstrated that conserved let-7 and miR-181 family members were up-regulated in HSCs by global microarray-based microRNA profiling followed by validation with real-time PCR. Importantly, inhibition of let-7 increases the chemosensitivity of HSCs to sorafenib and doxorubicin whereas silencing of miR-181 led to a reduction in HSCs motility and invasion. Knocking down IL-6 and Twist in HSCs significantly reduced let-7 and miR-181 expression and subsequently inhibited chemoresistance and cell invasion. We showed that let-7 directly targets SOCS-1 and caspase-3, while miR-181 directly targets RASSF1A, TIMP3 as well as nemo-like kinase (NLK). In conclusion, alterations of IL-6 and Twist regulated microRNA expression in HSCs play a part in tumor spreading and responsiveness to chemotherapy. Our results define a novel regulatory mechanism of let-7/miR-181s suggesting that let-7 and miR-181 may be molecular targets for eradication of hepatocellular malignancies.
microRNAs (miRNAs); Human Hepatocellular Cancer Stem Cells (HSCs); Interleukin-6 (IL-6); Twist; Chemotherapy; Invasion
Both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 tri-methylation are required for gene activation. However, it is still largely unclear how these modifications are orchestrated by transcriptional factors. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the transcriptional activation by FOXP3, an X-linked suppressor of autoimmune diseases and cancers. FOXP3 binds near transcriptional start sites of its target genes. By recruiting MOF and displacing histone H3K4 demethylase PLU-1, FOXP3 increases both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 tri-methylation at the FOXP3-associated chromatins of multiple FOXP3-activated genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of MOF reduced both gene activation and tumor suppression by FOXP3, while both somatic mutations in clinical cancer samples and targeted mutation of FOXP3 in mouse prostate epithelial disrupted nuclear localization of MOF. Our data demonstrate a pull-push model in which a single transcription factor orchestrates two epigenetic alterations necessary for gene activation and provide a mechanism for somatic inactivation of the FOXP3 protein function in cancer cells.
Commensal flora plays important roles in the regulation of the gene expression involved in many intestinal functions and the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding RNAs, act as key regulators in many biological processes. The miRNAs are highly conserved among species and appear to play important roles in both innate and adaptive immunity, as they can control the differentiation of various immune cells as well as their functions. However, it is still largely unknown how microbiota regulates miRNA expression, thereby contributing to intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of IBD. In our current study, we found that microbiota negatively regulated intestinal miR-10a expression, in that the intestines, as well as intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, expressed much lower levels of miR-10a compared to those in germ-free (GF) mice. Commensal bacteria downregulated DC miR-10a expression via TLR-TLR ligand interactions through a MyD88-dependent pathway. We identified IL-12/IL-23p40, a key molecule for innate immune responses to commensal bacteria, as a target of miR-10a. The ectopic expression of miR-10a precursor inhibited, whereas miR-10a inhibitor promoted, the expression of IL-12/IL-23p40 in DC. Mice with colitis expressing higher levels of IL-12/IL-23p40 exhibit lower levels of intestinal miR-10a compared to that in the control mice. Collectively, our data demonstrated that microbiota negatively regulates host miR-10a expression, which may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by targeting IL-12/IL-23p40 expression.
After 12 years from its first application, microarray technology has become the reference technique to monitor gene expression of thousands of genes in the same experiment. In the past few years an increasing amount of evidence showed the importance of non coding RNA (ncRNA) in different human diseases. The microRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the groups of ncRNA. They are small RNA fragments, 19–25 nucleotides long, with a main regulatory function on both protein coding genes and non-coding RNAs. The application of microarray platforms applied to miRNA profiling determined their deregulation in virtually all human diseases that have been studied. We previously developed a custom miRNA microarray platform, and here we describe the protocol we used to work with it including the oligo design strategy, the microaray printing protocol, the target-probe hybridization and the signal detection.
By transactivating expression of miRNAs that repress expression of the ZEB1 and ZEB2 transcription factors, p53 inhibits the epithelial–mesenchymal transition.
p53 suppresses tumor progression and metastasis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in tumor progression and metastasis. The transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 promote EMT. Here, we show that p53 suppresses EMT by repressing expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2. By profiling 92 primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 9 HCC cell lines, we found that p53 up-regulates microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-200 and miR-192 family members. The miR-200 family members transactivated by p53 then repress ZEB1/2 expression. p53-regulated miR-192 family members also repress ZEB2 expression. Inhibition or overexpression of the miRNAs affects p53-regulated EMT by altering ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression. Our findings indicate that p53 can regulate EMT, and that p53-regulated miRNAs are critical mediators of p53-regulated EMT.
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme essential for the generation of antibody diversity in B cells and is considered to be a general gene mutator. In addition, AID expression was also implicated in the pathogenesis of human B cell malignancies and associated with poor prognosis. Here we report that siRNA silencing of AID in plasmacytoma dramatically increased its susceptibility to immunotherapy by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AID silencing did not decrease the mutation frequencies of tumor antigen gene P1A. Gene-array analysis showed dramatically altered expression of a number of genes in AID-silenced plasmacytoma cells and upregulation of CD200 was shown to be in favor of tumor eradication by CTL. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel function of AID in tumor evasion of CTL therapy and that targeting AID should be beneficial in the immunotherapy of AID positive tumors.
Activation induced cytidine deaminase; Plasmacytoma; Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes; Immune evasion
Nanog is a stem cell transcription factor required for self-renewal and for maintaining pluripotency, and Nanog itself is regulated at least in part by leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF)—a pluripotent cytokine of the IL6 family. MARCH-7 is an E-3 ligase linked to regulation of the LIF-receptor in T lymphocytes and T cells from mice that lack expression of MARCH-7 are hyper-responsive to activation signals and show a five-fold increase in LIF activity. Here we ask, does MARCH-7 influence the expression profile of Nanog during the synchronized entry of T cells into the cell cycle? We discovered that lack of MARCH-7 was permissive for Nanog expression at both transcript and protein levels during G1/S: moreover, addition of exogenous LIF to the MARCH-7 null cells caused a further 13-fold induction of Nanog; other measured transcripts including TGFβ, p53 and STAT3 were relatively unchanged. Since lack of MARCH-7 altered responsiveness to activation signals we sought evidence for pre-existing regulatory miR's that might correlate with MARCH-7 gene dose using head-to-head comparisons between MARCH-7 null, heterozygous and wt spleen cells. Thirty-four miRs were found including miR-346 that is known to target LIF transcripts and miR-346 is one of 16 miRs differentially expressed between hESCs and induced hiPSCs. Of the 34 miRs, 12 were known to be temporally regulated in embryonic nerve cells. In summary, in the absence of MARCH-7 a new signaling pathway is unmasked that involves Nanog expression in the T-cell lineage. This is the first demonstration that T cells retain responsiveness to a LIF/Nanog axis and that this axis is linked to MARCH-7.
nanog; MARCH-7; E3-ligase; T lymphocytes; LIF
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. They influence a wide range of physiological functions, including neuronal processes, and are regulated by various mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. This epigenetic mark is recognized by transcriptional regulators such as the methyl CpG binding protein Mecp2. Rett syndrome is a complex neurological disorder that has been associated with mutations in the gene coding for Mecp2. Thus, we examined the possible miRNA misregulation caused by Mecp2 absence in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Using miRNA expression microarrays, we observed that the brain of Rett syndrome mice undergoes a disruption of the expression profiles of miRNAs. Among the significantly altered miRNAs (26%, 65 of 245), overall downregulation of these transcripts was the most common feature (71%), while the remaining 30% were upregulated. Further validation by quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the most commonly disrupted miRNAs were miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-130, miR-122a, miR-342 and miR-409 (downregulated) and miR-29b, miR329, miR-199b, miR-382, miR-296, miR-221 and miR-92 (upregulated). Most importantly, transfection of miR-146a in a neuroblastoma cell line caused the downregulation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (Irak1) levels, suggesting that the identified defect of miR-146a in Rett syndrome mice brains might be responsible for the observed upregulation of Irak1 in this model of the human disease. Overall, we provide another level of molecular deregulation occurring in Rett syndrome that might be useful for understanding the disease and for designing targeted therapies.
Rett syndrome; Mecp2; microRNAs; DNA methylation; chromatin
The dismal outcome of esophageal cancer patients highlights the need for novel prognostic biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs). While recent studies have established the role of miRNAs in esophageal carcinoma, a comprehensive multi-center study investigating different histological types, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarinoma (ADC) with or without Barrett's, is still lacking.
MiRNA expression was measured in cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue pairs collected from 100 ADC and 70 SCC patients enrolled at 4 clinical centers from the US, Canada, and Japan. Microarray-based expression was measured in a subset of samples in two cohorts and was validated in all available samples.
In ADC patients, miR-21, miR-223, miR-192, and miR-194 expression was elevated, while miR-203 expression was reduced in cancerous compared to non-cancerous tissue. In SCC patients, we found elevated miR-21 and reduced mir-375 expression levels in cancerous compared to non-cancerous tissue. When comparing cancerous tissue expression between ADC and SCC patients, mir-194 and mir-375 were elevated in ADC patients. Significantly, elevated mir-21 expression in non-cancerous tissue of SCC patients and reduced levels of mir-375 in cancerous tissue of ADC patients with Barrett's were strongly associated with worse prognosis. Associations with prognosis were independent of tumor stage or nodal status, cohort type, and chemoradiation therapy.
Our multi-center-based results highlight miRNAs involved in major histological types of esophageal carcinoma and uncover significant associations with prognosis. Elucidating miRNAs relevant to esophageal carcinogenesis is potentially clinically useful for developing prognostic biomarkers and identifying novel drug targets and therapies.
microRNA; esophageal cancer; prognosis; Barrett's; expression profiling
beclin 1, the mammalian homologue of the yeast Atg6, is a key autophagy-promoting gene that plays a critical role in the regulation of cell death and survival of various types of cells. However, recent studies have observed that the expression of beclin 1 is altered in certain diseases including cancers. The causes underlying the aberrant expression of beclin 1 remain largely unknown. We report here that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous, 22–24 nucleotide noncoding RNA molecules able to affect stability and translation of mRNA, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism for regulating beclin 1 expression and autophagy. We demonstrated that beclin 1 is a potential target for miRNA miR-30a, and this miRNA could negatively regulate beclin 1 expression resulting in decreased autophagic activity. Treatment of tumor cells with the miR-30a mimic decreased, and with the antagomir increased, the expression of beclin 1 mRNA and protein. Dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miR-30a binding sequences in the 3′-UTR of beclin 1 contribute to the modulation of beclin 1 expression by miR-30a. Furthermore, inhibition of beclin 1 expression by the miR-30a mimic blunted activation of autophagy induced by rapamycin. Our study of the role of miR-30a in regulating beclin 1 expression and autophagy reveals a novel function for miRNA in a critical cellular event with significant impacts in cancer development, progression and treatment, and in other diseases.
beclin 1; autophagy; microRNA; miR-30a; gene expression
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs targeting multiple effectors of cell homeostasis and development, whose malfunctions are associated with major pathologies such as cancer. Herein we show that GAM/ZFp/ZNF512B works within an intricate gene regulatory network involving cell-cycle regulators, TGFβ effectors and oncogenic miRNAs of the miR-17-92 cluster. Thus, GAM impairs the transcriptional activation of the miR-17-92 promoter by c-Myc, downregulates miR-17-92 miRNAs differentially, and limits the activation of genes responsive to TGFβ canonical pathway. In contrast, TGFβ decreases GAM transcripts levels while differentially upregulating miR-17-92 miRNAs. In turn, miR-17, miR-20a and miR-92a-1 target GAM transcripts, thus establishing a feedback autoregulatory loop. GAM transcripts are also targeted by miRNAs of the let-7 family. GAM downregulates Drosha, the main effector of miRNA maturation in the nucleus, and interacts with it in a RNA-dependent manner. Finally, GAM modulates the levels of E2F1 and Ras, and increases apoptosis while reducing cell proliferation. We propose that GAM represents a new kind of vertebrate regulator aimed at balancing the opposite effects of regulators of cell homeostasis by increasing the robustness of gene circuitries controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and development.
The differentiation process, proceeding from stem cells towards the different committed cell types, can be considered as a trajectory towards an attractor of a dynamical process. This view, taking into consideration the transcriptome and miRNome dynamics considered as a whole, instead of looking at few 'master genes' driving the system, offers a novel perspective on this phenomenon. We investigated the 'differentiation trajectories' of the hematopoietic system considering a genome-wide scenario.
We developed serum-free liquid suspension unilineage cultures of cord blood (CB) CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells through erythroid (E), megakaryocytic (MK), granulocytic (G) and monocytic (Mo) pathways. These cultures recapitulate physiological hematopoiesis, allowing the analysis of almost pure unilineage precursors starting from initial differentiation of HPCs until terminal maturation. By analyzing the expression profile of protein coding genes and microRNAs in unilineage CB E, MK, G and Mo cultures, at sequential stages of differentiation and maturation, we observed a coordinated, fully interconnected and scalable character of cell population behaviour in both transcriptome and miRNome spaces reminiscent of an attractor-like dynamics. MiRNome and transcriptome space differed for a still not terminally committed behaviour of microRNAs.
Consistent with their roles, the transcriptome system can be considered as the state space of a cell population, while the continuously evolving miRNA space corresponds to the tuning system necessary to reach the attractor. The behaviour of miRNA machinery could be of great relevance not only for the promise of reversing the differentiated state but even for tumor biology.
Human myeloid leukemia cells exposed to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), a major cancer chemopreventive agent, acquire features of normal monocytes and arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, due to the upregulation of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, but the mechanism is not clear. Here evidence is provided that an exposure of HL60 and U937 cells to low (1–10 nM) concentrations of 1,25D decreases the expression of miR181a and miR181b in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Since the predicted miR181 targets include the 3'-UTR of p27Kip1, we expressed pre-miR181a in these cells, and found that the elevation of cellular miR181a levels abrogates the 1,25D-induced increase in p27Kip1 at both mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, transfection of pre-miR181a resulted in a slight elevation of p21Cip1 expression. Importantly, transfection of pre-miR181a blunted the effect of 1,25D on the expression of monocytic differentiation markers, and reduced the G1 block in 1,25D-treated cells, while transfection of anti-miR181a increased 1,25D-induced differentiation. Together, these data show that miR181a participates in 1,25D-induced differentiation of HL60 and U937 cells, and suggest that a high constitutive expression of members of miR181 family may contribute to the malignant phenotype in the myeloid lineage.
MicroRNA 181; vitamin D; p27Kip1; p21Cip1; myeloid leukemia; differentiation
Background & Aims
Zinc-deficiency is implicated in the pathogenesis of human esophageal cancer. In the rat esophagus, it induces cell proliferation, modulates genetic expression, and enhances carcinogenesis. Zinc-replenishment reverses proliferation and inhibits carcinogenesis. The zinc-deficient rat model allows the identification of biological differences affected by zinc during early esophageal carcinogenesis.
We evaluated gene expression profiles of esophageal epithelia from zinc-deficient and replenished rats versus sufficient rats using Affymetrix Rat Genome GeneChip. We characterized the role of the top-upregulated gene S100A8 in esophageal hyperplasia/reversal and in chemically-induced esophageal carcinogenesis in zinc-modulated animals by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
The hyperplastic deficient esophagus has a distinct expression signature with the proinflammation-gene S100A8 and S100A9 upregulated 57- and 5-fold. “Response to external stimulus” comprising S100A8 was the only significantly overrepresented biological pathway among the upregulated genes. Zinc-replenishment rapidly restored to control levels the expression of S100A8/A9 and 27 other genes and reversed the hyperplastic phenotype. With its receptor RAGE, co-localization and overexpression of S100A8 protein occurred in the deficient esophagus that overexpressed NF-κB p65 and COX-2 protein. Zinc-replenishment but not by a COX-2 inhibitor reduced the overexpression of these 4 proteins. Additionally, esophageal S100A8/A9 mRNA levels were directly associated with the diverse tumorigenic outcome in zinc-deficient and zinc-replenished rats.
In vivo zinc regulates S100A8 expression and modulates the link between S100A8-RAGE interaction and downstream NF-κB/COX-2 signaling. The finding that zinc regulates an inflammatory pathway in esophageal carcinogenesis may lead to prevention and therapy for this cancer.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are approximately 22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein-coding gene expression in a sequence-specific manner via translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. Our recent studies showed that miRNAs exhibit genomic alterations at a high frequency and their expression is remarkably deregulated in ovarian cancer, strongly suggesting that miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of this disease. In the present study, we performed miRNA microarray to identify the miRNAs associated with chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer and found that let-7i expression was significantly reduced in chemotherapy-resistant patients (n = 69, P = 0.003). This result was further validated by stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-PCR (n = 62, P = 0.015). Both loss-of-function (by synthetic let-7i inhibitor) and gain-of-function (by retroviral overexpression of let-7i) studies showed that reduced let-7i expression significantly increased the resistance of ovarian and breast cancer cells to the chemotherapy drug, cis-platinum. Finally, using miRNA microarray, we found that decreased let-7i expression was significantly associated with the shorter progression-free survival of patients with late-stage ovarian cancer (n = 72, P = 0.042). This finding was further validated in the same sample set by stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-PCR (n = 62, P = 0.001) and in an independent sample set by in situ hybridization (n = 53, P = 0.049). Taken together, our results strongly suggest that let-7i might be used as a therapeutic target to modulate platinum-based chemotherapy and as a biomarker to predict chemotherapy response and survival in patients with ovarian cancer.
To evaluate the prognostic significance of CEBPA mutations in the context of established molecular markers in cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and gain biologic insights into leukemogenesis of the CN-AML molecular high-risk subset (FLT3 internal tandem duplication [ITD] positive and/or NPM1 wild type) that has a significantly higher incidence of CEBPA mutations than the molecular low-risk subset (FLT3-ITD negative and NPM1 mutated).
Patients and Methods
One hundred seventy-five adults age less than 60 years with untreated primary CN-AML were screened before treatment for CEBPA, FLT3, MLL, WT1, and NPM1 mutations and BAALC and ERG expression levels. Gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles were obtained for the CN-AML molecular high-risk patients.
CEBPA mutations predicted better event-free (P = .007), disease-free (P = .014), and overall survival (P < .001) independently of other molecular and clinical prognosticators. Among patients with CEBPA mutations, 91% were in the CN-AML molecular high-risk group. Within this group, CEBPA mutations predicted better event-free (P < .001), disease-free (P = .004), and overall survival (P = .009) independently of other molecular and clinical characteristics and were associated with unique gene and miRNA expression profiles. The major features of these profiles were upregulation of genes (eg, GATA1, ZFPM1, EPOR, and GFI1B) and miRNAs (ie, the miR-181 family) involved in erythroid differentiation and downregulation of homeobox genes.
Pretreatment testing for CEBPA mutations identifies CN-AML patients with different outcomes, particularly in the molecular high-risk group, thus improving molecular risk-based classification of this large cytogenetic subset of AML. The gene and miRNA expression profiling provided insights into leukemogenesis of the CN-AML molecular high-risk group, indicating that CEBPA mutations are associated with partial erythroid differentiation.
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of protein-coding genes. To evaluate the involvement of microRNAs in prostate cancer, we determined genome-wide expression of microRNAs and mRNAs in 60 primary prostate tumors and 16 non-tumor prostate tissues. The mRNA analysis revealed that key components of microRNA processing and several microRNA host genes, e.g., MCM7 and C9orf5, were significantly up-regulated in prostate tumors. Consistent with these findings, tumors expressed the miR-106b-25 cluster, which maps to intron 13 of MCM7, and miR-32, which maps to intron 14 of C9orf5, at significantly higher levels than non-tumor prostate. The expression levels of other microRNAs, including a number of miR-106b-25 cluster homologues, were also altered in prostate tumors. Additional differences in microRNA abundance were found between organ-confined tumors and those with extraprostatic disease extension. Lastly, we found evidence that some microRNAs are androgen-regulated and that tumor microRNAs influence transcript abundance of protein-coding target genes in the cancerous prostate. In cell culture, E2F1 and p21/WAF1 were identified as targets of miR-106b, Bim of miR-32, and exportin-6 and protein tyrosine kinase 9 of miR-1. In summary, microRNA expression becomes altered with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Some of these microRNAs regulate the expression of cancer-related genes in prostate cancer cells.
Prostate cancer; microRNA; gene expression profile
Perineural invasion (PNI) is the dominant pathway for local invasion in prostate cancer. To date, only few studies have investigated the molecular differences between prostate tumors with PNI and those without it.
To evaluate the involvement of both microRNAs and protein-coding genes in PNI, we determined their genome-wide expression with a custom microRNA microarray and Affymetrix GeneChips in 50 prostate adenocarcinomas with PNI and 7 without it. In-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry was used to validate candidate genes.
Unsupervised classification of the 57 adenocarcinomas revealed two clusters of tumors with distinct global microRNA expression. One cluster contained all non-PNI tumors and a subgroup of PNI tumors. Significance analysis of microarray data yielded a list of microRNAs associated with PNI. At a false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%, 19 microRNAs were higher expressed in PNI tumors than in non-PNI tumors. The most differently expressed microRNA was miR-224. In-situ hybridization showed that this microRNA is expressed by perineural cancer cells. The analysis of protein-coding genes identified 34 transcripts that were differently expressed by PNI status (FDR <10%). These transcripts were down-regulated in PNI tumors. Many of those encoded metallothioneins and proteins with mitochondrial localization and involvement in cell metabolism. Consistent with the microarray data, perineural cancer cells tended to have lower metallothionein expression by immunohistochemistry than nonperineural cancer cells.
Although preliminary, our findings suggest that alterations in microRNA expression, mitochondrial function, and cell metabolism occur at the transition from a non-invasive prostate tumor to a tumor with PNI.
Invasion; prostate tumor; gene expression profile; microRNA