Angiotensin II (Ang II), known a potent vasoactive substance in the renin-angiotensin system in the brain, plays a critical role in systemic blood pressure control. However, increasing evidence indicated that the physiological role of Ang II go beyond its vasoactive effect. In the present study, we demonstrated that Ang II type-1 receptor (AT1R) and type-2 receptor (AT2R) were expressed in primary rat hippocampal neuronal stem cells (NSCs). Treatment of rat hippocampal NSCs with Ang II increased cell proliferation. Pretreatment of NSCs with specific AT2R, but not AT1R, antagonist significantly suppressed Ang II-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, Ang II stimulated ERK and Akt phosphorylation in NSCs. Pretreatment of MEK inhibitor, but not PI3K inhibitor, inhibited Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation as well as cell proliferation. In addition, stimulation of NSCs with Ang II decreased expression of KV 1.2/KV 3.1 channels and blocked K+ currents which lie downstream of ERK activation. Taken together, these findings underpin the role of AT2R as a novel target that regulates cell proliferation mediated by Ang II with implications for therapeutic intervention for regulation of neurogenesis.
Neurohumoral disturbances characterize chronic heart failure (CHF) and are reflected, in part, as impairment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic function. However the mechanisms that trigger these neurohumoral abnormalities in CHF are not clear. We hypothesized that the BRS is blunted early in CHF and that the humoral effects occur later and contribute to progressive loss of cardiovascular control in CHF. We assessed the BRS (bpm/mmHg) and recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in four groups of conscious rabbits at varying time intervals; control, one week CHF, two week CHF and three week CHF. CHF was induced by ventricular pacing at 360 bpm and was assessed by echocardiography. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by an implanted telemetric device and RSNA through an implanted electrode. A significant fall in the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and an increase in LVESD & LVEDD was observed in all CHF groups. The BRS was significantly reduced in all the CHF groups with no significant change in the basal RSNA(% of maximum) after 1 week of pacing, a small but insignificant rise in RSNA was seen at 2 weeks and a significant rise in RSNA was observed at 3 weeks. AT1 receptor protein (Western Blot) and mRNA (RT-PCR) expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) exhibited a progressive increase with the duration of CHF, reaching significance after 3 weeks, the same time point in which RSNA was significantly elevated. These data are the first to examine early changes in central AT1 receptors in CHF and suggest that the fall in BRS and hemodynamic changes occur early in the development of CHF followed by sympatho-excitation and over-expression of AT1 receptors with the progression of CHF causing further impairment of cardiovascular control.
Baroreflex; heart failure; sympathetic activity; angiotensin II receptor
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by increased sympathetic tone. The glutamatergic input in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which is a key region involved in sympathetic outflow, seems not to be involved in the generation of sympathetic tone in the normal state. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the RVLM glutamate receptors in generation of sympathetic tone in CHF. CHF was produced by left coronary artery ligation. Bilateral microinjection of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYN), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D-AP5, or the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX into the RVLM dose-dependently reduced resting blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity in CHF but not in sham rats. Picoinjection of KYN (100 pmol in 5 nl) significantly decreased the basal discharge by 47% in 25 RVLM presympathetic neurons in CHF rats, In contrast, KYN had no effect on the discharge in all 22 RVLM presympathetic neurons tested in sham rats. These data suggest that upregulated glutamate receptors, including NMDA and non-NMDA, in the RVLM are involved in tonic control of elevated sympathetic tone in CHF.
sympathoexcitation; glutamate receptors; micro/picoinjection; extracellular recording; presympathetic neuron
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been suggested to be involved in the central regulation of autonomic function. During chronic heart failure (CHF), elevated central angiotensin II signaling contributes to the sustained increase of sympathetic outflow. This is accompanied by a downregulation of ACE2 in the brain. We hypothesized that central overexpression of ACE2 decreases sympathetic outflow and enhances baroreflex function in CHF. Transgenic mice overexpressing human ACE2 selectively in the brain (SYN-hACE2) and wild type littermates (WT) were used. CHF was induced by permanent coronary artery ligation (CAL). Four weeks after CAL, both WT and SYN-hACE2 mice exhibited a significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (<40%). A slight decrease in MAP was found only in SYN-hACE2 mice. Compared with WT mice with CHF, brain-selective ACE2 overexpression attenuated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; decreased urinary norepinephrine excretion; baseline RSNA (WT CHF: 71.6±7.6% Max vs. SYN-hACE2 CHF: 49.3±6.1% Max); and enhanced baroreflex sensitivity (Maximum Slope: WT Sham: 1.61±0.16 vs. SYN-hACE2 CHF: 1.51±0.17%/mmHg). Chronic subcutaneous blockade of mas receptor increased RSNA in SYN-hACE2 mice with CHF (A779: 67.3±5.8% vs. vehicle: 46.4±3.6% of Max). An up-regulation in angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression was detected in medullary nuclei in WT CHF mice, which was significantly attenuated in SYN-hACE2 mice with CHF. These data suggest that central ACE2 overexpression exerts a potential protective effect in CHF through attenuating sympathetic outflow. The mechanism for this effect involves angiotensin (1-7) mas signaling as well as a decrease in AT1R signaling in the medulla.
heart failure; angiotensin converting enzyme 2; angiotensin II; angiotensin I (1-7); autonomic function; baroreflex
In the current experiment, we determined AT2R and AT1R protein expression by Western blot analysis in developing normal mice. The results indicate that, (1) in all detected brain regions and in the spinal cord, adult mice exhibited significantly higher AT2R expression and lower AT1R expression in total protein extracts compared to fetuses and neonates; (2) other major organs, including heart, lung, liver, and kidney, exhibited the same expression pattern as the brain and spinal cord; (3) reciprocal changes in AT2R and AT1R expression were found in the total protein extracts from the brainstems of mice from one day prenatal to six weeks of age. There was a negative correlation between AT2R and AT1R protein expression; (4) in both membrane and cytosolic fractions from the brainstem, adult mice exhibited higher AT2R and lower AT1R expression than did fetuses and neonates; (5) in the brainstem, there were no significant differences in AT2R and AT1R mRNA levels among fetal, neonatal, and adult mice. The above results reconfirmed our previous finding in rats that adult animals have higher AT2R and lower AT1R expression compared to fetuses and neonates. These data imply an involvement of AT1R in fetal development and of AT2R in adult function.
Angiotensin receptors; development; protein expression; mRNA expression
In chronic heart failure (CHF), arterial baroreflex function is impaired, in part, by activation of the central renin-angiotensin system. A metabolite of Angiotensin II (Ang II), Ang-(1–7), has been shown to exhibit cardiovascular effects that are in opposition to that of Ang II. However, the action of Ang-(1–7) on sympathetic outflow and baroreflex function is not well understood, especially in CHF. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1–7) on baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious rabbits with CHF. We hypothesized that central Ang-(1–7) would improve baroreflex function in CHF. Ang-(1–7) (2 nmol/1 μl/hour) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (1 μl/hour) was infused by an osmotic mini-pump for 4 days in sham and pacing-induced CHF rabbits (n=3–6/group). Ang-(1–7) treatment had no effects in sham rabbits but reduced HR and increased baroreflex gain (7.4±1.5 bpm/mm Hg vs. 2.5±0.4 bpm/mm Hg, P<0.05) in CHF rabbits. The Ang-(1–7) antagonist A779 (8 nmol/1 μl/hr) blocked the improvement in baroreflex gain in CHF. Baroreflex gain increased in CHF+Ang-(1–7) animals when only the vagus was allowed to modulate baroreflex control by acute treatment with the β-1 antagonist metoprolol, indicating increased vagal tone. Baseline RSNA was significantly lower and baroreflex control of RSNA was enhanced in CHF rabbits receiving Ang-(1–7). These data suggest that augmentation of central Ang-(1–7) inhibits sympathetic outflow and increases vagal outflow in CHF thus contributing to enhanced baroreflex gain in this disease state.
angiotensin-(1–7); heart failure; sympathetic nervous system; baroreflex; vagus nerve; blood pressure; heart rate
There is a growing consensus that the balance between Angiotensin Type 1 (AT1R) and Angiotensin Type 2 (AT2R) signaling in many tissues may determine the magnitude and, in some cases the direction, of the biological response. Sympatho-excitation in cardiovascular diseases is mediated by a variety of factors and is, in part, dependent on Angiotensin II signaling in the central nervous system. Recent data have provided evidence that the AT2R can modulate sympatho-excitation in animals with hypertension and heart failure. The evidence for this concept is reviewed and a model is put forward to support the rationale that therapeutic targeting of the central AT2R may be beneficial in the setting of chronic heart failure.
We have previously documented that central Angiotensin type 2 receptors (AT2R) negatively modulate sympathetic outflow and arterial blood pressure (BP). In the current study, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of Compound 21 (C21), the first selective non-peptide AT2R agonist, on norepinephrine (NE) excretion and BP in rats.
C21 was icv infused by a Micro-osmotic pump for 7 days. Urinary NE concentration was measured using the Norepinephrine Enzyme Immunoassay kit. BP was recorded by radiotelemetry. After 7 days, the rats were euthanized and three sympathetic relevant brain regions and cerebral cortex were micro-punched to measure nNOS protein expression by Western Blot. In addition, the influence of C21 on neuronal potassium current (IKv) was determined by whole cell patch-clamp in a neuron cell-line, CATH.a.
(1) icv treatment of C21 significantly decreased NE concentration and amount in nighttime urine but had no effect in daytime urine. (2) C21 treated rats exhibited a slight but significant decrease in BP. (3) The effects of C21 on NE excretion and BP were abolished by AT2R antagonist, PD123319, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME. (4) C21 treatment significantly up regulated nNOS expression in the PVN and RVLM, but not in the NTS and cerebral cortex. (5) In CATH.a neurons, C21 treatment significantly increased IKv, which was completely abolished by PD123319 and L-NAME.
These results demonstrate a central inhibitory influence of C21 on sympathetic outflow via a nNOS dependent mechanism, which might be mediated by facilitating neuronal potassium channel.
Angiotensin type 2 receptor; central nervous system; norepinephrine; blood pressure; potassium current
Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of the intracellular superoxide (O2•−) scavenging enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the brain attenuates central angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular responses. However, the therapeutic potential for adenoviral vectors is weakened by toxicity and the inability of adenoviral vectors to target the brain following peripheral administration. Therefore, we developed a non-viral delivery system in which CuZnSOD protein is electrostatically bound to a synthetic poly(ethyleneimine)-poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEI-PEG) polymer to form a polyion complex (CuZnSOD nanozyme). We hypothesized that PEI-PEG polymer increases transport of functional CuZnSOD to neurons, which inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling. The AngII-induced increase in O2•−, as measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, was significantly inhibited in CuZnSOD nanozyme-treated neurons compared to free CuZnSOD- and non-treated neurons. CuZnSOD nanozyme also attenuated the AngII-induced inhibition of K+ current in neurons. Intracarotid injection of CuZnSOD nanozyme into rabbits significantly inhibited the pressor response of intracerebroventricular-delivered AngII; however, intracarotid injection of free CuZnSOD or PEI-PEG polymer alone failed to inhibit this response. Importantly, neither the PEI-PEG polymer alone nor the CuZnSOD nanozyme induced neuronal toxicity. These findings indicate that CuZnSOD nanozyme inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling in vitro and in vivo.
brain; superoxide dismutase; nanotechnology; drug delivery; copolymer; potassium current
It has long been known that angiotensin type-1 receptors (AT1R) play a critical role in sympathetic regulation, cardiovascular activity, and hormone secretion under physiological and pathological states. On the other hand, the functional significance of angiotensin type-2 receptors (AT2R) is poorly understood. In a recent study we demonstrated that, in rats with chronic heart failure, AT1R protein expression was increased but AT2R expression was decreased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). This imbalance of angiotensin receptors contributed to sympatho-excitation in the heart failure state. In the current experiment, we measured AT1R and AT2R protein expressions in the brainstem, kidney and liver from male foetuses (3 days before birth), male neonates (3 days after birth), male and female adults (8 weeks) and male aged (28 months) rats by Western blot analysis. In the brainstem, we found that the foetuses and neonates exhibited a significantly lower AT2R protein expression compared with adult rats (foetus 0.08 ± 0.01, neonate 0.12 ± 0.01, male adult 0.25 ± 0.01, female adult 0.22 ± 0.02; n = 4 per group, p < 0.001 foetus and neonate compared with male or female adults). In contrast, the foetuses and neonates expressed significantly higher AT1R protein than that of the adults (foetus 0.64 ± 0.09, neonate 0.56 ± 0.01, male adult 0.13 ± 0.02, female adult 0.08 ± 0.02; n = 4 each group, p < 0.001 foetus and neonate compared with male and female adults). In the liver, the AT2R protein was also higher in foetus and neonate, than in adult rats. Interestingly, the foetal liver expressed higher AT1R protein compared with that of the neonate. In the kidney, AT2R expression was significantly increased with age (foetus 0.08 ± 0.01, neonate 0.19 ± 0.02, male adult 0.49 ± 0.04, female adult 0.90 ± 0.10; n = 4 per group, p < 0.01–0.001). AT1R expression, on the other hand, was higher in the foetuses than that in both neonate and male adults. This study provides data contrary to existing dogma that AT2R expression is higher in foetal life and low in adults, suggesting an involvement of a potentially important functional role for AT2R in adult animals and AT1R in foetal development and/or physiology.
angiotensin II receptors; brainstem; development; kidney; liver; protein expression
Up-regulation of Angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to the sympatho-excitation in the chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the role of AT2R is not clear. In this study, we measured AT1R and AT2R protein expression in the RVLM and determined their effects on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) in anaesthetized sham and CHF rats. We found that: (1) while AT1R expression in the RVLM was up-regulated, the AT2R was significantly down-regulated (CHF: 0.06 ± 0.02 vs sham: 0.15 ± 0.02, P < 0.05); (2) simultaneously stimulating RVLM AT1R and AT2R by Ang II evoked sympatho-excitation, hypertension, and tachycardia in both sham and CHF rats, with greater responses in CHF; (3) stimulating RVLM AT1R with Ang II plus the specific AT2R antagonist PD123319 induced a larger sympatho-excitatory response than simultaneously stimulating AT1R and AT2R in sham rats, but not in CHF; (4) activating RVLM AT2R with CGP42112 induced a sympatho-inhibition, hypotension, and bradycardia only in sham rats (RSNA: 36.4 ± 5.1 % of baseline vs 102 ± 3.9 % of baseline in aCSF, P < 0.05); (5) pretreatment with ETYA, a general inhibitor of AA metabolism, into the RVLM attenuates the CGP42112 induced sympatho-inhibition. These results suggest that AT2R in the RVLM exhibits an inhibitory effect on sympathetic outflow, which is, at least partially, mediated by an AA metabolic pathway. These data implicate a down regulation in the AT2R as a contributory factor in the sympatho-excitation in CHF.
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor; rostral ventrolateral medulla; sympathetic outflow
Our previous study demonstrated that oral treatment with simvastatin (SIM) suppressed renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in the rabbits with chronic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of direct application of SIM to the central nervous system on RSNA and its relevant mechanisms. Experiments were carried out on 21 male New Zealand White rabbits with pacing induced CHF. The CHF rabbits received infusion of vehicle, SIM, or SIM + L-NAME into the lateral cerebral ventricle via osmotic minipump for 7 days. We found that, (1) In CHF rabbits, icv infusion of SIM significantly suppressed basal RSNA (1st day 69.5 ± 8.9 % of Max; 7th day 26.0 ± 6.0 % of Max. P < 0.05, n = 7) and enhanced arterial baroreflex function starting from the 2nd day and lasting through the following 5 days; (2) Statin treatment significantly upregulated nNOS protein expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) (Control, n = 6, 0.12 ± 0.04; SIM treated, n = 7, 0.31 ± 0.05. P < 0.05); (3) In CATH.a neurons, incubation with SIM significantly upregulated the nNOS mRNA expression, which was blocked by co-incubation with Mevalonate, farnesyl-pyrophosphate, or geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate; (4) Incubation with Y-27632 significantly upregulated nNOS mRNA expression in these neurons. These results suggest that central treatment with SIM decreased sympathetic outflow in CHF rabbits via up regulation of nNOS expression in RVLM, which may be due to the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and a decrease in Rho Kinase by SIM.
We have previously reported that the expression of Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptors (AT1R) was increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of rabbits with chronic heart failure (CHF) and in the RVLM of normal rabbits infused with intracerebroventricular (ICV) Ang II. The present study investigated if oxidant stress plays a role in Ang II induced AT1R up-regulation and its relationship to the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP1) in CHF rabbits and in the CATHa neuronal cell line. In CATHa cells, Ang II significantly increased AT1R mRNA by 123 ± 11%, P<0.01; c-Jun mRNA by 90 ± 20%, P<0.01; c-fos mRNA by 148 ± 49%, P<0.01; NADPH oxidase activity by 126 ± 43%, P<0.01 versus untreated cells. Tempol and Apocynin reversed the increased expression of AT1R mRNA, c-Jun mRNA, c-fos mRNA, and superoxide production induced by Ang II. We also examined the effect of ICV Tempol on the RVLM of CHF rabbits. Compared to vehicle treated CHF rabbits, Tempol significantly decreased AT1R protein expression (1.6±0.29 vs 0.88±0.16, P<0.05), phosphorylated Jnk protein (0.4 ± 0.05 vs 0.2 ± 0.04, P<0.05), cytosolic phosphorylated c-Jun (0.56 ± 0.1 vs 0.36 ± 0.05, P<0.05), and nuclear phosphorylated c-Jun (0.67±0.1 vs 0.3±0.08, P<0.01). Tempol also significantly decreased the AP-1-DNA binding activity in the RVLM of CHF rabbits compared to the vehicle group (9.14 × 103 vs 41.95 × 103 grey level P<0.01). These data suggest that Ang II induces AT1R up-regulation at the transcriptional level by induction of oxidant stress and activation of AP1 in both cultured neuronal cells and in intact brain of rabbits. Antioxidant agents may be beneficial in CHF and other states where brain Ang II is elevated by decreasing AT1R expression through the Jnk and AP1 pathway.
A previous study from this laboratory showed that elevation of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) and upregulation of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the carotid body (CB) are involved in the enhanced peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity in rabbits with chronic heart failure (CHF). NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion mediates the effects of Ang II in many organs. We investigated whether this signaling pathway may mediate the enhanced peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity induced by Ang II in CHF rabbits.
Methods and results:
By recording single-unit activity from the carotid sinus nerve in isolated preparations, we found that phenylarsine oxide 2 μM (PAO, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and TEMPOL 1 mM (superoxide dismutase mimetic) significantly decreased not only the Ang II-enhanced CB chemoreceptor responses to different levels of hypoxia in sham rabbits (Δ-12.5 ± 0.8 and Δ-12.8 ± 0.9 imp/s at 40.7 ± 2.3 mm Hg of PO2, and Δ-5.6 ± 0.5 and Δ-5.3 ± 0.4 imp/s at 60.2 ± 3.1 mm Hg of PO2, p<0.05, respectively) but also the CHF-induced elevation of CB chemoreceptor responses to different levels of hypoxia (Δ-13.6 ± 1.1 and Δ-13.7 ± 0.9 imp/s at 40.9 ± 3.1 mm Hg of PO2, and Δ-6.7 ± 1.2 and Δ-6.6 ± 0.8 imp/s at 59.8 ± 3.5 mm Hg of PO2, p<0.05). In addition, mRNA and protein expressions of NADPH oxidase components (gp91phox, p40phox and p47phox) were higher in the CB from CHF rabbits compared to sham rabbits. Furthermore, 100 pM Ang II induced an increase in superoxide production in CB homogenates from sham rabbits, which was similar to that in CB homogenate from CHF rabbits. PAO and Tempol inhibited the Ang II- and CHF-enhanced superoxide anion production.
These results suggest that the enhanced peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity mediated by Ang II in CHF rabbits occurs via a NADPH oxidase-superoxide signaling pathway.
Angiotensin; Reactive oxygen species; autonomic nervous system; chemoreceptor; heart failure
Activation of the cardiac “sympathetic afferent” reflex (CSAR) has been reported to depress the arterial baroreflex and enhance the arterial chemoreflex via a central mechanism. In the present study, we used single-unit extracellular recording techniques to examine the effects of stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferents on baro- or chemosensitive neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in anesthetized rats. Of 54 barosensitive NTS neurons tested for their response to epicardial application of capsaicin (0.4 μg), 38 were significantly (P<0.01) inhibited by 38 % while 16 did not respond. Of 42 NTS chemosensitive neurons tested for their response to capsaicin, 33 were significantly (P<0.01) excited by 47 % while 9 did not respond. In addition, of 12 both barosensitive and chemosensitive NTS neurons tested for capsaicin, 2 were excited, 7 were inhibited, and 3 did not respond. In conclusion, this study indicates that CSAR activation inhibited NTS barosensitive neurons and excited NTS chemosensitive neurons, suggesting that the NTS plays an important role in processing the interactions between these cardiovascular reflexes.
cardiovascular reflexes; sympathetic activity; capsaicin; extracellular recording; baro-/chemosensitive neuron
Angiotensin II (Ang II)–induced arterial baroreflex dysfunction is associated with superoxide generation in the brain. Exercise training (EX) improves baroreflex function and decreases oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases linked to elevated central Ang II. The aim of this study was to determine whether previous EX prevents baroreflex impairment caused by central administration of exogenous Ang II via an Ang II–superoxide mechanism. Four groups of rats were used: non-EX artificial cerebrospinal fluid infused, non-EX Ang II infused, EX artificial cerebrospinal fluid infused, and EX Ang II infused. Rats were treadmill trained for 3 to 4 weeks and subjected to intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II over the last 3 days of EX. Twenty-four hours after the end of EX, the arterial baroreflex was assessed in anesthetized rats. Compared with non-EX artificial cerebrospinal fluid–infused rats, Ang II significantly decreased baroreflex sensitivity (maximum gain: 3.0 ± 0.2% of maximum per millimeter of mercury versus 1.6 ± 0.1% of maximum per millimeter of mercury; P < 0.01), which was abolished by acute intracerebroventricular infusion of the Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan and the reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor apocynin. EX prevented the decrease in baroreflex sensitivity and downregulated Ang II type 1 receptor and NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression in the paraventricular nucleus of Ang II–infused rats. Finally, EX decreased superoxide production in the paraventricular nucleus of Ang II–infused rats. These results indicate that EX improves arterial baroreflex function in conditions of high brain Ang II, which is mediated by the central Ang II type 1 receptor and associated with a reduction in central oxidative stress.
exercise; baroreflex; sympathetic nerve activity; reactive oxygen species; AT1 receptor