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1.  Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:7910.
The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants.
doi:10.1038/srep07910
PMCID: PMC4300473  PMID: 25604334
2.  Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(6):2687-2690.
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma, previously referred to as clear cell sarcoma-like gastrointestinal tumor (CCSLGT) and also commonly reported in the literature as clear cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract (CCS-GI). The current study reports a case of GNET arising in the stomach of a 17-year-old male, who presented with symptoms of fatigue, anemia and low temperature. Examination with positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed a soft tissue mass in the gastric antrum. Subsequently, radical distal gastric resection was performed, and the mass measured 6.0×4.0×3.5 cm3. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor cells were arranged in nests and focally formed fascicular, pseudopapillary, pseudoalveolar and rosette-like growth patterns. Osteoclast-like giant cells were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, vimentin and BCL-2, and negative for HMB45, Melan-A, CD117, CD34 and CD99. Additionally, the osteoclast-like giant cells were positive for CD68. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated EWSR1 gene rearrangement. After 10 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was observed. As GNET is currently classified differently and under various names in the literature, the information provided by this case study and review is predicted to be useful towards the accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this rare tumor type.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2524
PMCID: PMC4214465  PMID: 25364450
malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor; stomach; S-100 protein; HMB45; EWSR1
3.  Paracrine and autocrine signals induce and maintain mesenchymal and stem cell states in the breast 
Cell  2011;145(6):926-940.
Summary
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with the acquisition of motility, invasiveness and self-renewal traits. During both normal development and tumor pathogenesis this change in cell phenotype is induced by contextual signals that epithelial cells receive from their microenvironment. The signals that are responsible for inducing an EMT and maintaining the resulting cellular state have been unclear. We describe three signaling pathways, involving Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β as well as canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling, that collaborate to induce activation of the EMT program and thereafter function in an autocrine fashion to maintain the resulting mesenchymal state. Downregulation of endogenously synthesized inhibitors of autocrine signals in epithelial cells enables the induction of the EMT program. Conversely, disruption of autocrine signaling by added inhibitors of these pathways inhibits migration and self-renewal in primary mammary epithelial cells, and inhibits tumorigenicity and metastasis by their transformed derivatives.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.04.029
PMCID: PMC3930331  PMID: 21663795
4.  Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer 
AIM: To assess the diagnostic value of using magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 in the detection of gastric precancerous lesions.
METHODS: Ninety-five patients who were treated for abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain, bloating, and acid reflux at our hospital from January 2010 to December 2011 were included in the study. An ordinary gastroscopic procedure was initially performed to select the lesions. All subjects underwent magnifying chromoendoscopy to observe morphological changes of gastric pits. Biopsies were then taken from each area of interest and sent for pathological examination and detection of PCNA and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry. An immunoreactivity score for each lesion was calculated. Based on immunoreactivity scores, immunohistochemical staining was then considered.
RESULTS: Compared to intestinal metaplasia, gastric pits were more diverse in size, more irregular in shape, and more disorderly in arrangement in moderate and severe dysplasia. PCNA and p53 expression was significantly higher in precancerous lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) than in chronic gastritis. PCNA expression showed an upward trend in types A-F pits. The number of cases that showed strong PCNA positivity increased significantly with an increase in the severity of lesions. Rank sum test for independent samples showed that p53 expression was significantly higher in types E and F pits than in types A-D pits (H = 33.068, P = 0.000). Rank sum test for independent samples showed that PCNA expression was significantly higher in types E and F pits than in types A-D pits (H = 31.791, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The presence of types E and F pits, in which p53 and PCNA are highly expressed, is highly suggestive of the occurrence of early cancer, and patients developing these changes should be closely followed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i3.404
PMCID: PMC3554827  PMID: 23372365
Magnifying chromoendoscopy; Gastric precancerous lesions; p53; Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; Early gastric cancer
5.  Transgene expression and differentiation of baculovirus-transduced adipose-derived stem cells from dystrophin-utrophin double knock-out mouse☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(22):1695-1702.
In this study, recombinant baculovirus carrying the microdystrophin and β-catenin genes was used to infect adipose-derived stem cells from a dystrophin-utrophin double knock-out mouse. Results showed that, after baculovirus transgene infection, microdystrophin and β-catenin genes were effectively expressed in adipose-derived stem cells from the dystrophin-utrophin double knock-out mouse. Furthermore, this transgenic expression promoted adipose-derived stem cell differentiation into muscle cells, but inhibited adipogenic differentiation. In addition, protein expression related to the microdystrophin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was upregulated. Our experimental findings indicate that baculovirus can successfully deliver the microdystrophin and β-catenin genes into adipose-derived stem cells, and the microdystrophin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in myogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells in the dystrophin-utrophin double knock-out mouse.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.22.003
PMCID: PMC4302449  PMID: 25624790
baculovirus; adipose-derived stem cells; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; microdystrophin; β-catenin; myogenesis; gene therapy; neural regeneration
6.  Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations, as revealed by the analysis of mitochondrial control region sequences 
Genetics and Molecular Biology  2010;33(2):379-389.
Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis were investigated using sequence data of the complete mitochondrial control region (CR). Fragments of 993 bp of the CR were sequenced for 93 individuals from five localities over most of the species' range in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. There were 84 variable sites defining 68 haplotypes. Haplotype diversity levels were very high (0.95 ± 0.03-0.99 ± 0.02) in F. chinensis populations, whereas those of nucleotide diversity were moderate to low (0.66 ± 0.36%-0.84 ± 0.46%). Analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (FST ) revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the range of F. chinensis. Mismatch distribution, estimates of population parameters and neutrality tests revealed that the significant fluctuations and shallow coalescence of mtDNA genealogies observed were coincident with estimated demographic parameters and neutrality tests, in implying important past-population size fluctuations or range expansion. Isolation with Migration (IM) coalescence results suggest that F. chinensis, distributed along the coasts of northern China and the Korean Peninsula (about 1000 km apart), diverged recently, the estimated time-split being 12,800 (7,400-18,600) years ago.
doi:10.1590/S1415-47572010005000019
PMCID: PMC3036872  PMID: 21637498
Fenneropenaeus chinensis; mtDNA; isolation with migration (IM) coalescence; historical demography; population expansion
7.  KIF21A mutations in two Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:2062-2070.
Purpose
Two Chinese families (XT and YT) with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) were identified. The purpose of this study was to determine if previously described Homo sapiens kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutations were responsible for CFEOM in these two Chinese pedigrees.
Methods
Clinical characterization and genetic studies were performed. Microsatellite genotyping for linkage to the CFEOM1 and CFEOM3 loci was performed. The probands were screened for KIF21A mutations by bidirectional direct sequencing. Once a mutation was detected in the proband, all other participating family members and 100 unrelated control normal individuals were screened for the mutation.
Results
All affected individuals in family XT shared the common manifestations of CFEOM1. Family YT had two affected individuals, a mother and a daughter. The daughter had CFEOM1, while her mother never had congential ptosis but did have limited extraocular movements status post strabismus surgery. Haplotype analysis revealed that pedigree XT was linked to the 12q CFEOM1 locus and the affected memberes harbored the second most common missense mutation in KIF21A (2,861G>A, R954Q). Family YT harbored the most common missense de novo mutation in KIF21A (2,860C>T, R954W). Both of these mutations have been previously described.
Conclusions
The observation of these two KIF21A mutations in a Chinese pedigree underscores the homogeneity of these mutations as a cause of CFEOM1 and CFEOM3 across ethnic divisions.
PMCID: PMC2965570  PMID: 21042561

Results 1-7 (7)