The Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45 (GADD45) proteins have been implicated in regulation of many cellular functions including DNA repair, cell cycle control, senescence and genotoxic stress. However, the pro-apoptotic activities have also positioned GADD45 as an essential player in oncogenesis. Emerging functional evidence implies that GADD45 proteins serve as tumor suppressors in response to diverse stimuli, connecting multiple cell signaling modules. Defects in the GADD45 pathway can be related to the initiation and progression of malignancies. Moreover, induction of GADD45 expression is an essential step for mediating anti-cancer activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs and the absence of GADD45 might abrogate their effects in cancer cells. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion of the functions of GADD45 proteins, linking their regulation to effectors of cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. The ramifications regarding their roles as essential and central players in tumor growth suppression are also examined. We also extensively review recent literature to clarify how different chemotherapeutic drugs induce GADD45 gene expression and how its up-regulation and interaction with different molecular partners may benefit cancer chemotherapy and facilitate novel drug discovery.
GADD45 family; cancer; apoptosis; survival
Background and Aims
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem) treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem.
Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells.
HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221) restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221) or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b), also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28.
miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.
Human Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (hPNPaseold-35 or PNPT1) is an evolutionarily conserved 3′→5′ exoribonuclease implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological processes including maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis, mtRNA import and aging-associated inflammation. From an RNase perspective, little is known about the RNA or miRNA species it targets for degradation or whose expression it regulates; except for c-myc and miR-221. To further elucidate the functional implications of hPNPaseold-35 in cellular physiology, we knocked-down and overexpressed hPNPaseold-35 in human melanoma cells and performed gene expression analyses to identify differentially expressed transcripts. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that knockdown of hPNPaseold-35 resulted in significant gene expression changes associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and cholesterol biosynthesis; whereas overexpression of hPNPaseold-35 caused global changes in cell-cycle related functions. Additionally, comparative gene expression analyses between our hPNPaseold-35 knockdown and overexpression datasets allowed us to identify 77 potential “direct” and 61 potential “indirect” targets of hPNPaseold-35 which formed correlated networks enriched for cell-cycle and wound healing functional association, respectively. These results provide a comprehensive database of genes responsive to hPNPaseold-35 expression levels; along with the identification new potential candidate genes offering fresh insight into cellular pathways regulated by PNPT1 and which may be used in the future for possible therapeutic intervention in mitochondrial- or inflammation-associated disease phenotypes.
High-risk neuroblastoma remains a therapeutic challenge with a long-term survival rate of less than 40%. Therefore, new agents are urgently needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance so as to improve the treatment outcome of this deadly disease. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACIs) represent a novel class of anticancer drugs. Recent studies demonstrated that HDACIs can down-regulate the CHK1 pathway by which cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional chemotherapy drugs. This prompted our hypothesis that combining HDACIs with DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs for treating neuroblastoma would result in enhanced anti-tumor activities of these drugs. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines with a novel pan-HDACI, panobinostat (LBH589), resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in 4 high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines. Further, the combination of panobinostat with cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide resulted in highly synergistic antitumor interactions in the high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines, independent of the sequence of drug administration. This was accompanied by cooperative induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, panobinostat treatment resulted in substantial down-regulation of CHK1 and its downstream pathway and abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. Synergistic antitumor interactions were also observed when the DNA damaging agents were combined with a CHK1-specific inhibitor, LY2603618. Contrary to panobinostat treatment, LY2603618 treatments neither resulted in abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint nor enhanced cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide-induced apoptosis in the high-risk neuroblastoma cells. Surprisingly, LY2603618 treatments caused substantial down-regulation of total CDK1. Despite this discrepancy between panobinostat and LY2603618, our results indicate that suppression of the CHK1 pathway by panobinostat is at least partially responsible for the synergistic antitumor interactions between panobinostat and the DNA damaging agents in high-risk neuroblastoma cells. The results of this study provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of the combination of panobinostat and cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide for treating children with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Previous study in mice using real-time intravital imaging revealed an acute deleterious effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the gonadal vasculature, as a prototype of an end-organ, manifested by a reduction in blood flow and disintegration of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that this pattern may represent the formation of microthrombi. We aimed to further characterize the effect of DXR on platelets’ activity and interaction with endothelial cells (EC) and to examine potential protectants to reduce DXR acute effect on the blood flow.
The effect of DXR on platelet adhesion and aggregation were studied in
vitro. For in
vivo studies, mice were injected with either low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Enoxaparin) or with eptifibatide (Integrilin©) prior to DXR treatment. Testicular arterial blood flow was examined in real-time by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound.
Platelet treatment with DXR did not affect platelet adhesion to a thrombogenic surface but significantly decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation by up to 40% (p<0.001). However, there was a significant increase in GPIIbIIIa-mediated platelet adhesion to DXR-exposed endothelial cells (EC; 5.7-fold; p<0.001) reflecting the toxic effect of DXR on EC. The testicular arterial blood flow was preserved in mice pre-treated with LMWH or eptifibatide prior to DXR (P<0.01).
DXR-induced acute vascular toxicity may involve increased platelet–EC adhesion leading to EC-bound microthrombi formation resulting in compromised blood flow. Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant agents are effective in reducing the detrimental effect of DXR on the vasculature and thus may serve as potential protectants to lessen this critical toxicity.
Structure-based modeling combined with rational drug design, and high throughput screening approaches offer significant potential for identifying and developing lead compounds with therapeutic potential. The present review focuses on these two approaches using explicit examples based on specific derivatives of Gossypol generated through rational design and applications of a cancer-specific-promoter derived from Progression Elevated Gene-3. The Gossypol derivative Sabutoclax (BI-97C1) displays potent anti-tumor activity against a diverse spectrum of human tumors. The model of the docked structure of Gossypol bound to Bcl-XL provided a virtual structure-activity-relationship where appropriate modifications were predicted on a rational basis. These structure-based studies led to the isolation of Sabutoclax, an optically pure isomer of Apogossypol displaying superior efficacy and reduced toxicity. These studies illustrate the power of combining structure-based modeling with rational design to predict appropriate derivatives of lead compounds to be empirically tested and evaluated for bioactivity. Another approach to cancer drug discovery utilizes a cancer-specific promoter as readouts of the transformed state. The promoter region of Progression Elevated Gene-3 is such a promoter with cancer-specific activity. The specificity of this promoter has been exploited as a means of constructing cancer terminator viruses that selectively kill cancer cells and as a systemic imaging modality that specifically visualizes in vivo cancer growth with no background from normal tissues. Screening of small molecule inhibitors that suppress the Progression Elevated Gene-3-promoter may provide relevant lead compounds for cancer therapy that can be combined with further structure-based approaches leading to the development of novel compounds for cancer therapy.
Progression Elevated Gene-3; Sabutoclax; Apogossypol; BI-97C1; Gossypol; AP-1; PEA3; ETV4; E1AF; c-fos; c-jun; Cancer Terminator Virus
A sensitive, simple and reproducible protocol for nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging technique is described. The use of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles abolishes heterogeneous crystallization, matrix background interferences and enhances signal detection, especially in the low mass range. Molecular image normalization was based on internal standard deposition on tissues, allowing direct comparison of drug penetration and distribution between different organs and tissues. The method was applied to analyze the distribution of the anticancer drug paclitaxel, inside normal and neoplastic mouse tissue sections. Spatial resolution was good, with a linear response between different in vivo treatments and molecular imaging intensity using therapeutic drug doses. This technique distinguishes the different intensity of paclitaxel distribution in control organs of mice, such as liver and kidney, in relation to the dose. Animals treated with 30 mg/kg of paclitaxel had half of the concentration of those treated with 60 mg/kg. We investigated the spatial distribution of paclitaxel in human melanoma mouse xenografts, following different dosage schedules and found a more homogeneous drug distribution in tumors of mice given repeated doses (5×8 mg/kg) plus a 60 mg/kg dose than in those assigned only a single 60 mg/kg dose. The protocol can be readily applied to investigate anticancer drug distribution in neoplastic lesions and to develop strategies to optimize and enhance drug penetration through different tumor tissues.
The incidence of melanoma continues to rise and prognosis in patients with metastatic melanoma remains poor. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) serves as one of the primary immune checkpoints and downregulates T cell activation pathways. Enhancing T cell activation by antibody blockade of the CTLA-4 provides a novel approach to overcome tumor-induced immune tolerance. Recently, anti-CTLA-4 therapy demonstrated significant clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma, which led to the approval of ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration in early 2011.
The fundamental concepts underlying CTLA-4 blockade-potentiated immune activation, the scientific rationale for and the preclinical evidence supporting CTLA-4-targeted cancer immunotherapy are presented. We also provide an update on clinical trials with anti-CTLA-4 inhibitors and discuss the associated autoimmune toxicity.
Given that overall survival is the only validated endpoint for the anti-CTLA-4 therapy, the clinical implications of the antigen or tumor-specific immunity in patients remain to be clarified. Additional research is necessary to elucidate the prognostic significance of immune-related side effects and significantly optimize the treatment regimens. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of action of CTLA-4 antibodies may also culminate in wide-ranging clinical applications of this novel therapy for other tumor types.
cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen; CTL-A blockade; T cell activation; tumor immunity; overall survival
Peritumoral liver tissue could play a potential role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and patient survival via angiogenesis- and lymphangiogensis-related factors. The prognostic role of these factors in hepatocytes and stromal cells in HCC patients after curative resection remains to be explored.
Tumor tissue and surrounding peritumoral tissue were obtained from 145 resected HCC patients without lymph node metastasis (LNM) and 37 resected HCC patients with LNM. Tissue microarrays were constructed from duplicate cores of tumor tissue and surrounding peritumoral tissue from each resected specimen. Immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-C, VEGF receptor-1(VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3. Macrophage infiltration was determined by CD68 staining. Correlations between the expression of these factors and overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) were studied.
The peritumoral expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 were significantly higher than expression of these factors in tumors. VEGFR-1 was mostly located in peritumoral macrophages, while VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 were mostly located in peritumoral hepatocytes. HCC with high peritumoral co-expression of VEGF-C, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-3 was associated with higher peritumoral distribution of macrophages (0.87%±0.26% versus 0.45%±0.20%), LNM (32.4% versus 12.0%), shorter TTR (10.2 months versus 34.5 months), and poor prognosis (19.4 months versus 49.3 months).
Expression of VEGF-C, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-3 in peritumoral liver tissue is associated with a unique type of HCC that has a poorer outcome after hepatectomy.
Dietary supplementation of selenium and green tea holds promise in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the efficacies of selenium and green tea administered individually and in combination against colorectal cancer in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colonic carcinogenesis model and determined the underlying mechanisms of the protection. Four-week old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with diets containing 0.5% green tea extract, 1ppm selenium as selenium-enriched milk protein, or combination of 1ppm selenium and 0.5% green tea extract. Animals received 2 AOM (15 mg/kg) treatments to induce colonic oncogenesis. Rats were killed 8 or 30 wk later after the last AOM to examine the effect of dietary intervention on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation or tumor development. On sacrifice, colons were examined for ACF and tumors, the mRNA levels of SFRP5 and Cyclin D1, and the proteins levels of ß-catenin, COX-2, Ki-67, DNMT1 and acetyl histone H3. The combination of selenium and green tea resulted in a significant additive inhibition of large ACF formation, this effect was greater than either selenium or green tea alone, P<0.01; the combination also had a significant additive inhibition effect on all tumor endpoints, the effect of the combination diet on tumor incidence, multiplicity and size was greater than selenium or green tea alone, P<0.01. Rats fed the combination diet showed marked reduction of DNMT1 expression and induction of histone H3 acetylation, which were accompanied by restoration of SFRP5 mRNA in normal-appearing colonic crypts. The combination diet also significantly reduced ß-catenin nuclear translocation, Cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation. These data show, for the first time, that combination of selenium and green tea is more effective in suppressing colorectal oncogenesis than either agent alone. The preventive effect is associated with regulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers implicated in colonic carcinogenesis.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the hardest subtypes of breast cancer to treat due to the heterogeneity of the disease and absence of well-defined molecular targets. Emerging evidence has shown the role of cohesin in the formation and progression of various cancers including colon and lung cancer but the role of cohesin in breast cancer remains elusive. Our data showed that structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (SMC1), a subunit of the cohesin protein complex, is differentially overexpressed both at RNA and protein level in a panel of TNBC cell lines as compared to normal epithelial or luminal breast cancer cells, suggesting that the amplified product of this normal gene may play role in tumorigenesis in TNBC. In addition, our results show that induced overexpression of SMC1 through transient transfection enhanced cell migration and anchorage independent growth while its suppression with targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the migration ability of TNBC cells. Increased expression of SMC1 also lead to increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin and decrease in the normal epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Immunocytochemical studies along with flow cytometry and cell fractionation showed the localization of SMC1 in the nucleus, cytoplasm and also in the plasma membrane. The knockdown of SMC1 by siRNA sensitized the TNBC cells towards a PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) and IC50 was approximately three fold less than ABT-888 alone. The cytotoxic effect of combination of SMC1 suppression and ABT-888 was also confirmed by the colony propagation assay. Taken together, these studies report for the first time that SMC1 is overexpressed in TNBC cells where it plays a role in cell migration and drug sensitivity, and thus provides a potential therapeutic target for this highly invasive breast cancer subtype.
Adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapy represents a potentially viable strategy for treating colorectal cancer. The infectivity of serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad.5), routinely used as a transgene delivery vector, is dependent on Coxsackie-adenovirus receptors (CAR). CAR expression is downregulated in many cancers thus preventing optimum therapeutic efficiency of Ad.5-based therapies. To overcome the low CAR problem, a serotype chimerism approach was used to generate a recombinant Ad (Ad.5/3) that is capable of infecting cancer cells via Ad.3 receptors in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated the improved transgene delivery and efficacy of Ad.5/3 recombinant virus expressing melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), an effective wide-spectrum cancer-selective therapeutic. In low CAR human colorectal cancer cells RKO, wild-type Ad.5 virus expressing mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.5-mda-7) failed to infect efficiently resulting in lack of expression of MDA-7/IL-24 or induction of apoptosis. However, a recombinant Ad.5/3 virus expressing mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.5/3-mda-7) efficiently infected RKO cells resulting in higher MDA-7/IL-24 expression and inhibition of cell growth both in vitro and in nude mice xenograft models. Addition of the novel Bcl-2 family pharmacological inhibitor Apogossypol derivative BI-97C1 (Sabutoclax) significantly augmented the efficacy of Ad.5/3-mda-7. A combination regimen of suboptimal doses of Ad.5/3-mda-7 and BI-97C1 profoundly enhanced cytotoxicity in RKO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Considering the fact that Ad.5-mda-7 has demonstrated significant objective responses in a Phase I clinical trial for advanced solid tumors, Ad.5/3-mda-7 alone or in combination with BI-97C1 would be predicted to exert significantly improved therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer patients.
Viral gene therapy; Mcl-1 inhibition; apoptosis induction; anti-tumor activity
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), a unique member of the IL-10 gene family, displays a broad range of antitumor properties including cancer-specific induction of apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and modulation of anti-tumor immune responses. Here we identify clusterin (CLU) as a MDA-7/IL-24 interacting protein in DU-145 cells and investigate the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in regulating CLU expression and mediating the antitumor properties of mda-7/IL-24 in prostate cancer. Ad.mda-7 decreased expression of soluble CLU (sCLU) and increased expression of nuclear CLU (nCLU). In the initial phase of Ad.mda-7 infection sCLU expression increased and CLU interacted with MDA-7/IL-24 producing a cytoprotective effect. Infection of stable clones of DU-145 prostate cancer cells expressing sCLU with Ad.mda-7 resulted in generation of nCLU that correlated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. In the presence of mda-7/IL-24, sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed G2/M phase arrest followed by apoptosis. Similarly, Ad.mda-7 infection decreased cell migration by altering cytoskeleton in sCLU-DU-145 cells. Ad.mda-7-treated sCLU-DU-145 cells displayed a significant reduction in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models and reduced angiogenesis when compared to the vector control group. Tumor tissue lysates demonstrated enhanced nCLU generated from sCLU with increased apoptosis in the presence of MDA-7/IL-24. Our findings reveal novel aspects relative to the role of sCLU/nCLU in regulating the anticancer properties of MDA-7/IL-24 that may be exploited for developing enhanced therapies for prostate cancer.
MDA-7/IL-24; soluble clusterin; nuclear clusterin; G2/M arrest; apoptosis
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is constitutively expressed endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, exhibit its antiapoptotic effect by inactivating key caspases such as caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 and also play pivotal role in rendering cancer chemoresistance. Our studies showed the coadministration of TQ and TAM resulting in a substantial increase in breast cancer cell apoptosis and marked inhibition of cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive potential of TQ and TAM was assessed through in vitro studies. This novel combinatorial regimen leads to regulation of multiple cell signaling targets including inactivation of Akt and XIAP degradation. At molecular level, TQ and TAM synergistically lowers XIAP expression resulting in binding and activation of caspase-9 in apoptotic cascade, and interfere with cell survival through PI3-K/Akt pathway by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation. Cleaved caspase-9 further processes other intracellular death substrates such as PARP thereby shifting the balance from survival to apoptosis, indicated by rise in the sub-G1 cell population. This combination also downregulates the expression of Akt-regulated downstream effectors such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and induce expression of Bax, AIF, cytochrome C and p-27. Consistent with these results, overexpression studies further confirmed the involvement of XIAP and its regulatory action on Akt phosphorylation along with procaspase-9 and PARP cleavage in TQ-TAM coadministrated induced apoptosis. The ability of TQ and TAM in inhibiting XIAP was confirmed through siRNA-XIAP cotransfection studies. This novel modality may be a promising tool in breast cancer treatment.
Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis plaque development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis plaque haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery plaque area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes plaque haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had plaque haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery plaque showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic plaque haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment.
Therapeutic targeting of the beta-adrenergic receptors has recently shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of benign vascular tumors such as infantile hemangiomas. As infantile hemangiomas are reported to express high levels of beta adrenergic receptors, we examined the expression of these receptors on more aggressive vascular tumors such as hemangioendotheliomas and angiosarcomas, revealing beta 1, 2, and 3 receptors were indeed present and therefore aggressive vascular tumors may similarly show increased susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of beta blockade. Using a panel of hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma cell lines, we demonstrate that beta adrenergic inhibition blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Beta blockade is selective for vascular tumor cells over normal endothelial cells and synergistically effective when combined with standard chemotherapeutic or cytotoxic agents. We demonstrate that inhibition of beta adrenergic signaling induces large scale changes in the global gene expression patterns of vascular tumors, including alterations in the expression of established cell cycle and apoptotic regulators. Using in vivo tumor models we demonstrate that beta blockade shows remarkable efficacy as a single agent in reducing the growth of angiosarcoma tumors. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the selective cytotoxicity and tumor suppressive ability of beta adrenergic inhibition on malignant vascular tumors and have laid the groundwork for a promising treatment of angiosarcomas in humans.
Klotho was first identified in 1997 and has been considered as an anti-aging gene. Emerging evidence demonstrates that klotho has a close relationship with cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, etc, by inhibiting the proliferation and promoting apoptosis of cancer cells. Cisplatin has been the most widely used drug in the first-line chemotherapy. However, the increase in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells has become a major obstacle in clinical management of cancers. In our study, we for the first time demonstrated that klotho could attenuate the resistance of lung cancer to cisplatin based chemotherapy and the apoptosis of the resistant cells with klotho overexpression was markedly increased. However, klotho knockdown cells showed enhanced resistance to chemotherapy. Further analysis showed that inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway with specific inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated the promotive effects on cancer growth following interfering with klotho shRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that klotho modulated the resistance to cisplatin in a xenograft nude mice model. These observations suggested that klotho could improve the resistance of lung cancer cells to chemotherapy and may serve as a potential target for the gene therapy of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin based chemotherapy.
To evaluate the clinical utility of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) in staging and characterizing gastric cancers.
Materials and Methods
96 patients suspected of gastric cancers underwent dual-phasic scans (arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP)) with DEsCT mode. Three types of images were reconstructed for analysis: conventional polychromatic images, material-decomposition images, and monochromatic image sets with photon energies from 40 to 140 keV. The polychromatic and monochromatic images were compared in TNM staging. The iodine concentrations in the lesions and lymph nodes were measured on the iodine-based material-decomposition images. These values were further normalized against that in aorta and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) values were statistically compared. Results were correlated with pathological findings.
The overall accuracies for T, N and M staging were (81.2%, 80.0%, and 98.9%) and (73.9%, 75.0%, and 98.9%) determined with the monochromatic images and the conventional kVp images, respectively. The improvement of the accuracy in N-staging using the keV images was statistically significant (p<0.05). The nIC values between the differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes were significantly different both in AP (p = 0.02, respectively) and PP (p = 0.01, respectively). Among metastatic lymph nodes, nIC of the signet-ring cell carcinoma were significantly different from the adenocarcinoma (p = 0.02) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (p = 0.01) in PP.
The monochromatic images obtained with DEsCT may be used to improve the N-staging accuracy. Quantitative iodine concentration measurements may be helpful for differentiating between differentiated and undifferentiated gastric carcinoma, and between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes.
Despite significant improvements in therapeutic protocols, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year post therapeutic survival rate is among the lowest of the major cancers with loco-regional relapse being the main cause of death. Moreover, in most instances, the quality of life of the afflicted patient is severely compromised. The poor prognosis for HNSCC is primarily due to disease detection at advanced stages. Accordingly, development of early detection and preventive strategies are essential. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and etiology of HNSCC should facilitate development of improved intervention and therapeutic approaches. The present review discusses the potential role of such factors for developing preventive and early diagnostic strategies for HNSCC management.
The aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro action of 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) on non-tumorigenic MCF-12A, tumorigenic MCF-7 and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. ESE-16 is able to inhibit the activity of a carbonic anhydrase II and a mimic of carbonic anhydrase IX in the nanomolar range. Gene and protein expression studies using various techniques including gene and antibody microarrays and various flow cytometry assays yielded valuable information about the mechanism of action of ESE-16. The JNK pathway was identified as an important pathway mediating the effects of ESE-16 while the p38 stress-induced pathway is more important in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to ESE-16. Lysosomal rupture and iron metabolism was identified as important mediators of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Abrogation of Bcl-2 phosphorylation status as a result of ESE-16 also plays a role in inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The study provides a basis for future research projects to develop the newly synthesized compound into a clinically usable anticancer agent either alone or in combination with other agents.
Keywords: Antimitotic, anticarbonic anhydrase IX, apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, Bcl-2, JNK, p38, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, flow cytometry, gene expression and protein microarray, anticancer.
Intratumoral heterogeneity reflects subclonal diversity and accounts for a variety of clinically defined phenotypes including the development of drug resistance and recurrence. However, intratumoral heterogeneity of bile duct carcinoma (BDC) is rarely studied.
Two highly heterogeneous cell lines named EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b were established from a primary tumor tissue of a pathologically proven BDC. Distinct heterogeneity and underlying mechanisms of two cell lines in karyotype, colony formation, tumorgenicity, and sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy were intensively studied.
Both cell lines showed typical morphology of cancer cells. EH-CA1a cells grew as free-floating aggregates, while EH-CA1b cells grew adherently as a monolayer. EH-CA1a cells had higher cloning efficiencies and were able to keep proliferating under hypoxic condition. Coincidentally, hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA were significantly higher in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Both cell lines were tumorigenic in nude mouse, however, EH-CA1a cells showed more aggressive characteristics. Most importantly, the EH-CA1a cells showed much more resistance against radiation and chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Metastasis-related genes including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as Vimentin, Snail, and Twist, are more highly expressed in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, the percentage of cells expressing cancer stem cell-like marker, CD133, in EH-CA1a cells is much higher than that in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, knockdown of CD133 in both EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b cells significantly reduced their invasive potential and increased their sensitivities to radiation and gemcitabine, suggesting the differential expression of CD133 protein may partially account for the difference in malignancy between these two cancer cells.
Establishment of these two cell lines will not only shed light on intratumoral heterogeneities of BDC, but also potentially facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches of BDC.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a morphologic and molecular heterogenic disease. This heterogeneity substantially impairs drug effectiveness and prognosis. The subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMR-D) CRCs, accounting for about 15% of all cases, shows particular differential responses up to resistance towards currently approved cytostatic drugs. Pre-clinical in vitro models representing molecular features of MMR-D tumors are thus mandatory for identifying biomarkers that finally help to predict responses towards new cytostatic drugs. Here, we describe the successful establishment and characterization of three patient-derived MMR-D cell lines (HROC24, HROC87, and HROC113) along with their corresponding xenografts.
MMR-D cell lines (HROC24, HROC87, and HROC113) were established from a total of ten clinicopathological well-defined MMR-D cases (120 CRC cases in total). Cells were comprehensively characterized by phenotype, morphology, growth kinetics, invasiveness, and molecular profile. Additionally, response to clinically relevant chemotherapeutics was examined in vitro and in vivo.
Two MMR-D lines showing CIMP-H derived from sporadic CRC (HROC24: K-raswt, B-rafmut, HROC87: K-raswt, B-rafmut), whereas the HROC113 cell line (K-rasmut, B-rafwt) was HNPCC-associated. A diploid DNA-status could be verified by flow cytometry and SNP Array analysis. All cell lines were characterized as epithelial (EpCAM+) tumor cells, showing surface tumor marker expression (CEACAM+). MHC-class II was inducible by Interferon-γ stimulation. Growth kinetics as well as invasive potential was quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Besides, MMR-D cell lines exhibited distinct responsiveness towards chemotherapeutics, even when comparing in vitro and in vivo sensitivity.
These newly established and well-characterized, low-passage MMR-D cell lines provide a useful tool for future investigations on the biological characteristics of MMR-D CRCs, both of sporadic and hereditary origin. Additionally, matched patient-derived immune cells allow for comparative genetic studies.
Background and Aims
Doxorubicin is a potent anticancer drug and a major limiting factor that hinders therapeutic use as its high levels of systemic circulation often associated with various off-target effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. The present study focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of doxorubicin when it is loaded into the protein nanoparticles and delivered intravenously in rats bearing Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proteins selected as carrier were Apotransferrin and Lactoferrin, since the receptors for these two proteins are known to be over expressed on cancer cells due to their iron transport capacity.
Doxorubicin loaded apotransferrin (Apodoxonano) and lactoferrin nanoparticles (Lactodoxonano) were prepared by sol-oil chemistry. HCC in the rats was induced by 100 mg/l of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats received 5 doses of 2 mg/kg drug equivalent nanoparticles through intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoformulations was evaluated in healthy rats and anticancer activity was studied in DENA treated rats. The anticancer activity was evaluated through counting of the liver nodules, H & E analysis and by estimating the expression levels of angiogenic and antitumor markers.
In rats treated with nanoformulations, the numbers of liver nodules were found to be significantly reduced. They showed highest drug accumulation in liver (22.4 and 19.5 µg/g). Both nanoformulations showed higher localization compared to doxorubicin (Doxo) when delivered in the absence of a carrier. Higher amounts of Doxo (195 µg/g) were removed through kidney, while Apodoxonano and Lactodoxonano showed only a minimal amount of removal (<40 µg/g), suggesting the extended bioavailability of Doxo when delivered through nanoformulation. Safety analysis shows minimal cardiotoxicity due to lower drug accumulation in heart in the case of nanoformulation.
Drug delivery through nanoformulations not only minimizes the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin but also enhances the efficacy and bioavailability of the drug in a target-specific manner.
We recently reported that TCRP1, a novel multidrug-resistance associated human gene, can mediate cisplatin resistance in OSCC cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this role of TCRP1 remained to be elucidated. In this study, by using Human Toxicology and Drug Resistance Microarray, we identified 30 genes with significantly different expression levels between Tca/PYM and TCRP1 knockdown cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and GST-pull down assays showed that metallothionein1X (MT1X) and Akt interact with TCRP1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TCRP1 and MT1X was found to sensitize cells to cisplatin, leading to increased apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. These functions of TCRP1 may be caused at least in part via activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that TCRP1 may be an important drug target for improvement of the treatment and survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Background and Aims
Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) would facilitate development of targeted and effective therapies for this fatal disease. We recently demonstrated that the cellular transcription factor Late SV40 Factor (LSF) is overexpressed in more than 90% of human HCC cases, compared to normal liver, and plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. LSF transcriptionally upregulates osteopontin (OPN) that plays a significant role in mediating the oncogenic function of LSF. The present study aims at a better understanding of LSF function by analyzing the signaling pathway modulated by LSF.
Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array was performed to identify which receptor tyrosine kinases are activated by LSF. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray was performed to establish correlation among LSF, OPN and phospho-c-Met levels in HCC patients. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis was performed to check OPN-induced CD44 and c-Met interaction. Inhibition studies using chemicals and siRNAs were performed in vitro and in vivo using nude mice xenograft models to establish the importance of c-Met activation in mediating LSF function.
Secreted OPN, induced by LSF, activates c-Met via a potential interaction between OPN and its cell surface receptor CD44. A significant correlation was observed among LSF, OPN and activated c-Met levels in HCC patients. Chemical or genetic inhibition of c-Met resulted in profound abrogation of LSF-mediated tumorigenesis and metastasis in nude mice xenograft studies.
The present findings elucidate a novel pathway of c-Met activation during hepatocarcinogenesis and support the rationale of using c-Met inhibitors as potential HCC therapeutics.
Late SV40 Factor; CD44; Hepatocellular carcinoma; c-Met; osteopontin