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1.  Effect of hepatitis B vaccination in hepatitis B surface antibody-negative pregnant mothers on the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus from father to infant 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of vaccination with the hepatitis B vaccine (HBVac) in HB surface antibody (HBsAb)-negative pregnant mothers on the vertical transmission of HB virus (HBV) from father to infant. All the fathers tested positive for the serum HBV DNA and HB surface antigen (HBsAg) markers. The pregnant females were divided into an observation group or a control group depending on whether their serum was HBsAb-negative or positive. A total of 93 healthy individuals without HBV infection were included in a blank group, while 96 females who were serum HBV marker-negative or HB core antibody (HBcAb)-positive/(HBsAb)-negative were included in the observation group. The control group comprised 89 females who all tested positive for serum HBsAb, HB envelope antibodies and HBcAb. In the observation group, the positive rate of HBV DNA in the newborns was 7.29% (7/96), the positive rate of HBsAg was 3.13% (3/96) and the positive rate of HBsAb was 81.3% (78/96). In the control group, the positive rates of HBV DNA, HBsAg and HBsAb in the newborns were 4.49% (4/89), 2.25% (2/89) and 89.9% (80/89), respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that HBVac treatment for HBsAb-negative pregnant females may have a positive role in blocking the vertical transmission of HBV from father to infant, as long as the vaccination is able to induce the production of a sufficient quantity of HBsAb. The HBVac exhibited no difference compared with pre-pregnancy HBsAb in blocking the vertical transmission of HBV from father to infant.
doi:10.3892/etm.2015.2483
PMCID: PMC4486883  PMID: 26170949
hepatitis B surface antibody-negative pregnant mothers; vertical transmission from father to infant; blocking; remedial measures; effects
2.  Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus 
The aim of the present study was to observe the efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs in inhibiting father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Nucleoside analogs compete with HBV DNA polymerase substrate to inhibit DNA polymerase, thus preventing the replication of HBV DNA. A case group and control group were recruited for the study. Between March 2006 and March 2012 at the Liver Disease Center of Qinhuangdao Third Hospital, a total of 201 couples were recruited for the case group. In each case, the father tested positive the following HBV markers: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibodies against the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and HBV DNA. In total, 189 male patients presented with abnormal liver function (94.0%; 189/201). Prior to pregnancy, all the males in the case group were required to test negative for HBV DNA and exhibit normal liver function, while the females were required to test positive for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). In total, 188 couples comprised the control group. The couples were recruited between March 2006 and March 2012 in the Prenatal Clinic of Qinhuangdao Women's and Children's Hospital. The fathers tested positive for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc and HBV DNA. With regard to the females, HBsAg tests were all negative and anti-HBs tests were positive. In the case group, there were no HBsAg-positive or HBV DNA-positive newborns, while anti-HBs tests were all positive; thus, the father-to-infant HBV vertical transmission was successfully inhibited. In the control group, 147/188 newborns tested positive for anti-HBs at birth, accounting for 78.2%. In addition, 28 newborns were positive for HBV DNA (14.9%), and 19 newborns tested positive for HBsAg (10.1%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups with regard to these parameters. However, no statistically significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, birth height, 1- and 8-min Apgar scores, presence of jaundice, other internal and surgical diseases, delivery mode and other birth information were observed when comparing the case group with the control group. Furthermore, there were no fetal malformations or stillbirths in the two groups. In the HBV DNA-positive fathers prior to pregnancy, antiretroviral therapy resulted in a reduced virus load. Therefore, blocking father-to-infant HBV vertical transmission maximally was important. The use of antiviral nucleoside analogs prior to pregnancy was shown to be safe. When the benefits outweighed the risks, the fathers who wanted to have a child continued to use antiviral therapy. However, the sample size of the present study was small, and an increased number of cases and longer follow-up times are required. In addition, the use of nucleoside analogs requires further in-depth assessment from the point of view of prenatal and postnatal care.
doi:10.3892/etm.2015.2379
PMCID: PMC4473339  PMID: 26136969
nucleoside analogs; efficacy; safety; block; hepatitis B virus; father-to-infant vertical transmission
3.  Quercetin Inhibits Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced H9C2 Cells Hypertrophy by Enhancing PPAR-γ Expression and Suppressing AP-1 Activity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72548.
Background
Quercetin is the most abundant flavonoid in fruit and vegetables and is believed to attenuate cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that quercetin inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by blocking AP-1 (c-fos, c-jun) and activating PPAR-γ signaling pathways.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy. Quercetin therapy reduced blood pressure and markedly reduced the ratio of left ventricular to body weight (LVW/BW) (P<0.05, vs. spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)). In vitro, quercetin also significantly attenuated Ang II-induced H9C2 cells hypertrophy, as indicated by its concentration dependent inhibitory effects on [3H]leucine incorporation into H9C2 cells (64% reduction) and by the reduced hypertrophic surface area in H9C2 cells compared with the Ang II group (P<0.01, vs. Ang II group). Concurrently, we found that PPAR-γ activity was significantly increased in the quercetin-treated group both in vivo and in vitro when analyzed using immunofluorescent or immunohistochemical assays (P<0.05, vs. SHRs or P<0.01, vs. the Ang II group). Conversely, in vivo, AP-1 (c-fos, s-jun) activation was suppressed in the quercetin-treated group, as was the downstream hypertrophy gene, including mRNA levels of ANP and BNP (P<0.05, vs. SHRs). Additionally, both western blotting and real time-PCR demonstrated that PPAR-γ protein and mRNA were increased in the myocardium and AP-1 protein and mRNA were significantly decreased in the quercetin-treated group (P<0.05, vs. SHRs). Furthermore, western blotting and real time-PCR analyses also showed that transfection with PPAR-γ siRNA significantly increased AP-1 signaling and reversed the effects of quercetin inhibition on mRNA expression levels of genes such as ANP and BNP in hypertrophic H9C2 cells.
Conclusions
Our data indicate that quercetin may inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by enhancing PPAR-γ expression and by suppressing the AP-1 signaling pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072548
PMCID: PMC3769399  PMID: 24039778
4.  Dimethyl 3,3′-(phenyl­methyl­ene)bis­(1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate) 
In the title compound, C27H22N2O4, the two indole ring systems are approximately perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 84.5 (5)° between their planes; the benzene ring is twisted with respect to the two indole ring systems at angles of 78.5 (5) and 86.5 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, and C—H⋯π inter­actions into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813024471
PMCID: PMC3790385  PMID: 24098207
5.  Diethyl 3,3′-(phenyl­methyl­ene)bis­(1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate) 
In the title compound, C29H26N2O4, the benzene ring is twisted by 73.5 (5) and 84.9 (3)° with respect to the mean planes of the two indole ring systems; the mean planes of the indole ring systems are oriented at a dihedral angle of 82.0 (5)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812036239
PMCID: PMC3435799  PMID: 22969645
6.  Benzaldehyde thio­semicarbazone 
The title compound, C8H9N3S, contains two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. One mol­ecule is close to being planar (r.m.s. deviation from the mean plane = 0.06 Å for the non-H atoms), while the other exhibits a dihedral angle of 21.7 (1)° between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the thio­semicarbazone unit. Inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to the (010) plane.
doi:10.1107/S1600536808038270
PMCID: PMC2960035  PMID: 21581381
7.  5-(Chloro­meth­yl)quinolin-8-yl acetate 
The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each mol­ecule, the chloro­methyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1) and −79.2 (1)°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloro­methyl groups of the two mol­ecules are 80.9 (2) and −83.1 (2)°.
doi:10.1107/S1600536808021788
PMCID: PMC2962145  PMID: 21203227

Results 1-7 (7)