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1.  Quantitative Salivary Proteomic Differences in Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;32(6):1390-1399.
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a severe immunological complication that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although oral cGVHD occurs in >25 % of cGVHD patients and leads to decreased quality of life, its etiology is poorly understood. The present retrospective cross-sectional analysis of oral cGVHD patients sought to (1) test the feasibility of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify protein biomarkers of oral cGVHD and (2) to gain a clearer understanding of salivary proteins impacted by oral cGVHD.
Using unstimulated whole saliva, we compared pooled saliva from five patients with a diagnosis of moderate or severe oral cGVHD, with a gender-and age- matched pool of five cGVHD patients with no oral mucosal findings. LC-MS/MS was used to identify salivary proteins, followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Selected mass spectrometric findings, including lactotransferrin, lactoperoxidase, and albumin, were confirmed by targeted label-free quantification.
LC-MS/MS led to confident identification of 180 proteins. Of these proteins, 102 changed in abundance at least 2 fold, including 12 proteins identified only in the No oral cGVHD group. Downregulation of ~0.4 fold was confirmed for both lactotransferrin and lactoperoxidase in Oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification. IPA analysis implicated pathways involved in cellular metabolism and immunoregulation.
Reduction of salivary lactoperoxidase, lactotransferrin, and several cysteine proteinase inhibitor family proteins suggests impaired oral antimicrobial host immunity in cGVHD patients. This shotgun proteomic analysis of oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification of select proteins supports the use of mass spectrometry for future validation in a large patient population as noninvasive tests for screening, early detection, and monitoring of cGVHD.
PMCID: PMC3805145  PMID: 22806177
Saliva; oral; GVHD; biomarker; proteomics; label-free quantitation; transplant; graft versus host
2.  Stress and the anti-influenza immune response: repeated social defeat augments clonal expansion of CD8+T cells during primary influenza A viral infection 
Journal of Neuroimmunology  2012;243(1-2):34-42.
Social disruption stress (SDR) prior to primary influenza A virus (IAV) infection augments memory to IAV re-challenge in a T cell-specific manner. However, the effect of SDR on the primary anti-viral immune response has not been elucidated. In this study, SDR-infected (INF) mice terminated viral gene expression earlier and mounted an enhanced pulmonary IAV-specific CD8+T cell response versus controls. Additionally, SDR-INF mice had a more pro-inflammatory lung profile prior to and during infection and an attenuated corticosterone response. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine modification of the lung microenvironment and increased antigen-specific T cell activation, clonal expansion and viral control in stress-exposed mice.
PMCID: PMC3287073  PMID: 22244573
psychosocial stress; glucocorticoid; mice; virus; influenza; T cell; immune response; HPA axis; sympathetic nervous system; tetramer; inflammation; neuroendocrine
3.  Chemokines control naive CD8+ T cell selection of optimal lymph node antigen presenting cells 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2011;208(12):2511-2524.
CCR5-binding chemokines produced in the draining lymph node after vaccinia virus infection guide naive CD8+ T cells toward DCs and away from the macrophage-rich zone, thereby facilitating optimal CD8+ T cell activation and cytokine production.
Naive antiviral CD8+ T cells are activated in the draining LN (DLN) by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral antigens. However, many viruses infect LN macrophages, which participate in initiation of innate immunity and B cell activation. To better understand how and why T cells select infected DCs rather than macrophages, we performed intravital microscopy and ex vivo analyses after infecting mice with vaccinia virus (VV), a large DNA virus that infects both LN macrophages and DCs. Although CD8+ T cells interact with both infected macrophages and DCs in the LN peripheral interfollicular region (PIR), DCs generate more frequent and stable interactions with T cells. VV infection induces rapid release of CCR5-binding chemokines in the LN, and administration of chemokine-neutralizing antibodies diminishes T cell activation by increasing T cell localization to macrophages in the macrophage-rich region (MRR) at the expense of PIR DCs. Similarly, DC ablation increases both T cell localization to the MRR and the duration of T cell–macrophage contacts, resulting in suboptimal T cell activation. Thus, virus-induced chemokines in DLNs enable antiviral CD8+ T cells to distinguish DCs from macrophages to optimize T cell priming.
PMCID: PMC3256957  PMID: 22042976
4.  Sex Differences In The Response To Influenza Virus Infection: Modulation By Stress 
Hormones and behavior  2010;59(2):257-264.
Influenza virus infection is a significant public health problem; however factors affecting the incidence and severity of disease have not been fully elucidated. The present study sought to examine the role of sex and stress in mediating susceptibility to an influenza viral infection in mice. Male and female mice underwent repeated cycles of restraint (RST) stress, followed by an influenza A/PR8 virus infection. Following these manipulations, levels of circulating corticosterone, lung proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and sickness behavior were examined. The data indicate sex differences in several aspects of the response to the A/PR8 virus infection. The kinetics of lung interleukin-1β mRNA expression were faster in infected males compared to females, while circulating corticosterone levels were elevated in infected females, but not in males. Anorexia and reduced saccharin consumption began earlier and symptoms were more pronounced in infected males than in females. In addition, RST modulated the response to the A/PR8 virus infection. Proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in response to infection was enhanced and sickness behavior was modulated by RST in both males and females. These data suggest that males mount more vigorous immune and behavioral responses to influenza viral infection compared to females, and stress exacerbates the response in both males and females. In conclusion, complex interactions between biological and behavioral factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. Additional studies may help uncover some of the factors contributing to the individual differences in susceptibility to influenza infection.
PMCID: PMC3040247  PMID: 21167165
Restraint stress; proinflammatory cytokine; glucocorticoid; influenza virus; sickness behavior; mice
5.  Immunogenic Dendritic Cells Primed by Social Defeat Enhance Adaptive Immunity to Influenza A Virus 
Brain, behavior, and immunity  2010;25(1):46-52.
Dendritic cells (DCs) sample their surrounding microenvironment and consequently send immunogenic or regulatory signals to T cells during DC/T cell interactions, shaping the primary adaptive immune response to infection. The microenvironment resulting from repeated social defeat increases DC co-stimulatory molecule expression and primes DCs for enhanced cytokine responses in vitro. In this study we show that social disruption stress (SDR) results in the generation of immunogenic DCs, capable of conferring enhanced adaptive immunity to influenza A/PR/8/34 infection. Mice infected with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 24h after the adoptive transfer of DCs from SDR mice had significantly increased numbers of DbNP366-74CD8+ T cells, increased IFN-γ and IFN-α mRNA, and decreased influenza M1 mRNA expression in the lung during the peak primary response (9 days post-infection), compared to mice that received DCs from naïve mice. These data demonstrate that repeated social defeat is a significant environmental influence on immunogenic DC activation and function.
PMCID: PMC2991426  PMID: 20656014
6.  Influenza Virus-Specific Immunological Memory Is Enhanced by Repeated Social Defeat 
Immunological memory (MEM) development is affected by stress-induced neuroendocrine mediators. Current knowledge about how a behavioral interaction, such as social defeat, alters the development of adaptive immunity, and MEM is incomplete. In this study, the experience of social disruption stress (SDR) prior to a primary influenza viral infection enhanced the frequency and function of the T cell memory pool. Socially stressed mice had a significantly enlarged population of CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant NP366–74 epitope of A/PR/8/34 virus in lung and spleen tissues at 6–12 wk after primary infection (resting memory). Moreover, during resting memory, SDR-MEM mice responded with an enhanced footpad delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and more IFN-γ–producing CD4+ T cells were detected after ex vivo stimulation. When mice were rechallenged with A/PR/8/34 virus, SDR-MEM mice terminated viral gene expression significantly earlier than MEM mice and generated a greater DbNP366–74CD8+ T cell response in the lung parenchyma and airways. This enhancement was specific to the T cell response. SDR-MEM mice had significantly attenuated anti-influenza IgG titers during resting memory. Similar experiments in which mice were primed with X-31 influenza and challenged with A/PR/8/34 virus elicited similar enhancements in the splenic and lung airway Db NP366–74CD8+ T cell populations in SDR-MEM mice. This study demonstrates that the experience of repeated social defeat prior to a primary viral infection significantly enhances virus-specific memory via augmentation of memory T cell populations and suggests that social stressors should be carefully considered in the design and analysis of future studies on antiviral immunity.
PMCID: PMC3066050  PMID: 20083672

Results 1-6 (6)