Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) is a new human cardiovirus with 11 identified genotypes. Little is known about the natural history and pathogenicity of SAFVs.
We sequenced the genome of five SAFV-1 strains which were identified from fecal samples taken from children with viral diarrhea in Beijing, China between March 2006 and November 2007, and analyzed the phylogenetic and phylodynamic properties of SAFVs using the genome sequences of every known SAFV genotypes. We identified multiple recombination events in our SAFV-1 strains, specifically recombination between SAFV-2, -3, -4, -9, -10 and the prototype SAFV-1 strain in the VP4 region and recombination between SAFV-4, -6, -8, -10, -11 and prototype SAFV-1 in the VP1/2A region. Notably, recombination in the structural gene VP4 is a rare event in Cardiovirus. The ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions to synonymous substitutions indicates a purifying selection of the SAFV genome. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis indicates the existence of at least two subclades of SAFV-1 with different origins. Subclade 1 includes two strains isolated from Pakistan, whereas subclade 2 includes the prototype strain and strains isolated in China, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The most recent common ancestor of all SAFV genotypes dates to the 1710s, and SAFV-1, -2, and -3 to the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, respectively. No obvious relationship between variation and pathogenicity exists in the critical domains of the CD and EF loops of viral capsid proteins or the multi-functional proteins L based on animo acid sequence identity comparison between SAFV genotypes.
Our findings suggest that intertypic recombination plays an important role in the diversity of SAFVs, highlighting the diversity of the five strains with the previously described SAFV-1 strains.
The ability of heterologous prime-boost vaccination to elicit robust CD8+ T cell responses has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about how this immunotherapeutic strategy impacts the functional qualities of expanded T cells in the course of effector and memory responses. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a boosting vector in mice, we demonstrate that a massive secondary expansion of CD8+ T cells can be achieved shortly after priming with recombinant adenoviral vectors. Importantly, VSV-boosted CD8+ T cells were more potent than those primed by adenoviruses only, as measured by cytokine production, granzyme B expression, and functional avidity. Upon adoptive transfer, equivalent numbers of VSV-expanded CD8+ T cells were more effective (on a per-cell basis) in mediating antitumor and antiviral immunity than T cells only primed with adenoviruses. Furthermore, VSV boosting accelerated the progression of expanded CD8+ T lymphocytes to a central memory phenotype, thereby altering the effector memory profile typically associated with adenoviral vaccination. Finally, the functional superiority of VSV-expanded T cells remained evident 100 d after boosting, suggesting that VSV-driven immunological responses are of sufficient duration for therapeutic applications. Our data strongly support the choice of VSV as a boosting vector in prime-boost vaccination strategies, enabling a rapid amplification of CD8+ T cells and improving the quality of expanded T cells during both early and late immunological responses.
adenovirus; CD8+ T cells; prime-boost; vaccination; vesicular stomatitis virus
The human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) gene contains polymorphic alleles, which may be linked to increased risk for tobacco-related lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to screen new polymorphisms and determine whether these polymorphisms can be used to predict individual susceptibility to lung cancer. The PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used to screen for polymorphisms in the coding region of the EH gene. Eleven polymorphisms, including previously reported polymorphisms, were identified and the prevalence of these variants was assessed in at least 50 healthy Caucasians and African Americans. Among the eleven polymorphisms, the prevalence of the amino acid-changing EH polymorphisms in codons 43, 113, and 139 was examined in 182 Caucasian incident cases with primary lung cancer, as well as in 365 frequency-matched controls to examine the role of EH polymorphisms in lung cancer risk. A significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed for predicted high EH activity genotypes (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2–4.3) as compared to low EH activity genotypes. This association was more pronounced among patients with lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.7–13.1). These results suggest that the EH polymorphism plays an important role in lung cancer risk and is linked to tobacco smoke exposure.
Epoxide hydrolase; lung cancer; genetic polymorphism; metabolism
Although smoking is the major causal factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only 10–20% of chronic heavy cigarette smokers develop symptomatic COPD, which suggests the presence of genetic susceptibility. The human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) is a metabolizing enzyme which involves the process of numerous reactive epoxide intermediates and contains polymorphic alleles which are associated with altered EH activity and may be linked to increased risk for COPD. To determine whether the EH polymorphisms contributed to increased risk for COPD, prevalence of the EH codons 113 and 139 polymorphisms were compared between COPD patients and controls using a PCR-RFLP analysis using genomic DNA isolated from 131 COPD patients and 262 individually matched controls by age (± 5 years) among Caucasians with 1:2 ratio. Significantly increased risk for COPD was observed for subjects with the EH113His/His genotypes (OR =2.4, 95% CI=1.1–5.1). These results were consistent with the fact that a significant trend towards increased risk was observed with predicted less protective EH codon 113 genotypes (p = 0.03, trend test). A similar association was not observed for EH codon139 polymorphism. As expected, a significant correlation between smoking dose and severity of COPD was observed (p<0.001). These results suggest that EH codon 113 polymorphism may modify risk for COPD.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; epoxide hydrolase; genetic polymorphism; genetic susceptibility
The neutrophil elastase (NE) gene encodes a powerful serine protease that is involved in the process of normal tissue turnover, natural host defense or tissue damage in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, NE was suggested as one of the determinant factors of individual susceptibility to lung cancer resulting from imbalance between α1-antitrypsin (AT) and NE. To determine whether NE plays a role in risk for lung cancer, we screened polymorphisms in the promoter region of the NE gene and assessed the role of the NE polymorphisms in the risk for lung cancer. We confirmed three previously identified polymorphisms which are located at −903, −741, and extra 52 bp STS relative to the transcription initiation site. In addition, two new polymorphisms at −832 (G/T) and −789 (C/T) were identified. Their rare allelic frequencies of new polymorphism are 0.02 and 0.01, respectively, among Caucasians. The prevalence of the NE −903 (T/T) and (T/G) genotypes were 0.88 and 0.12 in controls as compared to 0.96 and 0.04 in lung cancer patients using genomic DNA isolated from 113 Caucasian lung cancer cases and 131 controls. A significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed for expected high NE activity genotypes (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.02–10.3) as compared to low NE activity genotypes. These results were consistent with previous in vitro functional analysis, which reported an approximately two-fold increase enzyme expression with the −903T/−741G allele as compared to the −903G/−741A variant. These results confirm that the NE promoter region polymorphisms may influence in risk for lung cancer.
Neutrophil elastase; Lung cancer; Genetic polymorphism; Cancer susceptibility
We hypothesize that inferior vena cava-inferior atrial ganglionated plexus nerve activity (IVC-IAGPNA) is responsible for the ventricular rate (VR) control during atrial fibrillation (AF) in ambulatory dogs.
Methods and Results
We recorded bilateral cervical vagal nerve activity (VNA) and IVC-IAGPNA during baseline sinus rhythm and during pacing-induced sustained AF in 6 ambulatory dogs. Integrated nerve activities and average VR were measured every 10-s over 24-hour periods. LVNA was associated with VR reduction during AF in 5 dogs (from 211 bpm, 95% confidence interval [CI], 186 to 233 to 178 bpm [95% CI, 145 to 210], p<0.001) and RVNA in 1 dog (208 bpm [95% CI, 197 to 223] to 181 bpm [95% CI, 163 to 200], p<0.01). There were good correlations between IVC-IAGPNA and LVNA in the former 5 dogs, and between IVC-IAGPNA and RVNA in the latter dog. IVC-IAGPNA was associated with VR reduction in all dogs studied. RVNA was associated with baseline sinus rate reduction from 105 bpm (95% CI, 95 to 116) to 77 bpm (95% CI, 64 to 91, p<0.01) in 4 dogs while LVNA was associated with sinus rate reduction from 111 bpm (95% CI, 90 to 1250) to 81 bpm (95% CI, 67 to 103, p<0.01) in 2 dogs.
IVC-IAGPNA is invariably associated with VR reduction during AF. In comparison, right or left VNA was associated with VR reduction only when it co-activates with the IVC-IAGPNA. The vagus nerve that controls VR during AF may be different than that controls sinus rhythm.
atrial fibrillation; atrioventricular node; ECG; nervous system, autonomic; ventricular rate
Myocardial infarction (MI) results in cardiac nerve sprouting in the myocardium. Whether or not similar neural remodeling occurs in the stellate ganglia (SG) is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MI induces bilateral SG nerve sprouting.
Acute MI was created by coronary artery ligation in rabbits (n=12). Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The hearts and bilateral SGs were harvested for immunohistochemistry after 1 week in 6 rabbits, and after 1 month in 6 rabbits. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) and synaptophysin (SYN) was performed to determine the magnitude of nerve sprouting. Tissues from 6 normal rabbits were used as controls. Nerve density was determined by computerized morphometry.
MI results in increased serum NGF levels at 1 week (1519.8±632.2 ng/ml) that persists to 1 month (1361.2±176.3 ng/ml) as compared to controls (89.6±34.9 ng/ml), (p=.0002, and , p=.0001, respectively). Immunostaining demonstrated nerve sprouting and hyperinnervation in both SGs after MI. The nerve densities (µm2/ganglion cell) in SG 1 week after MI, 1 month after MI and in control groups, respectively, were: GAP43, 278±96, 225±39 and 149±57 (p=.01); SYN, 244±152, 268±115 and 102±60 (p=.02); TH, 233±71, 180±50 and 135±68 (p=.047); ChAT, 244±100, 208±46 and 130±41 µm2/cell (p=.01).
MI increases serum NGF levels and induces nerve sprouting and hyperinnervation in bilateral SGs for at least 1 month after MI. The hyperinnervation includes both postganglionic adrenergic axons and preganglionic cholinergic axons in the SG.
Myocardial Infarction; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Autonomic Nervous System; Stellate Ganglion; Nerve Sprouting; Sudden Cardiac Death
The mechanisms by which the exposure of mice to Cl2 decreases vectorial Na+ transport and fluid clearance across their distal lung spaces have not been elucidated. We examined the biophysical, biochemical, and physiological changes of rodent lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) after exposure to Cl2, and identified the mechanisms involved. We measured amiloride-sensitive short-circuit currents (Iamil) across isolated alveolar Type II (ATII) cell monolayers and ENaC single-channel properties by patching ATII and ATI cells in situ. α-ENaC, γ-ENaC, total and phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, and advanced products of lipid peroxidation in ATII cells were measured by Western blot analysis. Concentrations of reactive intermediates were assessed by electron spin resonance (ESR). Amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels with conductances of 4.5 and 18 pS were evident in ATI and ATII cells in situ of air-breathing mice. At 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure to Cl2, the open probabilities of these two channels decreased. This effect was prevented by incubating lung slices with inhibitors of ERK1/2 or of proteasomes and lysosomes. The exposure of ATII cell monolayers to Cl2 increased concentrations of reactive intermediates, leading to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and decreased Iamil and α-ENaC concentrations at 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure. The administration of antioxidants to ATII cells before and after exposure to Cl2 decreased concentrations of reactive intermediates and ERK1/2 activation, which mitigated the decrease in Iamil and ENaC concentrations. The reactive intermediates formed during and after exposure to Cl2 activated ERK1/2 in ATII cells in vitro and in vivo, leading to decreased ENaC concentrations and activity.
lung slices; patch clamp; radicals
To explore a new method of kidney biopsy with coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose computed tomography (CT)-guidance and evaluate its accuracy, safety, and efficacy.
Sixty patients underwent renal biopsy under CT-guidance. They were randomly divided into two groups: group I, low dose CT-guided (120 kV and 25 or 50 mAs) and group II, standard dose CT-guided (120 kV and 250 mAs). For group I, the coaxial trocar was accurately placed adjacent to the renal capsule of the lower pole, the needle core was removed, and samples were obtained with a bard biopsy gun. For group II, the coaxial trocar was not used. Total number of passes, mean biopsy diameter, mean glomeruli per specimen, mean operation time, mean scanning time, and mean radiation dose were noted. Dose-length product (DLP) was used to calculate the radiation doses. After 24 hours of the biopsy, ultrasound was repeated to identify any subcapsular hematoma.
Success rate of biopsy in group I was 100% while using low dose CT-guidance along with coaxial trocar renal. There was no statistic differences bewteen group I and II in the total number of passes, mean biopsy diameter, mean glomeruli per specimen and mean time of operation and CT scanning. The average DLP of group I was lower as compared to the value of group II (p <0.05).
Kidney biopsy using coaxial trocar and bard biopsy gun under low dose CT was an accurate, simple and safe method for diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. It can be used for repeat and multiple biopsies, particularly suitable for obese and renal atrophy patients in whom the kidneys are difficult to image.
Kidney biopsy; Low dose CT scanning; Bard biopsy gun; Coaxial trocar
Purpose of review
The autonomic nerve system is a potentially potent modulator of the initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). This review will briefly summarize the neural mechanisms of AF.
Complex interactions exist between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the atrial electrophysiologic properties. Direct autonomic recordings in canine models demonstrated simultaneous sympathovagal discharges are the most common triggers of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and paroxysmal AF. Also, intrinsic cardiac autonomic nerve can serve as a sole triggering factor for the initiation of AF. Modulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) by electrical stimulation has been tried as a treatment strategy clinically and experimentally. Recent studies showed that autonomic nervous system modulation can suppress the stellate ganglion nerve activity and reduce the incidence of paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias in ambulatory dogs.
The autonomic nerve system influences the initiation and perpetuation of AF. Scientific advances toward a better understanding of the complex interrelationships of the various components of the ANS will hopefully lead to improvement of treatments for this common arrhythmia.
Autonomic nerve; atrial fibrillation; vagal nerve stimulation
AIM: To study the polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and TLR2 gene Arg753Gln, Arg677Trp and susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Zhuang population from Guangxi, China.
METHODS: A case-control study was performed from February 2007 to October 2011 which included 146 Zhuang patients with IBD in the experimental group and 164 healthy Zhuang subjects who acted as the control group. All patients and healthy subjects were from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Genomic DNA was extracted from intestinal tissue by the phenol chloroform method. TLR4 gene Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and TLR2 gene Arg753Gln, Arg677Trp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
RESULTS: The TLR4 gene Asp299Gly was digested using Nco I restriction enzyme, and a single band of 249 bp was observed which showed that it was a wild type (AA). The TLR4 gene Thr399Ile was digested using Hinf Irestriction enzyme and only the wild type (CC) was detected. In addition, the TLR2 gene Arg677Trp was digested using Aci I restriction enzyme and only the wild type (CC) was detected. The TLR2 gene Arg753Gln was digested using Pst I restriction enzyme. Only the wild type (GG) as a single band of 254 bp was observed during RFLP. Overall, no heterozygous or homozygous single nucleotide polymorphism mutations were found in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis both in the TLR4 gene Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and the TLR2 gene Arg677Trp, Arg753Gln in the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China.
CONCLUSION: The TLR4 gene Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and TLR2 gene Arg753Gln, Arg677Trp polymorphisms may not be associated with IBD in the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China.
Toll-like receptor 2; Toll-like receptor 4; Inflammatory bowel disease; Gene polymorphism
Using an artificial-number learning paradigm and the ERP technique, the present study investigated neural mechanisms involved in the learning of magnitude and spatial order. 54 college students were divided into 2 groups matched in age, gender, and school major. One group was asked to learn the associations between magnitude (dot patterns) and the meaningless Gibson symbols, and the other group learned the associations between spatial order (horizontal positions on the screen) and the same set of symbols. Results revealed differentiated neural mechanisms underlying the learning processes of symbolic magnitude and spatial order. Compared to magnitude learning, spatial-order learning showed a later and reversed distance effect. Furthermore, an analysis of the order-priming effect showed that order was not inherent to the learning of magnitude. Results of this study showed a dissociation between magnitude and order, which supports the numerosity code hypothesis of mental representations of magnitude.
Adenoviruses with deletion of E1b have been used in clinical trials to treat cancers that are resistant to conventional therapies. The efficacy of viral replication within cancer cells determines the results of oncolytic therapy, which remains poorly understood and requires further improvement. In this report, we show that adenoviruses induce autophagy by increasing the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the formation of the Atg12-Atg5 complex. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) resulted in a decreased synthesis of adenovirus structural proteins, and thereby a poor viral replication; promotion of autophagy with rapamycin increased adenovirus yield. This study indicates that adenovirus-induced autophagy correlates positively with virus replication and oncolytic cell death, and that autophagy may generate nutrients that can be used for building viral progeny particles. These results further suggest that chemotherapeutic agents that increase cancer cell autophagy may improve the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.
autophagy; adenovirus; cancer; oncolysis; virotherapy
SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) containing two tandem Src homology-2 (SH2) domains. It is expressed ubiquitously and plays critical roles in growth factor mediated processes, primarily by promoting the activation of the RAS/ERK signaling pathway. Genetic and biochemical studies have identified SHP2 as the first bona fide oncoprotein in the PTP superfamily, and a promising target for anti-cancer and anti-leukemia therapy. Here, we report a structure-based approach to identify SHP2 inhibitors with a novel scaffold. Through sequential virtual screenings and in vitro inhibition assays, a reversible competitive SHP2 inhibitor (C21) was identified. C21 is structurally distinct from all known SHP2 inhibitors. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculation, a most likely binding mode of C21 with SHP2 is proposed, and further validated by site-directed mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies. This binding mode is consistent with the observed potency and specificity of C21, and reveals the molecular determinants for further optimization based on the new scaffold.
SHP2 inhibitor; Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP); Virtual screening; Molecular dynamics simulation; Drug discovery
Highly aqueously dispersible (soluble) TiO2 nanoparticles are usually synthesized by a solution-based sol–gel (solvolysis/condensation) process, and no direct precipitation of titania has been reported. This paper proposes a new approach to synthesize stable TiO2 nanoparticles by a non-solvolytic method - direct liquid phase precipitation at room temperature. Ligand-capped TiO2 nanoparticles are more readily solubilized compared to uncapped TiO2 nanoparticles, and these capped materials show distinct optical absorbance/emission behaviors. The influence of ligands, way of reactant feeding, and post-treatment on the shape, size, crystalline structure, and surface chemistry of the TiO2 nanoparticles has been thoroughly investigated by the combined use of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). It is found that all above variables have significant effects on the size, shape, and dispersivity of the final TiO2 nanoparticles. For the first time, real-time UV–vis spectroscopy and PL are used to dynamically detect the formation and growth of TiO2 nanoparticles in solution. These real-time measurements show that the precipitation process begins to nucleate after an initial inhibition period of about 1 h, thereafter a particle growth occurs and reaches the maximum point after 2 h. The synthesis reaction is essentially completed after 4 h.
Synthesis; Nanoparticles; TiO2; Aqueously soluble; Direct liquid phase precipitation; Dynamic real-time measurement
We hypothesize that left sided low-level vagus nerve stimulation (LL-VNS) can suppress sympathetic outflow and reduce atrial tachyarrhythmias in ambulatory dogs.
Methods and Results
We implanted in 12 dogs a neurostimulator to stimulate left cervical vagus nerve and a radiotransmitter for continuous recording of left stellate ganglion nerve activities (SGNA), vagal nerve activities (VNA) and electrocardiograms. Group 1 dogs (N=6) underwent 1 week continuous LL-VNS. Group 2 dogs (N=6) underwent intermittent rapid atrial pacing followed by active or sham LL-VNS on alternate weeks. Integrated SGNA was significantly reduced during LL-VNS (7.8 mV-s; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.94 to 8.66] vs. 9.4 mV-s [CI, 8.5 to 10.3] at baseline, P=0.033) in Group 1.The reduction was most apparent at 8 AM, along with a significantly reduced heart rate (P=0.008). LL-VNS did not change VNA. The density of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nerves in the left stellate ganglion one week after cessation of LL-VNS were 99684 µm2/mm2 (CI, 28850 to 170517) in LL-VNS dogs and 186561 µm2/ mm2 (CI, 154956 to 218166; P=0.008) in normal dogs. In Group 2, the frequencies of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and tachycardia during active LL-VNS were 1.4/day (CI, 0.5/day to 5.1/day) and 8.0/day (CI, 5.3/day to 12.0/day), respectively, significantly lower than during sham stimulation (9.2/day [CI, 5.3/day to 13.1/day], P=0.001 and 22.0/day [CI, 19.1/day to 25.5/day], P<0.001, respectively).
LL-VNS suppresses SGNA and reduces the incidences of paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias in ambulatory dogs. Significant neural remodeling of the left stellate ganglion is evident one week after cessation of chronic LL-VNS.
nervous system, autonomic; vagal stimulation; tachyarrhythmias; atrial fibrillation
PKA and CaM kinase II both target the histone deacetylase HDAC4 such that the former antagonizes MEF2 activity and the latter promotes it.
Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) regulates numerous gene expression programs through its signal-dependent repression of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and serum response factor (SRF) transcription factors. In cardiomyocytes, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling promotes hypertrophy and pathological remodeling, at least in part by phosphorylating HDAC4, with consequent stimulation of MEF2 activity. In this paper, we describe a novel mechanism whereby protein kinase A (PKA) overcomes CaMKII-mediated activation of MEF2 by regulated proteolysis of HDAC4. PKA induces the generation of an N-terminal HDAC4 cleavage product (HDAC4-NT). HDAC4-NT selectively inhibits activity of MEF2 but not SRF, thereby antagonizing the prohypertrophic actions of CaMKII signaling without affecting cardiomyocyte survival. Thus, HDAC4 functions as a molecular nexus for the antagonistic actions of the CaMKII and PKA pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the molecular basis of cardioprotection and other cellular processes in which CaMKII and PKA exert opposing effects.
Whether autonomic nerve activity is important in the development of pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear.
We tested the hypothesis that patterns of baseline autonomic nerve activities are important in the development of pacing-induced sustained AF.
We implanted radiotransmitters in 12 ambulatory dogs to record left stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) and vagal nerve activity (VNA). Sustained (>48 hrs) AF was induced with intermittent rapid atrial pacing.
At baseline (before pacing), the one-min integrated nerve activity between SGNA and VNA demonstrated either a single linear relationship with excellent correlation (Group 1, N=3, r=0.816±0.105) or non-linear relationships with poor correlation (Group 2, N=9, r=0.316±0.162, P<0.05 compared with Group 1). Group 1 dogs had higher VNA (97.0±11.5 mV-s) compared to Group 2 (33.4±21.7 mV-s, P<0.001). Group 1 dogs had more frequent sympathovagal coactivation episodes than Group 2 (50±19/d vs. 15±6/d, P<0.05) and more paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT; 5±1/d vs. 2±1/d, P<0.05) at baseline. Sustained AF occurred after 16±4 d (range 13–20 d) of pacing in Group 1 and after 46±18 d (range 23–72 d) of pacing in Group 2 (P<0.05). In the week before the development of sustained AF, the VNA of Group 2 dogs had significantly (P<0.05) increased compared to baseline.
Ambulatory dogs with good linear sympathovagal correlation and higher vagal tone at baseline have more PAT episodes at baseline and faster induction of sustained AF by rapid pacing. Rapid atrial pacing increased the VNA of the remaining dogs before the induction of sustained AF.
Autonomic nervous system; Nerve recording; Atrial fibrillation; Arrhythmia; Atrial pacing
Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing.
Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI). Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites) and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR.
The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial abundance validated the pyrosequencing-based results.
This methods study suggests that oral samples from this patient population of gingivitis can be characterized via plaque microbiome by pyrosequencing the 16 S rDNA genes. Further studies that characterize serial samples from subjects (longitudinal study design) with a larger population size may provide insight into the temporal and ecological features of oral microbial communities in clinically-defined states of gingivitis.
oral microbiota; gingivitis; saliva; plaque; pyrosequencing
The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN) signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs) and (or) the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP). However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms.
The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s) other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way.
Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.
Rotavirus; Nonstructural protein 1; Interferon; Retinoic acid inducible gene I
Randomization is a hallmark of clinical trials. If a trial entails very few subjects and has many prognostic factors (or many factor levels) to be balanced, minimization is a more efficient method to achieve balance than a simple randomization. We propose a novel minimization method, the ‘two-way minimization’. The method separately calculates the ‘imbalance in the total numbers of subjects’ and the ‘imbalance in the distributions of prognostic factors’. And then to allocate a subject, it chooses—by probability—to minimize either one of these two aspects of imbalances. As such, it is a method that is both treatment-adaptive and covariate-adaptive. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to examine its statistical properties. The two-way minimization (with proper regression adjustment of the force-balanced prognostic factors) has the correct type I error rates. It also produces point estimates that are unbiased and variance estimates that are accurate. When there are important prognostic factors to be balanced in the study, the method achieves the highest power and the smallest variance among randomization methods that are resistant to selection bias. The allocation can be done in real time and the subsequent data analysis is straightforward. The two-way minimization is recommended to balance prognostic factors in small trials.
Radiotherapy is a crucial treatment for cervical cancer, the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effects of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) gene therapy combined with radiotherapy on cervical cancer using HeLa cells. TUNEL assay revealed that the apoptotic rate in the combined treatment of CXCL10 gene therapy and radiotherapy was greatly increased compared with that of CXCL10 or radiotherapy alone. Flow cytometry showed that CXCL10 overexpression in HeLa cells resulted in a prolonged G1 phase and shortened S phase at 72 h post-transfection. Western blot analysis revealed that p27Kip1 was up-regulated in CXCL10-treated HeLa cells; however, cyclin E was down-regulated. These results indicate that the combination of CXCL10 gene therapy and radiotherapy is an effective strategy for the growth suppression of HeLa cells, and that CXCL10 enhances the radiotherapy effects through cell cycle redistribution. Our data provide new insight into the treatment of cervical carcinoma, involving an effective combination of gene therapy and radiotherapy against tumors.
CXC chemokine ligand 10; radiotherapy; gene therapy; cervical cancer; cell cycle
Mycobacterium protein tyrosine phosphatase B (mPTPB) is an essential virulence factor required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival in host macrophages. Consequently, mPTPB represents an exciting new target with a completely novel mechanism of action. We screened a library of 7,500 compounds against mPTPB and identified several 2-oxo-1,2-dihydrobenzo[cd]indole-6-sulfonamide and piperazinyl-thiophenyl-ethyl-oxalamide derivatives as two distinct classes of mPTPB inhibitors. We showed that both classes of inhibitors are capable of blocking the mPTPB-mediated ERK1/2 inactivation. We further demonstrated that both classes of mPTPB inhibitors are effective in inhibiting the growth of Mtb in macrophages. Thus, improvement of the lead compounds may produce a novel class of anti-TB agents.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; mPTPB inhibitors; anti-TB agents; high throughput screening; protein tyrosine phosphatase
Ultra-long metal nanowire arrays with large circular area up to 25 mm in diameter were obtained by direct electrodeposition on metalized Si and glass substrates via a template-based method. Nanowires with uniform length up to 30 μm were obtained. Combining this deposition process with lithography technology, micrometre-sized patterned metal nanowire array pads were successfully fabricated on a glass substrate. Good adhesion between the patterned nanowire array pads and the substrate was confirmed using scanning acoustic microscopy characterization. A pull-off tensile test showed strong bonding between the nanowires and the substrate. Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) measurements showed that approximately 95% of the nanowires were electrically connected with the substrate, demonstrating its viability to use as high-density interconnect.
nanowire arrays; anodic alumina membranes; electrodeposition; nano-interconnect