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1.  Quercetin Inhibits Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced H9C2 Cells Hypertrophy by Enhancing PPAR-γ Expression and Suppressing AP-1 Activity 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72548.
Background
Quercetin is the most abundant flavonoid in fruit and vegetables and is believed to attenuate cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that quercetin inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by blocking AP-1 (c-fos, c-jun) and activating PPAR-γ signaling pathways.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy. Quercetin therapy reduced blood pressure and markedly reduced the ratio of left ventricular to body weight (LVW/BW) (P<0.05, vs. spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)). In vitro, quercetin also significantly attenuated Ang II-induced H9C2 cells hypertrophy, as indicated by its concentration dependent inhibitory effects on [3H]leucine incorporation into H9C2 cells (64% reduction) and by the reduced hypertrophic surface area in H9C2 cells compared with the Ang II group (P<0.01, vs. Ang II group). Concurrently, we found that PPAR-γ activity was significantly increased in the quercetin-treated group both in vivo and in vitro when analyzed using immunofluorescent or immunohistochemical assays (P<0.05, vs. SHRs or P<0.01, vs. the Ang II group). Conversely, in vivo, AP-1 (c-fos, s-jun) activation was suppressed in the quercetin-treated group, as was the downstream hypertrophy gene, including mRNA levels of ANP and BNP (P<0.05, vs. SHRs). Additionally, both western blotting and real time-PCR demonstrated that PPAR-γ protein and mRNA were increased in the myocardium and AP-1 protein and mRNA were significantly decreased in the quercetin-treated group (P<0.05, vs. SHRs). Furthermore, western blotting and real time-PCR analyses also showed that transfection with PPAR-γ siRNA significantly increased AP-1 signaling and reversed the effects of quercetin inhibition on mRNA expression levels of genes such as ANP and BNP in hypertrophic H9C2 cells.
Conclusions
Our data indicate that quercetin may inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by enhancing PPAR-γ expression and by suppressing the AP-1 signaling pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072548
PMCID: PMC3769399  PMID: 24039778
2.  Dimethyl 3,3′-(phenyl­methyl­ene)bis­(1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate) 
In the title compound, C27H22N2O4, the two indole ring systems are approximately perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 84.5 (5)° between their planes; the benzene ring is twisted with respect to the two indole ring systems at angles of 78.5 (5) and 86.5 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, and C—H⋯π inter­actions into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813024471
PMCID: PMC3790385  PMID: 24098207
3.  Diethyl 3,3′-(phenyl­methyl­ene)bis­(1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate) 
In the title compound, C29H26N2O4, the benzene ring is twisted by 73.5 (5) and 84.9 (3)° with respect to the mean planes of the two indole ring systems; the mean planes of the indole ring systems are oriented at a dihedral angle of 82.0 (5)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812036239
PMCID: PMC3435799  PMID: 22969645
4.  Benzaldehyde thio­semicarbazone 
The title compound, C8H9N3S, contains two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. One mol­ecule is close to being planar (r.m.s. deviation from the mean plane = 0.06 Å for the non-H atoms), while the other exhibits a dihedral angle of 21.7 (1)° between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the thio­semicarbazone unit. Inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to the (010) plane.
doi:10.1107/S1600536808038270
PMCID: PMC2960035  PMID: 21581381
5.  5-(Chloro­meth­yl)quinolin-8-yl acetate 
The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each mol­ecule, the chloro­methyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1) and −79.2 (1)°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloro­methyl groups of the two mol­ecules are 80.9 (2) and −83.1 (2)°.
doi:10.1107/S1600536808021788
PMCID: PMC2962145  PMID: 21203227

Results 1-5 (5)