Clear guidelines on the health effects of dairy food are important given the high prevalence of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and increasing global consumption of dairy food.
To evaluate the effects of increased dairy food on cardio metabolic risk factors.
Searches were performed until April 2013 using MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google,Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings.
Randomized controlled studies with healthy adults randomized to increased dairy food for more than one month without additional interventions.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
A standard list was used to extract descriptive, methodological and key variables from all eligible studies. If data was not included in the published report corresponding authors were contacted.
20 studies with 1677 participants with a median duration of dietary change of 26 (IQR 10-39) weeks and mean increase in dairy food intake of 3.6 (SD 0.92) serves/day were included.
There was an increase in weight with low (+0.82, 0.35 to 1.28 kg, p<0.001) and whole fat dairy food (+0.41, 0.04 to 0.79kg, p=0.03), but no significant change in waist circumference (-0.07 , -1.24 to 1.10 cm) ; HOMA –IR (-0.94 , -1.93 to 0.04 units); fasting glucose (+1.32 , 0.19 to 2.45 mg/dl) ; LDL-c (1.85 ,-2.89 to 6.60 mg/dl); HDL-c (-0.19 , -2.10 to 1.71 mg/dl); systolic BP (-0.4, -1.6 to 0.8 mmHg); diastolic BP (-0.4 , -1.7 to 0.8 mmHg) or CRP (-1.07 , -2.54 to 0.39 mg/L). Changes in other cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar for low and whole fat dairy interventions.
Most clinical trials were small and of modest quality. .
Increasing whole fat and low fat dairy food consumption increases weight but has minor effects on other cardio-metabolic risk factors.
Trial Registration ACTRN
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000401752, http://www.anzctr.org.au
Ethics Approval Number