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1.  The Role of Barium Swallow Pharyngoesophagography in the Management of the Globus Pharyngeus: Our Ten Years Local Experience of Asian Population 
Patients with globus pharyngeus referred for barium swallow pharyngoesophagography in a local hospital from 1/7/1999 to 30/6/2009 were identified. Their fluoroscopic images were reviewed, and their outcomes were used as gold standard. A total of 908 patients with globus pharyngeus were referred for barium swallow in the period. There were 783 patients with normal barium swallow and 125 patients with abnormal barium swallow findings. All patients aged below 30 years had normal barium swallow result and unremarkable follow up. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow were 25.6 and 97.5% respectively; and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 61.5 and 89.1% respectively. The overall accuracy was 87.6%. Barium swallow is of limited diagnostic value in patients with typical globus pharyngeus, and it is not recommended in these patients, especially with young age.
PMCID: PMC3918285  PMID: 24533375
Barium swallow pharyngoesophagography; Globus pharyngeus
2.  MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Lactating Mammary Gland in Divergent Phenotype Swine Breeds 
MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a key role in development and specific biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Extensive studies of mammary miRNAs have been performed in different species and tissues. However, little is known about porcine mammary gland miRNAs. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the lactating mammary gland in two distinct pig breeds, Jinhua and Yorkshire. Many miRNAs were detected as significantly differentially expressed between the two libraries. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, many are known to be related to mammary gland development and lactation by interacting with putative target genes in previous studies. These findings suggest that miRNA expression patterns may contribute significantly to target mRNA regulation and influence mammary gland development and peak lactation performance. The data we obtained provide useful information about the roles of miRNAs in the biological processes of lactation and the mechanisms of target gene expression and regulation.
PMCID: PMC4307312  PMID: 25580536
microRNA sequencing; mammary gland; swine
3.  MicroRNA-33b Suppresses Migration and Invasion by Targeting c-Myc in Osteosarcoma Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115300.
MicroRNAs have emerged as fundamental regulators in gene expression through silencing gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational levels. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor and is characterized by complex genetic changes and resistance to conventional treatments. In our study, the role of miR-33b in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma was investigated. Our results showed that miR-33b was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma tissue and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-33b significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Moreover, we also showed that c-Myc was negatively regulated by miR-33b at the posttranscriptional level, via a specific target site within the 3′UTR. Overexpression of c-Myc impaired miR-33b-induced inhibition of proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma cells. The expression of c-Myc was frequently downregulated in osteosarcoma tumors and cell lines and was inversely correlated with miR-33b expression. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-33b inhibits osteosarcoma cells migration and invasion by targeting the c-Myc gene, acting as tumor suppressor. The findings of this study contribute to current understanding of the functions of miR-33b in osteosarcoma.
PMCID: PMC4278906  PMID: 25546234
4.  Pulsed laser deposition of single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 core/shell nanowires 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):650.
Single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CI/CIGS) core/shell nanowires are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires are made up of single-crystalline CI cores surrounded by single-crystalline CIGS shells. The CI/CIGS nanowires are grown at a considerably low temperature (350°C ~ 450°C) by vapor-liquid-solid mode combined with vapor-solid mode. The distribution density of the nanowires increases with the increasing of the deposition duration, and the substrate temperature determines the lengths of the nanowires. The U-V absorption spectra of the CIGS thin films with and without the CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires demonstrate that the CI/CIGS nanowires can remarkably enhance the absorption of CIGS thin films in the spectrum range of 300 to 900 nm.
61.46. + w; 61.41.e; 81.15.Fg; 81.07.b
PMCID: PMC4266518  PMID: 25520597
Pulsed laser deposition; Nickel catalyst; CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2; core/shell nanowires; Light absorption
5.  High SHIP2 Expression Indicates Poor Survival in Colorectal Cancer 
Disease Markers  2014;2014:218968.
SH2-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), which generally regulates insulin signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, and receptor endocytosis, has been suggested to play a significant role in tumor development and progression. However, the associations between SHIP2 expression and the clinical features to evaluate its clinicopathologic significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been determined yet. In the present study, one-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis with CRC tissue microarrays (TMA) were employed to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of SHIP2 in CRC. The results showed that SHIP2 expression in the mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher in CRC tissues than that in corresponding noncancerous tissues (both P < 0.05). The expression of SHIP2 protein in CRC was related to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.036), distant metastasis (P = 0.001), and overall survival (P = 0.009). Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multifactor analysis suggested that high SHIP2 protein level (P = 0.040) and positive distant metastasis (P = 0.048) were critically associated with the unfavorable survival of CRC patients. The findings suggested that SHIP2 may be identified as a useful prognostic marker in CRC and targeting CRC may provide novel strategy for CRC treatment.
PMCID: PMC4265379  PMID: 25525286
6.  Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,3′-[(3-nitro­phen­yl)methyl­ene]bis­(1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate) ethanol monosolvate 
In the title compound, the planes of the two indole ring systems are approximately perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 89.3 (5)°.
In the title compound, C27H21N3O6·C2H5OH, the indole ring systems are approximately perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 89.3 (5)°; the plane of the benzene ring is oriented with respect to the indole ring systems at 49.9 (5) and 73.4 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯π inter­actions into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. A void of 33.0 (7) Å3 is observed in the crystal structure. The solvent ethanol molecule acts as a donor, forming an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, reinforcing the framework structure.
PMCID: PMC4257280  PMID: 25484748
indole; crystal structure; MRI contrast agent
7.  Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,3′-[(4-chloro­phen­yl)methyl­ene]bis­(1H-indole-2-carboxyl­ate) 
In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers, which are linked by a further N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming chains along [100]. There are intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions present, the latter linking the chains to form a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure.
In the title compound, C27H21ClN2O4, the mean planes of the two indole ring systems (r.m.s. deviations = 0.021 and 0.024 Å) are approximately perpendicular to one another, with a dihedral angle of 79.54 (12)°. The benzene ring is twisted with respect to the mean planes of the two indole ring systems at angles of 80.14 (15) and 86.30 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 2(18) ring motif. The dimers are linked by a further N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming chains along [100]. There are intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions present, the latter linking the chains to form a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure.
PMCID: PMC4257187  PMID: 25484668
crystal structure; indole; bis-indolymethane; MRI contrast agent; N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds; C—H⋯π inter­actions
8.  Furazolidone-based triple and quadruple eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(32):11415-11421.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of furazolidone-based triple and quadruple therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in a multi-center randomized controlled trial.
METHODS: A total of 720 H. pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer disease were enrolled at 10 different hospitals in Jiangxi province in China. The patients were randomly assigned to four treatment groups as follows: patients in Groups 1 and 3 received rabeprazole (10 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg) and furazolidone (100 mg) twice daily for 7 and 10 d, respectively; patients in Groups 2 and 4 received rabeprazole (10 mg), bismuth (220 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg) and furazolidone (100 mg) twice daily for 7 and 10 d, respectively. The primary outcome measure was H. pylori eradication rate 4 wk after treatment by intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis, while the secondary outcome measures were symptom and sign changes at the end of treatment and 4 wk after the end of treatment, as well as the proportion of patients who developed adverse events.
RESULTS: The demographic data of the four groups were not significantly different. Overall, 666 patients completed the scheme and were re-assessed with the 13C-urea breath test. The intention-to-treat analysis of the H. pylori eradication rates in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 74.44%, 82.78%, 78.89% and 86.11%, respectively. The H. pylori eradication rate in Group 4 was significantly higher than that in Group 1. According to the per protocol analysis, the H. pylori eradication rates in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 81.21%, 89.22%, 85.54% and 92.26%, respectively. The H. pylori eradication rate in Group 4 was significantly higher than that in Group 1. The number of adverse events was 15 (8.3%), 16 (8.9%), 15 (8.3%) and 17 (9.4%) in Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, including dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, skin rash, itchy skin, and malaise. The symptoms were relieved without special treatment in all of the patients.
CONCLUSION: Both 7- and 10-d quadruple furazolidone-based therapies achieve satisfactory H. pylori eradication rates.
PMCID: PMC4145784  PMID: 25170230
Helicobacter pylori infection; Furazolidone; Treatment; Eradication
9.  Intralipid Decreases Apolipoprotein M Levels and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105681.
Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels.
To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs) levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR) were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array.
Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8) was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin.
These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC4140822  PMID: 25144649
10.  The Minor Wall-Networks between Monolignols and Interlinked-Phenolics Predominantly Affect Biomass Enzymatic Digestibility in Miscanthus 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105115.
Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H) and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at p<0.05 level in the non-KOH-extractable only, suggesting their tight association to form the minor wall-networks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.
PMCID: PMC4136839  PMID: 25133694
11.  Predictive Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Remission Following Bariatric Surgery: a Meta-analysis 
Obesity Surgery  2014;25:199-208.
Although a few studies have been reported on predictive factors of postoperative diabetes remission, the conclusions remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the preoperative clinical factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission after bariatric surgery.
The Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched. All human studies published in English between 1 January 1992 and 1 September 2013 reporting on the parameters of interest were included.
In total, 15 studies involving 1,753 bariatric surgery patients were selected. Analyses were performed separately for the parameters of interest. T2DM remission was observed to be negatively correlated with age, diabetes duration, insulin use, and HbA1c levels. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and C-peptide levels were positively associated with the remission rate in Asian patients. However, there was no significant association between gender and remission rate.
Patients with younger age, short diabetes duration, better glucose control, and better β cell function were more likely to achieve T2DM remission after bariatric surgery. However, further randomized controlled trials with uniform remission criteria should be conducted to provide more reliable evidence.
PMCID: PMC4297287  PMID: 25103403
Type 2 diabetes; Diabetes remission; Bariatric surgery; Metabolic surgery
12.  ROR1 expression correlated with poor clinical outcome in human ovarian cancer 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5811.
The receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a transmembrane protein belongs to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. This study aimed to examine the expression of ROR1 in human ovarian cancer and investigate the relationship between its expression and the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. In this present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (15 ovarian cancer samples of high FIGO stage, 15 ovarian cancer samples of low FIGO stage and nine normal ovary tissue samples) and immunohistochemistry by tissue microarrays (100 ovarian cancer samples and 50 normal ovary samples) were performed to characterize expression of the ROR1 gene in ovarian cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of ovarian cancer. The results of qPCR and IHC analysis showed that the expression of ROR1 in ovarian cancer was significantly higher than that in normal ovary tissues (all p < 0.05). Survival analysis showed that ROR1 protein expression was one of the independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival and overall survival (both p < 0.05). The data suggest that ROR1 expression is correlated with malignant attributes of ovarian cancer and it may serve as a novel prognostic marker in ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC4108928  PMID: 25056203
13.  Endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of gastric stromal tumors 
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) and laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric stromal tumors arising from the muscularis propria.
METHODS: Out of 62 gastric stromal tumors arising from the muscularis propria, each > 1.5 cm in diameter, 32 were removed by EFR, and 30 were removed by laparoscopic surgery. The tumor expression of CD34, CD117, Dog-1, S-100, and SMA was assessed immunohistochemically. The operative time, complete resection rate, length of hospital stay, incidence of complications, and recurrence rate were compared between the two groups. Continuous data were compared using independent samples t-tests, and categorical data were compared using χ2 tests.
RESULTS: The 32 gastric stromal tumors treated by EFR and the 30 treated by laparoscopic surgery showed similar operative time [20-155 min (mean, 78.5 ± 30.1 min) vs 50-120 min (mean, 80.9 ± 46.7 min), P > 0.05], complete resection rate (100% vs 93.3%, P > 0.05), and length of hospital stay [4-10 d (mean, 5.9 ± 1.4 d) vs 4-19 d (mean, 8.9 ± 3.2 d), P >0.05]. None of the patients treated by EFR experienced complications, whereas two patients treated by laparoscopy required a conversion to laparotomy, and one patient had postoperative gastroparesis. No recurrences were observed in either group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that of the 62 gastric stromal tumors diagnosed by gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasound, six were leiomyomas (SMA-positive), one was a schwannoglioma (S-100 positive), and the remaining 55 were stromal tumors.
CONCLUSION: Some gastric stromal tumors arising from the muscularis propria can be completely removed by EFR. EFR could likely replace surgical or laparoscopic procedures for the removal of gastric stromal tumors.
PMCID: PMC4081700  PMID: 25009400
Gastric stromal tumors; Treatment; Endoscopy; Muscularis propria; Full-thickness resection
14.  Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome 
With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3683573  PMID: 23370180
fetal programming; epigenome; monkey; metabolic syndrome; androgen excess
15.  Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm 
Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.
PMCID: PMC4139875  PMID: 25046750
antibacterial adhesive; DMADDM; S. mutans biofilm; microtensile
16.  Enhancing the light absorbance of polymer solar cells by introducing pulsed laser-deposited CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 nanoparticles 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):308.
Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit current density is improved from 0.77 to 1.20 mA/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra show that the excitons in the polymer are obviously quenched, suggesting that the charge transfer between the P3HT:PCBM and CIGS occurred. The results reveal that the CIGS nanoparticles may exhibit the localized surface plasmon resonance effect just as metallic nanostructures.
61.46. + w; 61.41.e; 81.15.Fg; 81.07.b
PMCID: PMC4067071  PMID: 24994961
CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 nanoparticles; P3HT:PCBM; Pulsed laser deposition; Absorption; Polymer solar cells; Photoluminescence
17.  MicroRNA-mRNA functional pairs for cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(6):285-294.
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Cisplatin is the core of first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Many patients eventually become resistant to cisplatin, diminishing its therapeutic effect. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have critical functions in diverse biological processes. Using miRNA profiling and polymerase chain reaction validation, we identified a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential targets in cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells relative to cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 parental cells. More specifically, our results revealed significant changes in the expression of 13 of 663 miRNAs analyzed, including 11 that were up-regulated and 2 that were down-regulated in SKOV3/DDP cells with or without cisplatin treatment compared with SKOV3 cells with or without cisplatin treatment. miRNA array and mRNA array data were further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the genes ANKRD17, SMC1A, SUMO1, GTF2H1, and TP73, which are involved in DNA damage signaling pathways, are potential targets of miRNAs in promoting cisplatin resistance. This study highlights candidate miRNA-mRNA interactions that may contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC4059866  PMID: 24589211
Ovarian cancer; cisplatin resistance; miRNA; TP73
18.  Imaging Neuronal Populations in Behaving Rodents: Paradigms for Studying Neural Circuits Underlying Behavior in the Mammalian Cortex 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2013;33(45):17631-17640.
Understanding the neural correlates of behavior in the mammalian cortex requires measurements of activity in awake, behaving animals. Rodents have emerged as a powerful model for dissecting the cortical circuits underlying behavior attributable to the convergence of several methods. Genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with viral-mediated or transgenic tools enable chronic monitoring of calcium signals in neuronal populations and subcellular structures of identified cell types. Stable one- and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in awake, behaving animals is now possible using new behavioral paradigms in head-fixed animals, or using novel miniature head-mounted microscopes in freely moving animals. This mini-symposium will highlight recent applications of these methods for studying sensorimotor integration, decision making, learning, and memory in cortical and subcortical brain areas. We will outline future prospects and challenges for identifying the neural underpinnings of task-dependent behavior using cellular imaging in rodents.
PMCID: PMC3818544  PMID: 24198355
19.  Living-donor or deceased-donor liver transplantation for hepatic carcinoma: A case-matched comparison 
AIM: To compare the surgical outcomes between living-donor and deceased-donor liver transplantation in patients with hepatic carcinoma.
METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2010, 257 patients with pathologically confirmed hepatic carcinoma met the eligibility criteria of the study. Forty patients who underwent living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) constituted the LDLT group, and deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT) was performed in 217 patients. Patients in the LDLT group were randomly matched (1:2) to patients who underwent DDLT using a multivariate case-matched method, so 40 patients in the LDLT group and 80 patients in the DDLT group were enrolled into the study. We compared the two groups in terms of clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative complications, long-term cumulative survival and relapse-free survival outcomes. The modified Clavien-Dindo classification system of surgical complications was used to evaluate the severity of perioperative complications. Furthermore, we determined the difference in the overall biliary complication rates in the perioperative and follow-up periods between the LDLT and DDLT groups.
RESULTS: The clinicopathological characteristics of the enrolled patients were comparable between the two groups. The duration of operation was significantly longer (553 min vs 445 min, P < 0.001) in the LDLT group than in the DDLT group. Estimated blood loss (1188 mL vs 1035 mL, P = 0.055) and the proportion of patients with intraoperative transfusion (60.0% vs 43.8%, P = 0.093) were slightly but not significantly greater in the LDLT group. In contrast to DDLT, LDLT was associated with a lower rate of perioperative grade II complications (45.0% vs 65.0%, P = 0.036) but a higher risk of overall biliary complications (27.5% vs 7.5%, P = 0.003). Nonetheless, 21 patients (52.5%) in the LDLT group and 46 patients (57.5%) in the DDLT group experienced perioperative complications, and overall perioperative complication rates were similar between the two groups (P = 0.603). No significant difference was observed in 5-year overall survival (74.1% vs 66.6%, P = 0.372) or relapse-free survival (72.9% vs 70.9%, P = 0.749) between the LDLT and DDLT groups.
CONCLUSION: Although biliary complications were more common in the LDLT group, this group did not show any inferiority in long-term overall survival or relapse-free survival compared with DDLT.
PMCID: PMC3989976  PMID: 24764678
Liver cancer; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver transplantation; Living donor; Survival; Recurrence; Complication
20.  Growth and Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics in Cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94030.
We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N) compounds including nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea, glutamic acid (glu), dialanine (diala) and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5–500 μmol N L−1 for NO3− and NH4+, 0.5–50 μmol N L−1 for urea, 0.5–100 μmol N L−1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5–200 μmol N L−1 for diala) for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d−1 and 1.50±0.05 d−1, respectively). However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3−, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28–0.51 μmol N L−1). N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3−-deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3−-deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3−, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L−1. In NO3−-replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3−-deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth.
PMCID: PMC3977987  PMID: 24710151
21.  Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney: A report of two cases and literature review 
Oncology Letters  2014;7(6):1796-1802.
There have only been a few reports of thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK) to date. In the present study, two patients with TLFCK are reported. Patient 1 was a 65-year-old male exhibiting repeated hematuria and right back pain. No tumors were located in the patient’s thyroid or lungs. The physical examination revealed percussion tenderness over the right kidney region was noticed. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated a right renal pelvic carcinoma, for which the patient underwent a radical right nephrectomy. Patient 2 was a 59-year-old male with a mass in the right kidney, located during a health examination and who exhibited no obvious clinical symptoms. The patient was clinically diagnosed with right renal carcinoma, confirmed by an enhanced CT. The patient underwent a radical right nephrectomy. The clinical features, imaging results, pathology, immune phenotypes, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. The associated literature was also reviewed. The cut surface of each tumor showed gray-white material with a central solid area, including scattered gray-brown necrotic and gray hemorrhagic areas and small cystic cavities. Microscopically, the arrangement of the tumor cells mimicked thyroid follicles with red-stained colloid-like material in the lumen. No renal hilar lymph node involvement was noted. The tumor tissue of patient 1 was immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratin (CK), CK7, and neuron specific enolase; and negative for CK34BE12, synapsin (Syn), CK20, cluster of differentiation 56 (CD56), CD10, Wilm’s tumor-1 (WT-1), CD34, CD57, P53, CD99, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), CD15 and thyroglobulin (TG); with a Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of 30%. The tumor tissue of patient 2 was immunohistochemically positive for vimentin, EMA, CK7 and CK20; and negative for CD56, CD10, WT-1, CD34, CD57, P53, CD117, TTF-1, CD15, CD99, TG, chromogranin A and Syn; with a Ki-67 LI of 20%. TLFCK is a rare renal tumor with low malignancy but medium invasiveness. It morphologically resembles thyroid follicular carcinoma but does not express TTF-1 or TG. Radical nephrectomy can achieve good patient outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4049768  PMID: 24932236
thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney; features; treatment; prognosis
22.  The histone demethylase JMJD1A induces cell migration and invasion by up-regulating the expression of the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 
Oncotarget  2014;5(7):1793-1804.
Patients with neuroblastoma due to N-Myc oncogene amplification have a high frequency of tumor metastasis. However, it is not clear how N-Myc induces cell migration, invasion and metastasis. The histone demethylase JMJD1A activates gene transcription by demethylating the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 (H3K9) at target gene promoters. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 induces lung cancer cell migration and plays a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Here we demonstrated that N-Myc up-regulated the expression of JMJD1A in N-Myc oncogene-amplified human neuroblastoma cells by directly binding to the JMJD1A gene promoter. Affymetrix microarray studies revealed that the gene second most significantly up-regulated by JMJD1A was MALAT1. Consistent with this finding, RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that JMJD1A bound to the MALAT1 gene promoter and demethylated histone H3K9 at the MALAT1 gene promoter. Moreover, JMJD1A and MALAT1 induced, while the small molecule JMJD1A inhibitor DMOG suppressed, neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion. Taken together, our data identify a novel pathway through which N-Myc causes neuroblastoma cell migration and invasion, and provide important evidence for further development of more potent JMJD1A/MALAT1 inhibitors for the prevention of tumor metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4039110  PMID: 24742640
neuroblastoma; N-Myc; JMJD1A; histone demethylation; MALAT1
23.  Electrical and optical properties of binary CNx nanocone arrays synthesized by plasma-assisted reaction deposition 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):135.
Light-absorbing and electrically conductive binary CNx nanocone (CNNC) arrays have been fabricated using a glow discharge plasma-assisted reaction deposition method. The intact CNNCs with amorphous structure and central nickel-filled pipelines could be vertically and neatly grown on nickel-covered substrates according to the catalyst-leading mode. The morphologies and composition of the as-grown CNNC arrays can be well controlled by regulating the methane/nitrogen mixture inlet ratio, and their optical absorption and resistivity strongly depend on their morphologies and composition. Beside large specific surface area, the as-grown CNNC arrays demonstrate high wideband absorption, good conduction, and nice wettability to polymer absorbers.
PMCID: PMC3994411  PMID: 24650350
CNx nanocone arrays; Wideband absorption; Electrical conduction; Wettability to polymer absorbers; 81.07.Bc; 61.46.Np; 52.77.Dq
24.  Genetic Algorithm and Graph Theory Based Matrix Factorization Method for Online Friend Recommendation 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:162148.
Online friend recommendation is a fast developing topic in web mining. In this paper, we used SVD matrix factorization to model user and item feature vector and used stochastic gradient descent to amend parameter and improve accuracy. To tackle cold start problem and data sparsity, we used KNN model to influence user feature vector. At the same time, we used graph theory to partition communities with fairly low time and space complexity. What is more, matrix factorization can combine online and offline recommendation. Experiments showed that the hybrid recommendation algorithm is able to recommend online friends with good accuracy.
PMCID: PMC3976802  PMID: 24757410
25.  Associations between Two Polymorphisms (FokI and BsmI) of Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Asian Population: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e89325.
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are possibly involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the results to date have been inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the association between 2 polymorphisms (FokI and BsmI) of the VDR gene and T1DM in the Asian population.
Literature was retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, CBM, Embase and Chinese databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random or fixed effect model.
In total, 20 papers (BsmI: 13 studies; FokI: 13 studies) were included. In contrast to the FokI polymorphism, the BsmI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the Asian population (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13–1.91, P = 0.004 for B vs. b). Upon stratification by regional geography, an increased risk of T1DM in association with the BsmI polymorphism was observed in the East Asian population (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38–2.83, P<0.001 for B vs. b), whereas the FokI polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the West Asian population (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12–1.88, P = 0.004 for F vs. f).
Our meta-analysis suggests that the BsmI polymorphism may be a risk factor for susceptibility to T1DM in the East Asian population, and the FokI polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of T1DM in the West Asian population. However, because the study size was limited, further studies are essential to confirm our results.
PMCID: PMC3945782  PMID: 24603699

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