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1.  Tandem Duplication and Random Loss for mitogenome rearrangement in Symphurus (Teleost: Pleuronectiformes) 
BMC Genomics  2015;16(1):355.
The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit highly diversified types of large-scale gene rearrangements. We have reported that the mitogenomes of Crossorhombus azureus (Bothidae), Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Cynoglossus fishes (Cynoglossidae) show different types of gene rearrangements.
In the present study, the complete mitogenomes of two Symphurus species (Cynoglossidae), Symphurus plagiusa and Symphurus orientalis, were determined. The gene order in the S. plagiusa mitogenome is the same as that of a typical vertebrate (without any gene rearrangements). Surprisingly, large-scale gene rearrangements have occurred in S. orientalis. In the rearranged fragment from the control region (CR) to the WANCY tRNA cluster (tRNA cluster of tRNA-W, tRNA-A, tRNA-N, tRNA-C and tRNA-Y) in the S. orientalis mitogenome, tRNA-V and tRNA-M have been translocated to the 3’ end of the 16S rRNA gene, with six large intergenic spacers over 20 bp in length. In addition, an origin for light-strand replication (OL) structure that is typically located in the WANCY region was absent in both the S. plagiusa and S. orientalis mitogenomes. It is generally recognized that a sequence in the WANCY region that encodes tRNAs forms a hairpin structure (OL-like structure) and can act as the OL when the typical locus is lost. Moreover, an additional OL-like structure was identified near the control region in the S. plagiusa mitogenome.
The positions of the intergenic spacers and the rearranged genes of the S. orientalis mitogenome strongly indicate that the mechanism underlying the rearrangement of this mitogenome was Tandem Duplication and Random Loss. Additionally, two OL-like regions substituting for the typical locus were found in the S. plagiusa mitogenome. We speculate that the ancestral mitogenomes of S. plagiusa and S. orientalis also had this characteristic, such that if both OL-like structures functioned during mitochondrial replication, they could initiate duplicate replications of the light strand (L-strand), leading to duplication of the region between the two structures. We consider that this mechanism may account for the gene duplication that occurred during the gene rearrangement process in the evolution of the ancestral mitogenome to the S. orientalis mitogenome.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1581-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4430869  PMID: 25943439
Flatfish; Mitogenome; Gene rearrangement; OL-like structure; Mitochondrial replication
2.  A novel model of double replications and random loss accounts for rearrangements in the Mitogenome of Samariscus latus (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes) 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):352.
Although more than one thousand complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences have been determined in teleostean fishes, only a few gene rearrangements have been observed, and genome-scale rearrangements are even rarer. However, flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) have been identified as having diverse types of mitochondrial gene rearrangements. It has been reported that tongue soles and the blue flounder mitogenomes exhibit different types of large-scale gene rearrangements.
In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of another flatfish, Samariscus latus, was sequenced, and genome-scale rearrangements were observed. The genomic features of this flounder are different from those of any other studied vertebrates, including flatfish species too. The mitogenome of S. latus is characterized by the duplication and translocation of the control region (CR). The genes located between the two CRs are divided into two clusters in which their relative orders are maintained.
We propose a “Double Replications and Random Loss” model to explain the rearrangement events in S. latus mitogenome. This model consists of the following steps. First, the CR was duplicated and translocated. Subsequently, double replications of the mitogenome were successively initiated from the two CRs, leading to the duplication of the genes between the two CRs. Finally, one of each pair of duplicated genes was lost in a random event.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-352) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4035078  PMID: 24885702
Flatfish; Flounder; Mitochondrial recombination; Gene order; Molecular rvolution
3.  Complete mitogenome sequences of four flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) reveal a novel gene arrangement of L-strand coding genes 
Few mitochondrial gene rearrangements are found in vertebrates and large-scale changes in these genomes occur even less frequently. It is difficult, therefore, to propose a mechanism to account for observed changes in mitogenome structure. Mitochondrial gene rearrangements are usually explained by the recombination model or tandem duplication and random loss model.
In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of four flatfishes, Crossorhombus azureus (blue flounder), Grammatobothus krempfi, Pleuronichthys cornutus, and Platichthys stellatus were determined. A striking finding is that eight genes in the C. azureus mitogenome are located in a novel position, differing from that of available vertebrate mitogenomes. Specifically, the ND6 and seven tRNA genes (the Q, A, C, Y, S1, E, P genes) encoded by the L-strand have been translocated to a position between tRNA-T and tRNA-F though the original order of the genes is maintained.
These special features are used to suggest a mechanism for C. azureus mitogenome rearrangement. First, a dimeric molecule was formed by two monomers linked head-to-tail, then one of the two sets of promoters lost function and the genes controlled by the disabled promoters became pseudogenes, non-coding sequences, and even were lost from the genome. This study provides a new gene-rearrangement model that accounts for the events of gene-rearrangement in a vertebrate mitogenome.
PMCID: PMC3751894  PMID: 23962312
4.  Pause-melting misalignment: a novel model for the birth and motif indel of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial genome 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:103.
Tandem repeats (TRs) in the mitochondrial (mt) genome control region have been documented in a wide variety of vertebrate species. The mechanism by which repeated tracts originate and undergo duplication and deletion, however, remains unclear.
We analyzed DNA sequences of mt genome TRs (mtTRs) in the ridged-eye flounder (Pleuronichthys cornutus), and characterized DNA sequences of mtTRs from other vertebrates using the data available in GenBank. Tandem repeats are concentrated in the control regions; however, we found approximately 16.6% of the TRs elsewhere in the mt genome. The flounder mtTRs possess three motif types with hypervariable characteristics at the 3′ end of the control region (CR).
Based on our analysis of this larger dataset of mtTR sequences, we propose a novel model of Pause Melting Misalignment (PMM) to describe the birth and motif indel of tandem repeats. PMM is activated during a pause event in mitochondrial replication in which a dynamic competition between the nascent (N) heavy strand and the displaced (D) heavy strand may lead to the melting of the N-strand from the template (T) light strand. When mispairing occurs during rebinding of the N-strand, one or several motifs can be inserted or deleted in both strands during the next round of mt-replication or repair. This model can explain the characteristics of TRs in available vertebrate mt genomes.
PMCID: PMC3599147  PMID: 23414101
5.  Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations, as revealed by the analysis of mitochondrial control region sequences 
Genetics and Molecular Biology  2010;33(2):379-389.
Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis were investigated using sequence data of the complete mitochondrial control region (CR). Fragments of 993 bp of the CR were sequenced for 93 individuals from five localities over most of the species' range in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. There were 84 variable sites defining 68 haplotypes. Haplotype diversity levels were very high (0.95 ± 0.03-0.99 ± 0.02) in F. chinensis populations, whereas those of nucleotide diversity were moderate to low (0.66 ± 0.36%-0.84 ± 0.46%). Analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (FST ) revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the range of F. chinensis. Mismatch distribution, estimates of population parameters and neutrality tests revealed that the significant fluctuations and shallow coalescence of mtDNA genealogies observed were coincident with estimated demographic parameters and neutrality tests, in implying important past-population size fluctuations or range expansion. Isolation with Migration (IM) coalescence results suggest that F. chinensis, distributed along the coasts of northern China and the Korean Peninsula (about 1000 km apart), diverged recently, the estimated time-split being 12,800 (7,400-18,600) years ago.
PMCID: PMC3036872  PMID: 21637498
Fenneropenaeus chinensis; mtDNA; isolation with migration (IM) coalescence; historical demography; population expansion

Results 1-5 (5)