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1.  Essential Role for the Response Regulator PmrA in Coxiella burnetii Type 4B Secretion and Colonization of Mammalian Host Cells 
Journal of Bacteriology  2014;196(11):1925-1940.
Successful host cell colonization by the Q fever pathogen, Coxiella burnetii, requires translocation of effector proteins into the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS). In Legionella pneumophila, the two-component system (TCS) PmrAB regulates the Dot/Icm T4BSS and several additional physiological processes associated with pathogenesis. Because PmrA consensus regulatory elements are associated with some dot/icm and substrate genes, a similar role for PmrA in regulation of the C. burnetii T4BSS has been proposed. Here, we constructed a C. burnetii pmrA deletion mutant to directly probe PmrA-mediated gene regulation. Compared to wild-type bacteria, C. burnetii ΔpmrA exhibited severe intracellular growth defects that coincided with failed secretion of effector proteins. Luciferase gene reporter assays demonstrated PmrA-dependent expression of 5 of 7 dot/icm operons and 9 of 11 effector-encoding genes with a predicted upstream PmrA regulatory element. Mutational analysis verified consensus sequence nucleotides required for PmrA-directed transcription. RNA sequencing and whole bacterial cell mass spectrometry of wild-type C. burnetii and the ΔpmrA mutant uncovered new components of the PmrA regulon, including several genes lacking PmrA motifs that encoded Dot/Icm substrates. Collectively, our results indicate that the PmrAB TCS is a critical virulence factor that regulates C. burnetii Dot/Icm secretion. The presence of PmrA-responsive genes lacking PmrA regulatory elements also suggests that the PmrAB TCS controls expression of regulatory systems associated with the production of additional C. burnetii proteins involved in host cell parasitism.
doi:10.1128/JB.01532-14
PMCID: PMC4010987  PMID: 24610709
2.  Assessing the impact of comparative genomic sequence data on the functional annotation of the Drosophila genome 
Genome Biology  2002;3(12):research0086.1-86.2.
Analysis of conservation in eight genomic regions (apterous, even-skipped, fushi tarazu, twist, and Rhodopsins 1, 2, 3 and 4) from four Drosophila species (D. erecta, D. pseudoobscura, D. willistoni, and D. littoralis) covering more than 500 kb of the D. melanogaster genome. All D. melanogaster genes (and 78-82% of coding exons) identified in divergent species such as D. pseudoobscura show evidence of functional constraint. Addition of a third species can reveal functional constraint in otherwise non-significant pairwise exon comparisons.
Background
It is widely accepted that comparative sequence data can aid the functional annotation of genome sequences; however, the most informative species and features of genome evolution for comparison remain to be determined.
Results
We analyzed conservation in eight genomic regions (apterous, even-skipped, fushi tarazu, twist, and Rhodopsins 1, 2, 3 and 4) from four Drosophila species (D. erecta, D. pseudoobscura, D. willistoni, and D. littoralis) covering more than 500 kb of the D. melanogaster genome. All D. melanogaster genes (and 78-82% of coding exons) identified in divergent species such as D. pseudoobscura show evidence of functional constraint. Addition of a third species can reveal functional constraint in otherwise non-significant pairwise exon comparisons. Microsynteny is largely conserved, with rearrangement breakpoints, novel transposable element insertions, and gene transpositions occurring in similar numbers. Rates of amino-acid substitution are higher in uncharacterized genes relative to genes that have previously been studied. Conserved non-coding sequences (CNCSs) tend to be spatially clustered with conserved spacing between CNCSs, and clusters of CNCSs can be used to predict enhancer sequences.
Conclusions
Our results provide the basis for choosing species whose genome sequences would be most useful in aiding the functional annotation of coding and cis-regulatory sequences in Drosophila. Furthermore, this work shows how decoding the spatial organization of conserved sequences, such as the clustering of CNCSs, can complement efforts to annotate eukaryotic genomes on the basis of sequence conservation alone.
doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-12-research0086
PMCID: PMC151188  PMID: 12537575
3.  The transposable elements of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatin: a genomics perspective 
Genome Biology  2002;3(12):research0084.1-84.2.
Using Release 3 of the euchromatic genomic sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, 85 known and eight novel families of transposable element have been identified, varying in copy number from one to 146. A total of 1,572 full and partial transposable elements were identified, comprising 3.86% of the sequence.
Background
Transposable elements are found in the genomes of nearly all eukaryotes. The recent completion of the Release 3 euchromatic genomic sequence of Drosophila melanogaster by the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project has provided precise sequence for the repetitive elements in the Drosophila euchromatin. We have used this genomic sequence to describe the euchromatic transposable elements in the sequenced strain of this species.
Results
We identified 85 known and eight novel families of transposable element varying in copy number from one to 146. A total of 1,572 full and partial transposable elements were identified, comprising 3.86% of the sequence. More than two-thirds of the transposable elements are partial. The density of transposable elements increases an average of 4.7 times in the centromere-proximal regions of each of the major chromosome arms. We found that transposable elements are preferentially found outside genes; only 436 of 1,572 transposable elements are contained within the 61.4 Mb of sequence that is annotated as being transcribed. A large proportion of transposable elements is found nested within other elements of the same or different classes. Lastly, an analysis of structural variation from different families reveals distinct patterns of deletion for elements belonging to different classes.
Conclusions
This analysis represents an initial characterization of the transposable elements in the Release 3 euchromatic genomic sequence of D. melanogaster for which comparison to the transposable elements of other organisms can begin to be made. These data have been made available on the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project website for future analyses.
doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-12-research0084
PMCID: PMC151186  PMID: 12537573
4.  A Drosophila full-length cDNA resource 
Genome Biology  2002;3(12):research0080.1-80.8.
High-quality full-insert sequence for 8,921 putative full-length cDNA clones in the Drosophila Gene Collection has been generated and compared to the annotated Release 3 genomic sequence. More than 5,300 cDNAs have been identifieed that contain a complete and accurate protein-coding sequence, corresponding to at least one splice form for 40% of the predicted D. melanogaster genes.
Background
A collection of sequenced full-length cDNAs is an important resource both for functional genomics studies and for the determination of the intron-exon structure of genes. Providing this resource to the Drosophila melanogaster research community has been a long-term goal of the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. We have previously described the Drosophila Gene Collection (DGC), a set of putative full-length cDNAs that was produced by generating and analyzing over 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a variety of tissues and developmental stages.
Results
We have generated high-quality full-insert sequence for 8,921 clones in the DGC. We compared the sequence of these clones to the annotated Release 3 genomic sequence, and identified more than 5,300 cDNAs that contain a complete and accurate protein-coding sequence. This corresponds to at least one splice form for 40% of the predicted D. melanogaster genes. We also identified potential new cases of RNA editing.
Conclusions
We show that comparison of cDNA sequences to a high-quality annotated genomic sequence is an effective approach to identifying and eliminating defective clones from a cDNA collection and ensure its utility for experimentation. Clones were eliminated either because they carry single nucleotide discrepancies, which most probably result from reverse transcriptase errors, or because they are truncated and contain only part of the protein-coding sequence.
doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-12-research0080
PMCID: PMC151182  PMID: 12537569
5.  Finishing a whole-genome shotgun: Release 3 of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome sequence 
Genome Biology  2002;3(12):research0079.1-79.14.
The Drosophila melanogaster genome was the first metazoan genome to be sequenced by whole-genome shotgun. Now, the sequence has been finished in a process designed to close gaps, improve sequence quality and validate the assembly.
Background
The Drosophila melanogaster genome was the first metazoan genome to have been sequenced by the whole-genome shotgun (WGS) method. Two issues relating to this achievement were widely debated in the genomics community: how correct is the sequence with respect to base-pair (bp) accuracy and frequency of assembly errors? And, how difficult is it to bring a WGS sequence to the accepted standard for finished sequence? We are now in a position to answer these questions.
Results
Our finishing process was designed to close gaps, improve sequence quality and validate the assembly. Sequence traces derived from the WGS and draft sequencing of individual bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were assembled into BAC-sized segments. These segments were brought to high quality, and then joined to constitute the sequence of each chromosome arm. Overall assembly was verified by comparison to a physical map of fingerprinted BAC clones. In the current version of the 116.9 Mb euchromatic genome, called Release 3, the six euchromatic chromosome arms are represented by 13 scaffolds with a total of 37 sequence gaps. We compared Release 3 to Release 2; in autosomal regions of unique sequence, the error rate of Release 2 was one in 20,000 bp.
Conclusions
The WGS strategy can efficiently produce a high-quality sequence of a metazoan genome while generating the reagents required for sequence finishing. However, the initial method of repeat assembly was flawed. The sequence we report here, Release 3, is a reliable resource for molecular genetic experimentation and computational analysis.
doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-12-research0079
PMCID: PMC151181  PMID: 12537568

Results 1-5 (5)