We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min.
Identification of anaerobic bacteria using phenotypic methods is often time-consuming; methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are costly and may not be readily available. We evaluated 253 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with a user-supplemented database and an on-plate formic acid-based preparation method and compared results to those of conventional identification using biochemical testing or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 179 (70.8%) and 232 (91.7%) isolates were correctly identified to the species and genus levels, respectively, using manufacturer-recommended score cutoffs. MALDI-TOF MS offers a rapid, inexpensive method for identification of anaerobic bacteria.
A 57-year-old woman with common variable immune deficiency and liver failure of unknown etiology presented with recurrent fevers over a 5-month period. She was found to have Helicobacter canis bacteremia. Immunocompromised hosts with exposure to cats or dogs may be at risk for infection with this organism, which may be challenging to diagnose.
We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7%) had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7%) without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.
We present the first published case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic joint infection. Diagnosis was established with PCR and culture of periprosthetic tissue and synovial fluid (and serology). A novel PCR assay is described herein. Q fever should be considered in patients with prosthetic joint infection without an identified pathogen.
Periprosthetic joint infection; Bulleidia extructa; total hip arthroplasty; anaerobic bacteria; infection; United States; bacteria
Periprosthetic tissue and/or synovial fluid PCR has been previously studied for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis; however, few studies have assessed the utility of PCR on biofilms dislodged from the surface of explanted arthroplasties using vortexing and sonication (i.e., sonicate fluid PCR). We compared sonicate fluid 16S rRNA gene real-time PCR and sequencing to culture of synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid for the microbiologic diagnosis of PJI. PCR sequences generating mixed chromatograms were decatenated using RipSeq Mixed. We studied sonicate fluids from 135 and 231 subjects with PJI and aseptic failure, respectively. Synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid culture and sonicate fluid PCR had similar sensitivities (64.7, 70.4, 72.6, and 70.4%, respectively; P > 0.05) and specificities (96.9, 98.7, 98.3, and 97.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). Combining sonicate fluid culture and PCR, the sensitivity was higher (78.5%, P < 0.05) than those of individual tests, with similar specificity (97.0%). Thirteen subjects had positive sonicate fluid culture but negative PCR, and 11 had negative sonicate fluid culture but positive PCR (among which 7 had prior use of antimicrobials). Broad-range PCR and culture of sonicate fluid have equivalent performance for PJI diagnosis.
Superantigens (SAg), the potent activators of the immune system, are important determinants of Staphylococcus aureus virulence and pathogenicity. Superior response to SAg in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3 transgenic mice rendered them more susceptible than C57BL/6 mice to pneumonia caused by SAg-producing strains of S. aureus. Linezolid, a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor, was superior to vancomycin in inhibiting SAg production by S. aureus
in vitro and conferred greater protection from pneumonia caused by SAg-producing staphylococci.
The pathogenesis of device-associated infections is related to biofilm bacteria that exhibit distinct characteristics with respect to growth rate, structural features, and protection from host immune mechanisms when compared to planktonic counterparts. Biofilm-associated infections are prevented, diagnosed and treated differently than infections not associated with biofilms. This article reviews innovative concepts for the prevention of biofilm formation, such as use of antisense molecules, quorum-sensing inhibitors, and bacteriophages, and novel approaches for treatment, such as enhancement of antimicrobial activity against biofilm bacteria by use of electric current or ultrasound. Specific approaches for the diagnosis and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract and bloodstream infections, infections associated with orthopedic implants, and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices, are also discussed.
biofilm; medical device; catheter-associated urinary tract infection; catheter-associated bloodstream infection; orthopedic implant infection; cardiovascular implantable electronic device infection
An on-plate testing method using formic acid was evaluated on the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system using 90 yeast and 78 Corynebacterium species isolates, and 95.6 and 81.1% of yeast and 96.1 and 92.3% of Corynebacterium isolates were correctly identified to the genus and species levels, respectively. The on-plate method using formic acid yielded identification percentages similar to those for the conventional but more laborious tube-based extraction.
We describe a retrospective analysis of Brucella enzyme immunoassay (EIA) IgM and IgG results compared to those of the standard tube agglutination test (SAT). Among 1,091 samples tested, 104 (9.5%) and 24 (2.2%) sera were positive by IgM and IgG EIA, respectively. Supplemental testing by SAT showed that 82.7% (86/104) of IgM EIA-reactive samples and 54.2% (13/24) of IgG EIA-reactive samples were negative by SAT. Testing all EIA screen-reactive samples by SAT is required when evaluating patients for potential brucellosis. Due to the limitations of serology, culture remains the gold standard for detecting Brucella infection.
A total of 120 pleural fluid specimens from 113 pediatric patients were tested using two rapid antigen detection assays for Streptococcus pyogenes. Results were compared to culture, Gram stain, and PCR results. Each rapid antigen assay detected 9 out of 10 (90%) PCR-positive samples, with 100% specificity. These antigen detection assays are useful to provide microbiological diagnosis of empyema caused by S. pyogenes.
The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) instruments were evaluated for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) by a blinded comparison to conventional biochemical or molecular methods. Two hundred NFGNB that were recovered from cultures from cystic fibrosis patients in the University of Iowa Health Care (UIHC) Microbiology Laboratory between 1 January 2006 and 31 October 2010 were sent to Mayo Clinic for analysis with the Bruker Biotyper (software version 3.0) and to bioMérieux for testing with Vitek MS (SARAMIS database version 3.62). If two attempts at direct colony testing failed to provide an acceptable MALDI-TOF identification, an extraction procedure was performed. The MS identifications from both of these systems were provided to UIHC for comparison to the biochemical or molecular identification that had been reported in the patient record. Isolates with discordant results were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing at UIHC. After discrepancy testing, the Bruker Biotyper result agreed with the biochemical or molecular method, with 72.5% of isolates to the species level, 5.5% to the complex level, and 19% to the genus level (3% not identified). The level of agreement for Vitek MS was 80% species, 3.5% complex, 6% genus, and 3.5% family (7% not identified). Both MS systems provided rapid (≤3 min per isolate) and reliable identifications. The agreement of combined species/complex/genus-level identification with the reference method was higher for the Bruker Biotyper (97% versus 89.5%, P = 0.004) but required an extraction step more often. Species-level agreement with the reference method was similar for both MS systems (72.5% and 80%, P = 0.099).
Identification of Corynebacterium species may be challenging. Corynebacterium species are occasional causes of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), but few data are available on the subject. Based on the literature, C. amycolatum, C. aurimucosum, C. jeikeium, and C. striatum are the most common Corynebacterium species that cause PJI. We designed a rapid PCR assay to detect the most common human Corynebacterium species, with a specific focus on PJI. A polyphosphate kinase gene identified using whole-genome sequence was targeted. The assay differentiates the antibiotic-resistant species C. jeikeium and C. urealyticum from other species in a single assay. The assay was applied to a collection of human Corynebacterium isolates from multiple clinical sources, and clinically relevant species were detected. The assay was then tested on Corynebacterium isolates specifically associated with PJI; all were detected. We also describe the first case of C. simulans PJI.
Mycoplasma salivarium infections outside the oral cavity are rare. We describe a 49-year-old man with laryngeal cancer and right pleural space infection with M. salivarium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of empyema due to Mycoplasma salivarium.
Achromobacter piechaudii is a rare cause of clinical disease in humans. Previously, clinical disease has only been documented in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of Achromobacter piechaudii bacteremia in a patient with previous malignancy but no known immunosuppression.
A 67-year-old man with distant history of colon and prostate cancer presented with low grade fevers and malaise. Blood cultures initially identified Alcaligenes xylosoxidans ss. denitrificans. Based on susceptibility testing, antibiotics were narrowed to levofloxacin. After further evaluation, the isolate was identified as Achromobacter piechaudii, an organism rarely previously seen only in immunocompromised patients. The source was felt to be dental infection after transesophageal echocardiogram and CT abdomen/pelvis were unrevealing. He improved with oral levofloxacin and dental extraction
This is the first case report of primary Achromobacter piechaudii bloodstream infection in an immunocompetent host and adds to the growing list of clinical syndromes caused by this organism.
Achromobacter piechaudii; RNA sequencing; bloodstream infection; immunocompromised
We describe a thymidine-dependent small-colony variant of Staphylococcus aureus associated with left ventricular assist device infection and prosthetic valve and pacemaker endocarditis.
We evaluated the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for identification of 92 clinical isolates of Corynebacterium species in comparison to identification using rpoB or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eighty isolates (87%) yielded a score of ≥1.700, and all of these were correctly identified to the species level with the exception of Corynebacterium aurimucosum being misidentified as the closely related Corynebacterium minutissimum.
Actinobaculum species are anaerobic Gram-positive rods that have previously been associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) in the elderly. We report 12 patients with Actinobaculum bacteremia. Only 40% of blood cultures were clinically considered significant by the treating physicians, but most patients were treated for UTI, suggesting a possible urinary source of bacteremia. Clinicians should be aware of the pathogenic potential of Actinobaculum spp.
Using data from 23,313 patients, we assessed whether two blood culture sets of three bottles per set would detect more pathogens than two sets of two bottles per set and achieve similar sensitivity to collecting three sets of two bottles per set. We also compared the yield of aerobic and anaerobic bottles. Thirty milliliters of blood was distributed to one anaerobic and two aerobic bottles. Among 26,855 collections of ≥60 ml within 30 min, 1,379 (5.1%) were positive for a pathogen not requiring detection in more than one set to be considered a pathogen, with 72 additional distinct pathogens detected using two 30-ml compared to two 20-ml sets of one aerobic and one anaerobic bottle (increased yield, 7.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2 to 9.8%). For conditional pathogens requiring detection in at least two positive blood cultures for classification as pathogens (i.e., otherwise classified as contaminants), there were 162 positive detections with two 30-ml sets, of which 16 would not have been detected by two 20-ml sets (increased yield, 11.0% [95% CI, 6.4 to 17.2%]). Among 134 subjects who had three sets of 30 ml each within a 30-min interval, there was complete concordance between 60 ml of blood drawn in the first two sets of 30 ml and three 20-ml sets (P = 1.0). One aerobic bottle plus one anaerobic bottle yielded more pathogens than two aerobic bottles for organisms requiring a single (P < 0.001) and two (P = 0.04) positive sets to be defined as pathogens. In conclusion, we showed that collection of two aerobic and one anaerobic blood culture bottles per set results in improved yield compared to two bottles per set. We also confirmed that an anaerobic bottle should be included in blood culture sets.
Depot delivery of antimicrobial agents is used for treatment and prevention of bacterial orthopaedic infections; there is little information regarding newer antifungal agents and their potential use in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) depot delivery.
We determined the percent of anidulafungin or voriconazole present after polymerization in PMMA beads loaded with anidulafungin or voriconazole, and we assessed elution of anidulafungin or voriconazole from beads loaded with anidulafungin or voriconazole.
Materials and Methods
Beads containing 7.5% anidulafungin or voriconazole were pulverized and incubated in Kreb’s ringer buffer for 48 hours; the buffer was assayed for anidulafungin or voriconazole concentration. The in vitro release of anidulafungin and voriconazole from PMMA beads loaded with 7.5% anidulafungin or voriconazole was determined in triplicate in a continuous flow chamber.
0.7% of anidulafungin and 5.6% of voriconazole loaded in the beads were detected after polymerization. No anidulafungin was detected in the elution studies. The mean peak voriconazole concentration in the elution studies was 0.9 μg/mL.
Anidulafungin may not be suitable for depot delivery in PMMA.