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1.  Implant sonication for the diagnosis of prosthetic elbow infection 
Periprosthetic infection is a potentially devastating complication of elbow arthroplasty, associated with formation of microbial biofilm on the implant surface. The definitive microbiologic diagnosis of periprosthetic infection after elbow arthroplasty may be difficult to establish. Our study aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional periprosthetic tissue culture and culture of fluid derived from vortexing and bath sonication of the explanted hardware (a biofilm-sampling strategy).
Materials and methods
Patients undergoing revision elbow arthroplasty at our institution between July 2007 and July 2010, from each of whom 2 or more periprosthetic tissue cultures and 1 implant sonicate culture were obtained, were studied. A standardized definition of orthopedic implant—associated infection was applied.
We identified 27 subjects with aseptic failure and 9 with prosthetic elbow infection. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most common underlying disorder. The Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis was the most common type of implant used. The sensitivities of implant sonicate and periprosthetic tissue culture were 89% and 55%, respectively (P = .18), and the specificities were 100% and 93%, respectively (P = .16). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) were isolated in cases of infection.
Culture of the implant by sonication is at least as sensitive as periprosthetic tissue culture to detect prosthetic elbow infection.
Level of evidence
Level I, Diagnostic Study.
PMCID: PMC3910532  PMID: 22078323
Prosthetic joint infection; elbow prosthesis; implant; sonication; biofilm; periprosthetic tissue
2.  Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(7):2280-2287.
We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure.
PMCID: PMC3697690  PMID: 23658273
3.  PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Direct Detection of Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance from Heart Valves in Patients with Infective Endocarditis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(7):2040-2046.
Microbiological diagnosis is pivotal to the appropriate management and treatment of infective endocarditis. We evaluated PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) for bacterial and candidal detection using 83 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded heart valves from subjects with endocarditis who had positive valve and/or blood cultures, 63 of whom had positive valvular Gram stains. PCR/ESI-MS yielded 55% positivity with concordant microbiology at the genus/species or organism group level (e.g., viridans group streptococci), 11% positivity with discordant microbiology, and 34% with no detection. PCR/ESI-MS detected all antimicrobial resistance encoded by mecA or vanA/B and identified a case of Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis not previously recognized.
PMCID: PMC3697732  PMID: 23596241
4.  Euthermic Endocarditis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80144.
Most patients with infective endocarditis (IE) manifest fever. Comparison of endocarditis patients with and without fever, and whether the lack of fever in IE is a marker for poorer outcomes, such as demonstrated in other severe infectious diseases, have not been defined.
Methods and Results
Cases from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, Division of Infectious Diseases IE registry, a single-center database that contains all cases of IE treated at our center. Diagnosis date between 1970 and 2006, which met the modified Duke criteria for definite endocarditis, without fever was included. There were 240 euthermic endocarditis cases included in this analysis, with 282 febrile controls selected by frequency matching on gender and decade of diagnosis. Euthermic patients had a median age of 63.6 years (±16.1) as compared to 59.0 years (±16.4) in the febrile control group (p=0.001). Median (IQR) symptom duration prior to diagnosis was 4.0 (1.0, 12.0) weeks in the euthermic group compared to 3.0 (1.0, 8.0) weeks in the febrile controls (p= 0.006). From unadjusted analyses, survival rates were 87% in euthermic cases versus 83% in febrile controls across 28-day follow-up (p=0.164), and 72% in euthermic group cases versus 69% in febrile controls across 1-year follow-up (p=0.345). Also unadjusted, the 1-year cumulative incidence rate of valve surgery was higher in euthermic cases versus febrile controls (50% vs. 39%, p= 0.004).
Patients with euthermic endocarditis are older, and lack of fever was associated with longer symptom duration and delayed diagnosis prior to IE diagnosis. Despite a higher unadjusted rate of valve surgery in euthermic patients, the result was not significant when adjusting for baseline confounders. Differences in survival rates at both 28-days and 365-days were not statistically significant between the two groups.
PMCID: PMC3823819  PMID: 24244630
5.  Incidence of Infective Endocarditis due to Viridans Group Streptococci Before and After Publication of the 2007 American Heart Association’s Endocarditis Prevention Guidelines 
Circulation  2012;126(1):60-64.
The American Heart Association (AHA) published updated guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) prevention in 2007 that markedly restricted the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in certain at-risk patients undergoing dental and other invasive procedures. The incidence of IE due to viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the United States following publication of the 2007 AHA guidelines has not been reported.
Methods and Results
We performed a population-based review of all definite or possible cases of VGS-IE using the Rochester Epidemiology Project of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Patient demographics and microbiologic data were collected for all VGS-IE cases diagnosed from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2010. We also examined the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) hospital discharge database to determine the number of VGS-IE cases included between 1999 and 2009. We identified 22 cases with VGS-IE in Olmsted County over the 12-year study period. Rates of incidence (per 100,000 person-years) during time intervals of 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2010, were 3.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–5.17), 2.48 (95% CI, 0.85–4.10), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.00–1.64), respectively (p-value=0.061 from Poisson regression). The number of hospital discharges with a VGS-IE diagnosis in the NIS database during 1999–2002, 2003–2006, and 2007–2009 ranged between 15,318–15,938, 16,214–17,433, and 14,728–15,479, respectively.
Based on data complete through 2010, there has been no perceivable increase in incidence of VGS-IE in Olmsted County, MN following publication of the 2007 AHA Endocarditis prevention guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3681201  PMID: 22689929
endocarditis; guidelines; infective endocarditis; prevention; dental prophylaxis
6.  Prosthetic Joint Infection Diagnosis Using Broad-Range PCR of Biofilms Dislodged from Knee and Hip Arthroplasty Surfaces Using Sonication 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(11):3501-3508.
Periprosthetic tissue and/or synovial fluid PCR has been previously studied for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis; however, few studies have assessed the utility of PCR on biofilms dislodged from the surface of explanted arthroplasties using vortexing and sonication (i.e., sonicate fluid PCR). We compared sonicate fluid 16S rRNA gene real-time PCR and sequencing to culture of synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid for the microbiologic diagnosis of PJI. PCR sequences generating mixed chromatograms were decatenated using RipSeq Mixed. We studied sonicate fluids from 135 and 231 subjects with PJI and aseptic failure, respectively. Synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid culture and sonicate fluid PCR had similar sensitivities (64.7, 70.4, 72.6, and 70.4%, respectively; P > 0.05) and specificities (96.9, 98.7, 98.3, and 97.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). Combining sonicate fluid culture and PCR, the sensitivity was higher (78.5%, P < 0.05) than those of individual tests, with similar specificity (97.0%). Thirteen subjects had positive sonicate fluid culture but negative PCR, and 11 had negative sonicate fluid culture but positive PCR (among which 7 had prior use of antimicrobials). Broad-range PCR and culture of sonicate fluid have equivalent performance for PJI diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3486250  PMID: 22895042
7.  Lack of Detection of Human Retrovirus-5 Proviral DNA in Synovial Tissue and Blood Specimens From Individuals With Rheumatoid Arthritis or Osteoarthritis 
Arthritis and rheumatism  2006;55(1):123-125.
Prior studies have suggested an association of human retrovirus 5 with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine if human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA is present in synovial tissue and blood specimens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, or those without joint disease.
Synovial tissue and whole blood from 75 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 75 patients with osteoarthritis, and 50 patients without a primary arthritis diagnosis were assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that amplify a 186-bp fragment of human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA.
A total of 200 tissue specimens, 200 mononuclear cells, and 196 of 200 granulocyte specimens tested negative for human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA. No association between human retrovirus 5 and rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis (P = 0.516) was identified. Granulocyte specimens from 4 patients, 2 with rheumatoid arthritis and 2 with osteoarthritis, yielded a low positive human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA signal (83–1,365 copies of human retrovirus-5 proviral DNA/ml blood).
Contrary to prior reports, we did not find an association between human retrovirus 5 and rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis using a real-time PCR assay. Our findings are consistent with the recent finding that human retrovirus 5 is actually rabbit endogenous retrovirus H.
PMCID: PMC1464419  PMID: 16463423
Human retrovirus-5; Rheumatoid arthritis; Osteoarthritis
8.  Increased risk of prosthetic joint infection associated with esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(1):82-86.
There are no prospective data regarding the risk of prosthetic joint infection following routine gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. We wanted to determine the risk of prosthetic hip or knee infection following gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in patients with joint arthroplasty.
We conducted a prospective, single-center, case-control study at a single, tertiary-care referral center. Cases were defined as adult patients hospitalized for prosthetic joint infection of the hip or knee between December 1, 2001 and May 31, 2006. Controls were adult patients with hip or knee arthroplasties but without a diagnosis of joint infection, hospitalized during the same time period at the same orthopedic hospital. The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) of prosthetic joint infection after gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed within 2 years before admission.
339 cases and 339 controls were included in the study. Of these, 70 cases (21%) cases and 82 controls (24%) had undergone a gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure in the preceding 2 years. Among gastrointestinal procedures that were assessed, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection (OR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1–7). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for sex, age, joint age, immunosuppression, BMI, presence of wound drain, prior arthroplasty, malignancy, ASA score, and prothrombin time, the OR for infection after EGD with biopsy was 4 (95% CI: 1.5–10).
EGD with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection in patients with hip or knee arthroplasties. This association will need to be confirmed in other epidemiological studies and adequately powered prospective clinical trials prior to recommending antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3584609  PMID: 23350577
9.  Infective Endocarditis in the Pediatric Patient: A 60-Year Single-Institution Review 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2012;87(7):629-635.
To determine the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting in pediatric patients during a 60-year period at our institution.
Patients and Methods
In this retrospective medical record review, we extracted demographic characteristics, diagnostic variables, and outcomes for patients less than 20 years of age diagnosed with IE from January 1, 1980, to June 30, 2011. We compared this cohort with a previously reported cohort of pediatric patients with IE from our institution diagnosed from 1950 to 1979.
We identified 47 patients (24 males; mean ± SD age at diagnosis, 12.3±5.5 years [range, 1 day to 18.9 years]) who had 53 episodes of IE. The most common isolated organisms were viridans streptococci (17 of 53 episodes [32%]) and Staphylococcus aureus (12 of 53 episodes [23%]). Of the 47 patients, 36 (77%) had congenital heart disease, 24 of whom had cardiac surgery before their first episode of IE (mean ± SD time to IE diagnosis after surgery, 4.2±3.2 years [range, 64 days to 11.3 years]). Fourteen patients (30%) required valve replacement because of valvular IE, and 16 (34%) had complications, including mycotic aneurysm, myocardial abscess, or emboli. Vegetations were identified using echocardiography in 37 of the 53 unique episodes of IE (70%). Endocarditis-related mortality occurred in 1 patient. Compared with the historical (1950-1979) cohort, there were no differences in patient demographic characteristics, history of congenital heart disease, or infecting organisms. One-year mortality was significantly lower in the modern cohort (4%) compared with the historical cohort (38%) (P<.001).
Most pediatric episodes of IE occur in patients with congenital heart disease. Mortality due to endocarditis has decreased in the modern era.
PMCID: PMC3497940  PMID: 22766082
CHD, congenital heart disease; IE, infective endocarditis; VSD, ventricular septal defect
10.  Are Anidulafungin or Voriconazole Released from Polymethylmethacrylate In Vitro? 
Depot delivery of antimicrobial agents is used for treatment and prevention of bacterial orthopaedic infections; there is little information regarding newer antifungal agents and their potential use in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) depot delivery.
We determined the percent of anidulafungin or voriconazole present after polymerization in PMMA beads loaded with anidulafungin or voriconazole, and we assessed elution of anidulafungin or voriconazole from beads loaded with anidulafungin or voriconazole.
Materials and Methods
Beads containing 7.5% anidulafungin or voriconazole were pulverized and incubated in Kreb’s ringer buffer for 48 hours; the buffer was assayed for anidulafungin or voriconazole concentration. The in vitro release of anidulafungin and voriconazole from PMMA beads loaded with 7.5% anidulafungin or voriconazole was determined in triplicate in a continuous flow chamber.
0.7% of anidulafungin and 5.6% of voriconazole loaded in the beads were detected after polymerization. No anidulafungin was detected in the elution studies. The mean peak voriconazole concentration in the elution studies was 0.9 μg/mL.
Anidulafungin may not be suitable for depot delivery in PMMA.
PMCID: PMC3069256  PMID: 20963525
11.  Modifiers of Symptomatic Embolic Risk in Infective Endocarditis 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2011;86(11):1068-1074.
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the impact of prior antiplatelet and statin therapy on symptomatic embolic events in native valve infective endocarditis (IE).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of adult patients with a diagnosis of IE who presented to Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2006. Patients were grouped into those who received treatment before infection or controls who did not receive treatment for both antiplatelet therapy and, separately, statin therapy. Because of the retrospective study design and thus the nonrandomized treatment groups, a propensity score approach was used to account for the confounding factors that may have influenced treatment allocation. Antiplatelet therapy included aspirin, dipyridamole, clopidogrel, ticlopidine or any combination of these agents. Statin therapy included atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, rosuvastatin, or fluvastatin. The primary end point was a symptomatic embolic event that occurred before or during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the propensity-adjusted effects of continuous daily therapy with antiplatelet and statin agents on risk of symptomatic emboli. Likewise, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for an independent association with 6-month mortality for each of the treatments.
RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 283 patients with native valve IE. Twenty-eight patients (24.1%) who received prior continuous antiplatelet therapy developed a symptomatic embolic event compared with 66 (39.5%) who did not receive such treatment. After adjusting for propensity to treat, the effect of antiplatelet therapy on embolic risk was not statistically significant (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.36; P=.30). Only 14 patients (18.2%) who received prior continuous statin therapy developed a symptomatic embolic event compared with 80 (39.4%) of the 203 patients who did not. After adjusting for propensity to treat with statin therapy, the benefit attributable to statins was significant (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.14-0.62; P=.001). The 6-month mortality rate of the entire cohort was 28% (95% CI, 23%-34%). No significant difference was found in the propensity-adjusted rate of 6-month mortality between patients who had and had not undergone prior antiplatelet therapy (P=.91) or those who had and had not undergone prior statin therapy (P=.87).
CONCLUSION: The rate of symptomatic emboli associated with IE was reduced in patients who received continuous daily statin therapy before onset of IE. Despite fewer embolic events observed in patients who received antiplatelet agents, a significant association was not found after adjusting for propensity factors. A continued evaluation of these drugs and their potential impact on subsequent embolism among IE patients is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3202997  PMID: 22033251
12.  Treatment with Linezolid or Vancomycin in Combination with Rifampin Is Effective in an Animal Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Foreign Body Osteomyelitis ▿  
Rifampin monotherapy was compared to the combination of linezolid or vancomycin with rifampin in an experimental rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) chronic foreign body osteomyelitis. MRSA was inoculated into the proximal tibia, and a titanium wire was implanted. Four weeks after infection, rats were treated intraperitoneally for 21 days with rifampin alone (n = 16), linezolid plus rifampin (n = 14), or vancomycin plus rifampin (n = 13). Thirteen animals received no treatment. At completion of treatment, qualitative cultures of the wire and quantitative cultures of the bone (reported as median values) were performed. Quantitative cultures from the control, rifampin monotherapy, linezolid-plus-rifampin, and vancomycin-plus-rifampin groups revealed 4.54, 0.71, 0.10, and 0.50 log10 CFU/gram of bone, respectively. The bacterial load was significantly reduced in all treatment groups compared to that in the control group. Rifampin resistance was detected in isolates from 10, 2, and 1 animal in the rifampin, linezolid-plus-rifampin, and vancomycin-plus-rifampin groups, respectively. Cultures of the removed wire revealed bacterial growth in 1 and 2 animals in the rifampin and linezolid-plus-rifampin groups, respectively, with no growth in the vancomycin-plus-rifampin group and growth from all wires in the untreated group. In conclusion, we demonstrated that combination treatment with linezolid plus rifampin or vancomycin plus rifampin is effective in an animal model of MRSA foreign body osteomyelitis in the context of retention of the infected foreign body.
PMCID: PMC3067063  PMID: 21189340
13.  Epidemiological Trends of Infective Endocarditis: A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2010;85(5):422-426.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary profile of epidemiological trends of infective endocarditis (IE) in Olmsted County, Minnesota.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of all definite or possible IE cases among adults in Olmsted County from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2006. Cases were identified using resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project.
RESULTS: We identified 150 cases of IE. The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of IE ranged from 5.0 to 7.9 cases per 100,000 person-years with an increasing trend over time differential with respect to sex (for interaction, P=.02); the age-adjusted incidence of IE increased significantly in women (P=.006) but not in men (P=.79). We observed an increasing temporal trend in the mean age at diagnosis (P=.04) and a decreasing trend in the proportion of cases with rheumatic heart disease as a predisposing condition (P=.02). There were no statistically significant temporal trends in the incidence of either Staphylococcus aureus or viridans group streptococcal IE. Data on infection site of acquisition were available for cases seen in 2001 and thereafter, with 50.0% designated as health care–associated, 42.5% community-acquired, and 7.5% nosocomial.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of IE among women increased from 1970 to 2006. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to determine whether the incidence change in women will be sustained. Subsequent analysis of infection site of acquisition and its impact on the epidemiology of IE are planned.
In this study of 150 cases of infective endocarditis, the incidence among women increased from 1970 to 2006, and the authors think that ongoing surveillance is warranted to determine whether the incidence change in women will be sustained. Subsequent analysis of infection site of acquisition and its impact on the epidemiology of infective endocarditis is planned.
PMCID: PMC2861970  PMID: 20435834
14.  Laboratory and Clinical Characteristics of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Prosthetic Joint Infections▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(5):1600-1603.
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus that has several similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. S. lugdunensis is increasingly being recognized as a cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The goal of the present retrospective cohort study was to determine the laboratory and clinical characteristics of S. lugdunensis PJIs seen at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007. Kaplan-Meier survival methods and Wilcoxon sum-rank analysis were used to determine the cumulative incidence of treatment success and assess subset comparisons. There were 28 episodes of S. lugdunensis PJIs in 22 patients; half of those patients were females. Twenty-five episodes (89%) involved the prosthetic knee, while 3 (11%) involved the hip. Nine patients (32%) had an underlying urogenital abnormality. Among the 28 isolates in this study tested by agar dilution, 24 of 28 (86%) were oxacillin susceptible. Twenty of the 21 tested isolates (95%) lacked mecA, and 6 (27%) of the 22 isolates tested produced β-lactamase. The median durations of parenteral β-lactam therapy and vancomycin therapy were 38 days (range, 23 to 42 days) and 39 days (range, 12 to 60 days), respectively. The cumulative incidences of freedom from treatment failure (standard deviations) at 2 years were 92% (±7%) and 76% (±12%) for episodes treated with a parenteral β-lactam and vancomycin, respectively (P = 0.015). S. lugdunensis is increasingly being recognized as a cause of PJIs. The majority of the isolates lacked mecA. Episodes treated with a parenteral β-lactam antibiotic appear to have a more favorable outcome than those treated with parenteral vancomycin.
PMCID: PMC2863876  PMID: 20181900
15.  A Collagen-Binding Adhesin, Acb, and Ten Other Putative MSCRAMM and Pilus Family Proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis Group, Biotype I)▿ §  
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;191(21):6643-6653.
Members of the Streptococcus bovis group are important causes of endocarditis. However, factors associated with their pathogenicity, such as adhesins, remain uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates frequently adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Here, we generated a draft genome sequence of an ECM protein-adherent S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain and found, by genome-wide analyses, 11 predicted LPXTG-type cell wall-anchored proteins with characteristics of MSCRAMMs, including a modular architecture of domains predicted to adopt immunoglobulin (Ig)-like folding. A recombinant segment of one of these, Acb, showed high-affinity binding to immobilized collagen, and cell surface expression of Acb correlated with the presence of acb and collagen adherence of isolates. Three of the 11 proteins have similarities to major pilus subunits and are organized in separate clusters, each including a second Ig-fold-containing MSCRAMM and a class C sortase, suggesting that the sequenced strain encodes three distinct types of pili. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that all three genes of one cluster, acb-sbs7-srtC1, are cotranscribed, consistent with pilus operons of other gram-positive bacteria. Further analysis detected expression of all 11 genes in cells grown to mid to late exponential growth phases. Wide distribution of 9 of the 11 genes was observed among S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates with fewer genes present in other S. bovis group species/subspecies. The high prevalence of genes encoding putative MSCRAMMs and pili, including a collagen-binding MSCRAMM, among S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates may play an important role in the predominance of this subspecies in S. bovis endocarditis.
PMCID: PMC2795296  PMID: 19717590
16.  The Electricidal Effect Is Active in an Experimental Model of Staphylococcus epidermidis Chronic Foreign Body Osteomyelitis ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(10):4064-4068.
Treatment with low-amperage (200 μA) electrical current was compared to intravenous doxycycline treatment or no treatment in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus epidermidis chronic foreign body osteomyelitis to determine if the electricidal effect is active in vivo. A stainless steel implant and 104 CFU of planktonic S. epidermidis were placed into the medullary cavity of the tibia. Four weeks later, rabbits were assigned to one of three groups with treatment administered for 21 days. The groups included those receiving no treatment (n = 10), intravenous doxycycline (n = 14; 8 mg/kg of body weight three times per day), and electrical current (n = 15; 200 μA continuous delivery). Following treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and the tibias quantitatively cultured. Bacterial load was significantly reduced in the doxycycline (median, 2.55 [range, 0.50 to 6.13] log10 CFU/g of bone) and electrical-current (median, 1.09 [range, 0.50 to 2.99] log10 CFU/g of bone) groups, compared to the level for the control group (median, 4.16 [range, 3.70 to 5.66] log10 CFU/g of bone) (P < 0.0001). Moreover, treatment with electrical current was statistically significantly more efficacious (P = 0.035) than doxycycline treatment. The electricidal effect (the bactericidal activity of low-amperage electrical current against bacterial biofilms) is active in vivo in the treatment of experimental S. epidermidis chronic foreign body osteomyelitis.
PMCID: PMC2764171  PMID: 19651912
17.  C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Orthopedic Implant Infection 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9358.
C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) have been shown to be useful for diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection. Little information is available on CRP and ESR in patients undergoing revision or resection of shoulder arthroplasties or spine implants.
We analyzed preoperative CRP and ESR in 636 subjects who underwent knee (n = 297), hip (n = 221) or shoulder (n = 64) arthroplasty, or spine implant (n = 54) removal. A standardized definition of orthopedic implant-associated infection was applied. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine ideal cutoff values for differentiating infected from non-infected cases. ESR was significantly different in subjects with aseptic failure infection of knee (median 11 and 53.5 mm/h, respectively, p = <0.0001) and hip (median 11 and 30 mm/h, respectively, p = <0.0001) arthroplasties and spine implants (median 10 and 48.5 mm/h, respectively, p = 0.0033), but not shoulder arthroplasties (median 10 and 9 mm/h, respectively, p = 0.9883). Optimized ESR cutoffs for knee, hip and shoulder arthroplasties and spine implants were 19, 13, 26, and 45 mm/h, respectively. Using these cutoffs, sensitivity and specificity to detect infection were 89 and 74% for knee, 82 and 60% for hip, and 32 and 93% for shoulder arthroplasties, and 57 and 90% for spine implants. CRP was significantly different in subjects with aseptic failure and infection of knee (median 4 and 51 mg/l, respectively, p<0.0001), hip (median 3 and 18 mg/l, respectively, p<0.0001), and shoulder (median 3 and 10 mg/l, respectively, p = 0.01) arthroplasties, and spine implants (median 3 and 20 mg/l, respectively, p = 0.0011). Optimized CRP cutoffs for knee, hip, and shoulder arthroplasties, and spine implants were 14.5, 10.3, 7, and 4.6 mg/l, respectively. Using these cutoffs, sensitivity and specificity to detect infection were 79 and 88% for knee, 74 and 79% for hip, and 63 and 73% for shoulder arthroplasties, and 79 and 68% for spine implants.
CRP and ESR have poor sensitivity for the diagnosis of shoulder implant infection. A CRP of 4.6 mg/l had a sensitivity of 79 and a specificity of 68% to detect infection of spine implants.
PMCID: PMC2825262  PMID: 20179760
18.  Anidulafungin Treatment of Candidal Central Nervous System Infection in a Murine Model ▿  
We established a murine model of Candida albicans central nervous system (CNS) infection and evaluated the efficacy of anidulafungin. Ten milligrams/kg/day anidulafungin, amphotericin B, or voriconazole significantly reduced mortality and fungal burden in brain tissue, although amphotericin B and 10 mg/kg/day anidulafungin reduced fungal burden in brain tissue to a greater extent than did voriconazole. This suggests a potential role for anidulafungin in the treatment of candidal CNS infection.
PMCID: PMC2715626  PMID: 19506064
19.  Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Shoulder Infection by Use of Implant Sonication▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(6):1878-1884.
We recently described a sonication technique for the diagnosis of prosthetic knee and hip infections. We compared periprosthetic tissue culture to implant sonication followed by sonicate fluid culture for the diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection. One hundred thirty-six patients undergoing arthroplasty revision or resection were studied; 33 had definite prosthetic shoulder infections and 2 had probable prosthetic shoulder infections. Sonicate fluid culture was more sensitive than periprosthetic tissue culture for the detection of definite prosthetic shoulder infection (66.7 and 54.5%, respectively; P = 0.046). The specificities were similar (98.0% and 95.1%, respectively; P = 0.26). Propionibacterium acnes was the commonest species detected among culture-positive definite prosthetic shoulder infection cases by periprosthetic tissue culture (38.9%) and sonicate fluid culture (40.9%). All subjects from whom P. acnes was isolated from sonicate fluid were male. We conclude that sonicate fluid culture is useful for the diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection.
PMCID: PMC2691098  PMID: 19261785
20.  In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Planktonic and Sessile Candida albicans Isolates▿  
Planktonic and sessile susceptibilities to micafungin were determined for 30 clinical isolates of Candida albicans obtained from blood or other sterile sites. Planktonic and sessile MIC90s for micafungin were 0.125 and 1.0 μg/ml, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2687220  PMID: 19307371
21.  Pilot Study of Association of Bacteria on Breast Implants with Capsular Contracture▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(5):1333-1337.
Capsular contracture is the most common and frustrating complication in women who have undergone breast implantation. Its cause and, accordingly, treatment and prevention remain to be elucidated fully. The aim of this prospective observational pilot study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of bacteria on breast implants is associated with capsular contracture. We prospectively studied consecutive patients who underwent breast implant removal for reasons other than overt infection at the Mayo Clinic from February through September 2008. Removed breast implants were processed using a vortexing/sonication procedure and then subjected to semiquantitative culture. Twenty-seven of the 45 implants collected were removed due to significant capsular contracture, among which 9 (33%) had ≥20 CFU bacteria/10 ml sonicate fluid; 18 were removed for reasons other than significant capsular contracture, among which 1 (5%) had ≥20 CFU/10 ml sonicate fluid (P = 0.034). Propionibacterium species, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Corynebacterium species were the microorganisms isolated. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a significant association between capsular contracture and the presence of bacteria on the implant. The role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of capsular contracture deserves further study.
PMCID: PMC2681843  PMID: 19261794
22.  The Electricidal Effect: Reduction of Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas Biofilms by Prolonged Exposure to Low-Intensity Electrical Current▿  
The activity of electrical current against planktonic bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The short-term exposure of the bacteria in biofilms to electrical current in the absence of antimicrobials has been shown to have no substantial effect; however, longer-term exposure has not been studied. A previously described in vitro model was used to determine the effect of prolonged exposure (i.e., up to 7 days) to low-intensity (i.e., 20-, 200-, and 2,000-microampere) electrical direct currents on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Dose- and time-dependent killing was observed. A maximum of a 6-log10-CFU/cm2 reduction was observed when S. epidermidis biofilms were exposed to 2,000 microamperes for at least 2 days. A 4- to 5-log10-CFU/cm2 reduction was observed when S. aureus biofilms were exposed to 2,000 microamperes for at least 2 days. Finally, a 3.5- to 5-log10-CFU/cm2 reduction was observed when P. aeruginosa biofilms were exposed to electrical current for 7 days. A higher electrical current intensity correlated with greater decreases in viable bacteria at all time points studied. In conclusion, low-intensity electrical current substantially reduced the numbers of viable bacteria in staphylococcal or Pseudomonas biofilms, a phenomenon we have labeled the “electricidal effect.”
PMCID: PMC2612149  PMID: 18955534
23.  Effect of Electrical Current on the Activities of Antimicrobial Agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms▿  
Bacterial biofilms are resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Prior in vitro studies have shown that electrical current (EC) enhances the activities of aminoglycosides, quinolones, and oxytetracycline against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus gordonii. This phenomenon, known as the bioelectric effect, has been only partially defined. The purpose of this work was to study the in vitro bioelectric effect on the activities of 11 antimicrobial agents representing a variety of different classes against P. aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and S. epidermidis. An eight-channel current generator/controller and eight chambers delivering a continuous flow of fresh medium with or without antimicrobial agents and/or EC to biofilm-coated coupons were used. No significant decreases in the numbers of log10 CFU/cm2 were seen after exposure to antimicrobial agents alone, with the exception of a 4.57-log-unit reduction for S. epidermidis and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. We detected a statistically significant bioelectric effect when vancomycin plus 2,000 microamperes EC were used against MRSA biofilms (P = 0.04) and when daptomycin and erythromycin were used in combination with 200 or 2,000 microamperes EC against S. epidermidis biofilms (P = 0.02 and 0.0004, respectively). The results of these experiments indicate that the enhancement of the activity of antimicrobial agents against biofilm organisms by EC is not a generalizable phenomenon across microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.
PMCID: PMC2612137  PMID: 18725436
24.  Daptomycin in experimental murine pneumococcal meningitis 
Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, could be an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of pneumococcal meningitis. We determined the activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin, with dexamethasone as an adjuvant, in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.
Ninety-six 25–30 gram mice were inoculated intracisternally with serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae modified by the integration of a luminescent lux operon. All mice were treated with either dexamethasone 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally every 6 hours alone or in combination with either vancomycin or daptomycin, also administered intraperitoneally. Serum antimicrobial concentrations were selected to approximate those achieved in humans. Following treatment, bioluminescence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacterial concentrations were determined. Caspase-3 staining was used to assess apoptosis on brain histopathology.
Sixteen hours post intracisternal inoculation, bacterial titers in CSF were 6.8 log10 cfu/ml. Amongst the animals given no antibiotic, vancomycin 50 mg/kg at 16 and 20 hours or daptomycin 25 mg/kg at 16 hours, CSF titers were 7.6, 3.4, and 3.9 log10 cfu/ml, respectively, at 24 hours post infection (p-value, < 0.001 for both vancomycin or daptomycin versus no antibiotic); there was no significant difference in bactericidal activity between the vancomycin and daptomycin groups (p-value, 0.18). CSF bioluminescence correlated with bacterial titer (Pearson regression coefficient, 0.75). The amount of apoptosis of brain parenchymal cells was equivalent among treatment groups.
Daptomycin or vancomycin, when given in combination with dexamethasone, is active in the treatment of experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
PMCID: PMC2685802  PMID: 19405978
25.  In Vitro Activity of Anidulafungin against Candida albicans Biofilms ▿  
We tested the activity of anidulafungin against 30 Candida albicans isolates. The planktonic MICs for 50 and 90% of the isolates tested (MIC50 and MIC90) were ≤0.03 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively (MIC range, ≤0.03 to 2 μg/ml). The sessile MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤0.03 and ≤0.03 μg/ml, respectively (MIC range, ≤0.03 to >16 μg/ml).
PMCID: PMC2415795  PMID: 18391031

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