The recommended anticoagulation regimen during continuous-flow axial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support is aspirin and warfarin with a targeted international normalized ratio of 2.0–3.0. We report two patients in whom recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding during LVAD support necessitated discontinuation of this anti-thrombotic regimen for a year or more. Despite this, neither patients developed thrombotic complications during 29 patient-months of follow-up. An acquired von Willebrand factor (VWF) abnormality reflected by the absence or decreased abundance of the highest molecular weight multimers was demonstrated in both patients. The gold standard test for platelet function, light transmission platelet aggregometry was measured in one patient and was normal, indicative that the predominant abnormality in the coagulation profile of these patients is an acquired VWF syndrome. Clinical trials are required to address the question whether it is safe to discontinue anticoagulation in LVAD patients with acquired VWF abnormalities.
Heart failure; Ventricular assist device; Anticoagulation; Gastrointestinal bleeding
The analysis was designed to compare dosimetric parameters among 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and RapidArc (RA) to identify which can achieve the lowest risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Twenty patients with HCC were enrolled in this study. Dosimetric values for 3DCRT, IMRT, and RA were calculated for total dose of 50 Gy/25f. The percentage of the normal liver volume receiving >40, >30, >20, >10, and >5 Gy (V40, V30, V20, V10 and V5) were evaluated to determine liver toxicity. V5, V10, V20, V30 and Dmean of liver were compared as predicting parameters for RILD. Other parameters included the conformal index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and hot spot (V110%) for the planned target volume (PTV) as well as the monitor units (MUs) for plan efficiency, the mean dose (Dmean) for the organs at risk (OARs) and the maximal dose at 1% volume (D1%) for the spinal cord.
The Dmean of IMRT was higher than 3DCRT (p = 0.045). For V5, there was a significant difference: RA > IMRT >3DCRT (p <0.05). 3DCRT had a lower V10 and higher V20, V30 values for liver than RA (p <0.05). RA and IMRT achieved significantly better CI and lower V110% values than 3DCRT (p <0.05). RA had better HI, lower MUs and shorter delivery time than 3DCRT or IMRT (p <0.05).
For right lobe tumors, RapidArc may have the lowest risk of RILD with the lowest V20 and V30 compared with 3DCRT or IMRT. For diameters of tumors >8 cm in our study, the value of Dmean for 3DCRT was lower than IMRT or RapidArc. This may indicate that 3DCRT is more suitable for larger tumors.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Radiotherapy; Dosimetry; Radiation-induced liver disease; Liver protection
The ciliary epithelium (CE) of adult mammals has been reported to provide a source of retinal stem cells (RSCs) that can give rise to all retinal cell types in vitro. A recent study, however, suggests that CE-derived cells possess properties of pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and display little neurogenic potential. Here we show that the neurogenic potential of CE-derived cells is negatively regulated by ephrin-A3, which is upregulated in the CE of postnatal mice and presents a strong prohibitory niche for adult RSCs. Addition of ephrin-A3 inhibits proliferation of CE-derived RSCs and increases pigment epithelial cell fate. In contrast, absence of ephrin-A3 promotes proliferation and increases expression of neural progenitor cell markers and photoreceptor progeny. The negative effects of ephrin-A3 on CE-derived RSCs are mediated through activation of an EphA4 receptor and suppression of Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling. Together, our data suggest that CE-derived RSCs contain the intrinsic machinery to generate photoreceptors and other retinal neurons, while the CE of adult mice expresses negative regulators that prohibit the proliferation and neural differentiation of RSCs. Manipulating ephrin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling may, thus, represents a viable approach to activating the endogenous neurogenic potential of CE-derived RSCs for treating photoreceptor damage and retinal degenerative disorders.
Adult stem cells; cell signaling; neural differentiation; retina; stem cell plasticity
With advances in the development of various disciplines, there is a need to decipher bio-behavioural mechanisms via interdisciplinary means. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study of the role of silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) in disturbing the neural behaviours of zebrafish and a possible physiological mechanism for this phenomenon. We used adult zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the roles of size (15-nm and 50-nm) and concentration (300 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL) in SiO2-NP neurotoxicity via behavioural and physiological analyses. With the aid of video tracking and data mining, we detected changes in behavioural phenotypes. We found that compared with 50-nm nanosilica, 15-nm SiO2-NPs produced greater significant changes in advanced cognitive neurobehavioural patterns (colour preference) and caused potentially Parkinson's disease-like behaviour. Analyses at the tissue, cell and molecular levels corroborated the behavioural results, demonstrating that nanosilica acted on the retina and dopaminergic (DA) neurons to change colour preference and to cause potentially Parkinson's disease-like behaviour.
Objective: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF β) superfamily. BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 exert their biological functions by interacting with membrane bound receptors belonging to the serine/threonine kinase family. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the nerve plexuses of the distal gut. However, putative Notch function in enteric nervous system (ENS) development and the etiology of HSCR is unknown. Methods: Aganglionic and ganglionic colon segment tissues of 50 HSCR patients were investigated for the expression pattern of BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 using real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mRNA levels of BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 in the stenotic colon segment from HSCR patients were significantly higher than those in the normal ones. Similar increased expressions of them in the stenotic colon segments were detected by Western blotting coupled with densitometry analysis. Lastly, immunohistologicl stain showed significant BMP2, 5 and 10 increases in mucous and muscular layers from stenotic colon segments compared to normal segments. Conclusions: BMP2, BMP5 and BMP10 are elevated in the stenotic colon segment of HSCR, and BMPs signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of HSCR.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs); Hirschsprung disease (HSCR); enteric nervous system (ENS); stenotic colon; ganglion cell
AIM: To investigate adjuvant chemotherapy, p53 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expression and prognosis after D2 gastrectomy for stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: A total of 286 patients with stage II or III gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy between May 2007 and December 2010 were enrolled into this study. One hundred and sixty-nine of these patients received surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy, and 117 patients received surgery alone. Tumor expression of p53 and CEA proteins in all patients was evaluated immunohistochemically and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. The Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with log-rank testing were used to compare the survival difference. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Patients with adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly better median OS (50.87 mo vs 30.73 mo, P = 0.000) and median DFS (36.30 mo vs 25.60 mo, P = 0.001) than patients with surgery alone in the entire cohort. Consistent results with the entire cohort were found in stage II (P = 0.006 and P = 0.047), stage III (P = 0.005 and P = 0.030), and stage IIIB/IIIC patients (P = 0.000 and P = 0.001). The median OS and DFS advantages were confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = 0.000 and P = 0.008) and maintained when the analyses were restricted to fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001) and fluoropyrimidine plus platinum regimen (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007), however, not the fluoropyrimidine plus taxane (P = 0.198 and P = 0.777) or platinum plus taxane (P = 0.666 and P = 0.687) regimens. Median OS and median DFS did not differ significantly between the patients with p53(+) and p53(-) tumors (P = 0.608 and P = 0.064), or between patients with CEA(+) and CEA(-) tumors (P = 0.052 and P = 0.989), which were maintained when the analyses were restricted to surgery alone (p53: P = 0.864 and P = 0.431; CEA: P = 0.142 and P = 0.948), adjuvant chemotherapy (p53: P = 0.802 and P = 0.091; CEA: P = 0.223 and P = 0.946) and even different chemotherapy regimens (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Patients after D2 gastrectomy for stage II/III gastric adenocarcinoma had significantly better survival after fluoropyrimidine monotherapy and fluoropyrimidine plus platinum. p53 and CEA were not prognostic.
Gastric adenocarcinoma; Adjuvant chemotherapy; p53; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Immunohistochemistry
Paclitaxel has been proved to be active in treatment and larynx preservation of HNSCC, however, the fact that about 20-40% patients do not respond to paclitaxel makes it urgent to figure out the biomarkers for paclitaxel-based treatment in Hypopharynx cancer (HPC) patients to improve the therapy effect. In this work, Fadu cells, treated or untreated with low dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, were applied to DNA microarray chips. The differential expression in mRNAs and miRs was analyzed and the network between expression-altered mRNAs and miRs was constructed. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (ACAT2, MSMO1, LSS, FDFT1 and FDPS etc.), complement system (C3, C1R, C1S, CFR and CFB etc.), interferon signaling (IFIT1, IFIT3, IFITM1 and MX1 etc.), mTOR signaling (MRAS, PRKAA2, PLD1, RND3 and EIF4A1 etc.) and IGF1 signaling (MRAS, IGFBP7, JUN and FOS etc.), most of these pathways are implicated in tumorigenesis or chemotherapy resistance. The first three pathways were predicted to be suppressed, while the last two pathways were predicted to be induced by paclitaxel, suggesting the combination therapy with mTOR inhibition and paclitaxel might be better than single one. The dramatically expression-altered miRs were miR-112, miR-7, miR-1304, miR-222*, miR-29b-1* (these five miRs were upregulated) and miR-210 (downregulated). The 26 putative target genes mediated by the 6 miRs were figured out and the miR-gene network was constructed. Furthermore, immunoblotting assay showed that ERK signaling in Fadu cells was active by low dose of paclitaxel but repressed by high dose of paclitaxel. Collectively, our data would provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for paclitaxel-based therapy in HPC patients.
Paclitaxel; hypopharynx cancer; DNA microarray; mTOR signaling
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a key contributor to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. To enhance our understanding of the role of AEG-1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, a transgenic mouse with hepatocyte-specific expression of AEG-1 (Alb/AEG1) was developed. Treating Alb/AEG-1, but not Wild type (WT) mice, with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), resulted in multinodular HCC with steatotic features and associated modulation of expression of genes regulating invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Hepatocytes isolated from Alb/AEG-1 mice displayed profound resistance to chemotherapeutics and growth factor deprivation with activation of pro-survival signaling pathways. Alb/AEG-1 hepatocytes also exhibited marked resistance towards senescence, which correlated with abrogation of activation of a DNA damage response. Conditioned media (CM) from Alb/AEG-1 hepatocytes induced marked angiogenesis with elevation in several coagulation factors. Among these factors, AEG-1 facilitated association of Factor XII (FXII) mRNA with polysomes resulting in increased translation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of FXII resulted in profound inhibition of AEG-1-induced angiogenesis.
We uncover novel aspects of AEG-1 functions, including induction of steatosis, inhibition of senescence and activation of coagulation pathway to augment aggressive hepatocarcinogenesis. The Alb/AEG-1 mouse provides an appropriate model to scrutinize the molecular mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis and to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies targeting HCC.
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1); transgenic; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); senescence; angiogenesis
The induction of autophagy in the mammalian heart during the perinatal period is an essential adaptation required to survive early neonatal starvation; however, the mechanisms that mediate autophagy suppression once feeding is established are not known. Insulin signaling in the heart is transduced via insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs). We disrupted insulin and IGF-1R signaling by generating mice with combined cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Irs1 and Irs2. Here we show that loss of IRS signaling prevented the physiological suppression of autophagy that normally parallels the postnatal increase in circulating insulin. This resulted in unrestrained autophagy in cardiomyocytes, which contributed to myocyte loss, heart failure, and premature death. This process was ameliorated either by activation of mTOR with aa supplementation or by genetic suppression of autophagic activation. Loss of IRS1 and IRS2 signaling also increased apoptosis and precipitated mitochondrial dysfunction, which were not reduced when autophagic flux was normalized. Together, these data indicate that in addition to prosurvival signaling, insulin action in early life mediates the physiological postnatal suppression of autophagy, thereby linking nutrient sensing to postnatal cardiac development.
In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted.
biomass; blindness; cataract; trachoma; dry eye disease; household air pollution
Purpose. The establishment of future retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) replacement therapy is partly dependent on the availability of tissue-engineered RPE cells, which may be enhanced by the development of suitable storage methods for RPE. This study investigates the effect of different storage temperatures on the viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured RPE. Methods. ARPE-19 cells were cultured under standard conditions and stored in HEPES-buffered MEM at nine temperatures (4°C, 8°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C, and 37°C) for seven days. Viability and phenotype were assessed by a microplate fluorometer and epifluorescence microscopy, while morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results. The percentage of viable cells preserved after storage was highest in the 16°C group (48.7% ± 9.8%; P < 0.01 compared to 4°C, 8°C, and 24°C–37°C; P < 0.05 compared to 12°C). Ultrastructure was best preserved at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. Expression of actin, ZO-1, PCNA, caspase-3, and RPE65 was maintained after storage at 16°C compared to control cells that were not stored. Conclusion. Out of nine temperatures tested between 4°C and 37°C, storage at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C was optimal for maintenance of RPE cell viability, morphology, and phenotype. The preservation of RPE cells is critically dependent on storage temperature.
β-blockers (BBs) with different pharmacological properties may have heterogeneous effects on sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and central aortic pressure (CAP), which are independent cardiovascular factors for hypertension. Hence, we analyzed the effects of bisoprolol and atenolol on SNA and CAP in hypertensive patients.
This was a prospective, randomized, controlled study in 109 never-treated hypertensive subjects randomized to bisoprolol (5 mg) or atenolol (50 mg) for 4–8 weeks. SNA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) were measured using power spectral analysis using a Finometer. CAP and related parameters were determined using the SphygmoCor device (pulse wave analysis).
Both drugs were similarly effective in reducing brachial BP. However, central systolic BP (−14±10 mm Hg vs −6±9 mm Hg; P<0.001) and aortic pulse pressure (−3±10 mm Hg vs +3±8 mm Hg; P<0.001) decreased more significantly with bisoprolol than with atenolol. The augmentation index at a HR of 75 bpm (AIxatHR75) was significantly decreased (29%±11% to 25%±12%; P = 0.026) in the bisoprolol group only. Furthermore, the change in BRS in the bisoprolol group (3.99±4.19 ms/mmHg) was higher than in the atenolol group (2.66±3.78 ms/mmHg), although not statistically significant (P>0.05). BRS was stable when RHR was controlled (RHR≤65 bpm), and the two treatments had similar effects on the low frequency/high frequency (HF) ratio and on HF.
BBs seem to have different effects on arterial distensibility and compliance in hypertensive subjects. Compared with atenolol, bisoprolol may have a better effect on CAP.
Previously, iron core–gold shell nanoparticles (Fe@Au) have been shown to possess cancer-preferential cytotoxicity in oral and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. However, CRC cell lines are less sensitive to Fe@Au treatment when compared with oral cancer cell lines. In this research, Fe@Au are found to decrease the cell viability of CRC cell lines, including Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480, through growth inhibition rather than the induction of cell death. The cytotoxicity induced by Fe@Au in CRC cells uses different subcellular pathways to the mitochondria-mediated autophagy found in Fe@Au-treated oral cancer cells, OECM1. Interestingly, the Caco-2 cell line shows a similar response to OECM1 cells and is thus more sensitive to Fe@Au treatment than the other CRC cell lines studied. We have investigated the underlying cell resistance mechanisms of Fe@Au-treated CRC cells. The resistance of CRC cells to Fe@Au does not result from the total amount of Fe@Au internalized. Instead, the different amounts of Fe and Au internalized appear to determine the different response to treatment with Fe-only nanoparticles in Fe@Au-resistant CRC cells compared with the Fe@Au-sensitive OECM1 cells. The only moderately cytotoxic effect of Fe@Au nanoparticles on CRC cells, when compared to the highly sensitive OECM1 cells, appears to arise from the CRC cells’ relative insensitivity to Fe, as is demonstrated by our Fe-only treatments. This is a surprising outcome, given that Fe has thus far been considered to be the “active” component of Fe@Au nanoparticles. Instead, we have found that the Au coatings, previously considered only as a passivating coating to protect the Fe cores from oxidation, significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of Fe@Au in certain CRC cells. Therefore, we conclude that both the Fe and Au in these core–shell nanoparticles are essential for the anticancer properties observed in CRC cells.
cancer therapy; Fe; gold-coated iron; nanoparticles; differential cytotoxicity
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although its pathogenesis is still unclear, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by environmental toxins, such as mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, plays a significant role in the disease process. The microglia in PD brains are highly activated, and inflammation is also an essential element in PD pathogenesis. However, the means by which these toxins activate microglia is still unclear. In the present study, we found that rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, could directly activate microglia via the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, thereby inducing significantly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. We further observed that rotenone induced caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β release, both of which are strictly dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The activation of p38 is associated with the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by rotenone. Removal of these ROS abrogated the activation of the microglia. Therefore, our data suggest that the environmental toxin rotenone can directly activate microglia through the p38 MAPK pathway.
Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system and is characterized by an absence of enteric ganglion cells in terminal regions of the gut during development. Dishevelled (DVL) protein is a cytoplasmic protein which plays pivotal roles in the embryonic development. In this study, we explore the cause of HSCR by studying the expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 genes and their proteins in the aganglionic segment and the ganglionic segment of colon in HSCR patients. Materials and Methods: Specimen of aganglionic segment and ganglionic segment of colon in 50 cases of HSCR patients. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry staining between the aganglionic segment and the ganglionic segment of colon in HSCR patients. Results: The mRNA expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were 2.06 fold and 3.12 fold in the aganglionic segment colon tissues compared to the ganglionic segment, respectively. Similarly, the proteins expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were higher (39.71 ± 4.53 vs and 53.90 ± 6.79 vs) in the aganglionic segment colon tissues than in the ganglionic segment (15.01 ± 2.66 and 20.13 ± 3.63) by western blot. Besides, immunohistochemical staining showed that DVL-1 and DVL-3 have a significant increase in mucous and submucous layers from aganglionic colon segments compared with ganglionic segments. Conclusion: The study showed an association of DVL-1 and DVL-3 with HSCR, it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR.
Hirschsprung’s disease; dishevelled-1 and dishevelled-3; gene and protein; expression
Caveolae orchestrate the dominant placental angiogenic growth factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling primarily via FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) in placental artery endothelial cells; however, how the proximal FGF2/FGFR1 signaling is organized in the caveolae is obscure. We have shown in the present study that the FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha) is physically associated with FGFR1, and both are targeted to the caveolae via interaction with caveolin-1 in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial cells. Treatment with FGF2 rapidly stimulated time- and concentration-dependent FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation and recruited the cytosolic growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2)-GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1) complex to the caveolae, where they formed a ternary complex with FRS2alpha. Disruption of caveolae by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin inhibited FGF2-induced FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation, and it blocked the FGF2-induced recruitment of GRB2 and GAB1 to the caveolae and formation of the FRS2alpha-GRB2-GAB1 complex in the caveolae, as well as activation of the PI3K/AKT1 and MAPK1/2 pathways. Thus, these findings have demonstrated that the proximal fibroblast growth factor (FGF2/FGFR1) signaling is compartmentalized in the placental endothelial caveolae via the FGFR substrate 2α that mediates formation of a FRS2α-GRB2-GAB1 complex.
The proximal fibroblast growth factor (FGF2/FGFR1) signaling is compartmentalized in the placental endothelial caveolae via the FGFR substrate 2α that mediates formation of a FRS2α-GRB2-GAB1 complex.
caveolae; caveolin-1; FRS2α; placental endothelial cells; proximal FGF2/FGFR1 signaling
ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. After heat treatment in hydrogen or air, Ag nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanorod arrays by photo-reduction method. The size of Ag nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology, structure, composition, and optical property of ZnO nanorod arrays before and after the deposition of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, and UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. As compared to the samples with heat treatment in air or without heat treatment, the ZnO nanorod arrays after heat treatment in hydrogen allowed Ag nanoparticles to be deposited more uniformly, densely, and numerously. Also, they exhibited higher efficiency for the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye. The effects of the amount of Ag nanoparticles, initial dye concentration, and temperature on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were investigated. Furthermore, they also exhibited better surface-enhanced Raman scattering property for the detection of R6G dyes.
ZnO nanorod arrays; Hydrogen treatment; Ag nanoparticles; Photocatalytic; Surface-enhanced raman scattering
A retrospective study was conducted to determine the mortality, causes and risk factors for death among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Korea. The outcomes were determined by time periods, during the first year of ART and during 1-5 yr after ART initiation, respectively. Patients lost to follow-up were traced to ascertain survival status. Among 327 patients initiating ART during 1998-2006, 68 patients (20.8%) died during 5-yr follow-up periods. Mortality rate per 100 person-years was 8.69 (95% confidence interval, 5.68-12.73) during the first year of ART, which was higher than 4.13 (95% confidence interval, 2.98-5.59) during 1-5 yr after ART. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in both periods (30.8% within the first year of ART and 16.7% during 1-5 yr after ART). During the first year of ART, clinical category B and C at ART initiation, and underlying malignancy were significant risk factors for mortality. Between 1 and 5 yr after ART initiation, CD4 cell count ≤ 50 cells/µL at ART initiation, hepatitis B virus co-infection, and visit constancy ≤ 50% were significant risk factors for death. This suggests that different strategies to reduce mortality according to the time period after ART initiation are needed.
HIV; Antiretroviral Therapy; Mortality; Cause of Death; Risk Factors; Loss to Follow-up; Retention in Care; Visit Constancy
Previous reports have demonstrated that L1cam is aberrantly expressed in various tumors. The potential role of L1cam in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer is still not clear and needs exploring.
Expression of L1cam was evaluated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The relationship between L1cam expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The effects of L1cam on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in gastric cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. The impact of L1cam on PI3K/Akt pathway was also evaluated.
L1cam was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. L1cam expression was correlated with aggressive tumor phenotype and poor overall survival in gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of L1cam in gastric cell lines significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion whereas knockdown of L1cam inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. The low level of phosphorylated Akt in HGC27 cells was up-regulated after ectopic expression of L1cam, whereas the high level of phosphorylated Akt in SGC7901 cells was suppressed by knockdown of L1cam. Moreover, the migration and invasion promoted by L1cam overexpression in gastric cancer cells could be abolished by either application of LY294002 (a phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor) or knockdown of endogenous Akt by small interfering RNA.
Our study demonstrated that L1cam, overexpressed in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis, plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer.
L1cam; Metastasis; PI3K/Akt; Prognosis; Gastric cancer
The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) is an essential cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). CDC20 overexpression has been detected in many types of human cancers; however, its clinical role in colorectal cancer remains unknown.
Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to compare CDC20 expression in adjacent non-cancerous, cancerous and liver metastatic tissues as well as in colon cancer cell lines and normal colon epithelial cell lines. Additionally, the correlation of CDC20 expression with patient clinical parameters and its diagnostic value were statistically analyzed.
CDC20 was overexpressed in colon cancer cell lines/primary cancer tissues compared with normal colon epithelial cell lines/adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. Interestingly, CDC20 expression was further increased in metastatic liver tissues. CDC20 protein expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.020), M classification (P = 0.013) and pathologic differentiation (P = 0.008). Patients with higher CDC20 expression had a shorter overall survival than those with lower CDC20 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that CDC20 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001).
CDC20 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker of human colorectal cancer.
CDC20; Prognosis; Colorectal cancer
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) protein was expressed as the long and short as well as some truncated forms in ovine fetoplacental artery ex vivo and in vitro. Upon FGF2 stimulation, both the long and short FGFR1s were tyrosine phosphorylated and the PI3K/AKT1 and ERK1/2 pathways were activated in a concentration- and time- dependent manner in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial (oFPAE) cells. Blockade of the PI3K/AKT1 pathway attenuated FGF2-stimulated cell proliferation and migration as well as tube formation; blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway abolished FGF2-stimulated tube formation and partially inhibited cell proliferation and did not alter cell migration. Both AKT1 and ERK1/2 were co-fractionated with caveolin-1 and activated by FGF2 in the caveolae. Disruption of caveolae by methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited FGF2 activation of AKT1 and ERK1/2. FGFR1 was found in the caveolae where it physically binds to caveolin-1. FGF2 stimulated dissociation of FGFR1 from caveolin-1. Downregulation of caveolin-1 significantly attenuated the FGF2-induced activation of AKT1 and ERK1/2 and inhibited FGF2-induced cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in oFPAE cells. Pretreatment with a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide to mimic caveolin-1 overexpression also inhibited these FGF2-induced angiogenic responses. These data demonstrate that caveolae function as a platform for regulating FGF2-induced angiogenesis through spatiotemporally compartmentalizing FGFR1 and the AKT1 and ERK1/2 signaling modules; the major caveolar structural protein caveolin-1 interacts with FGFR1 and paradoxically regulates FGF2-induced activation of PI3K/AKT1 and ERK1/2 pathways that coordinately regulate placental angiogenesis.
FGF2; caveolin-1; caveolae; cell signaling; endothelial cells; placenta
In the study of biomolecular structures and interactions the polar hydrogen-π bonds (Hp-π) are an extensive molecular interaction type. In proteins 11 of 20 natural amino acids and in DNA (or RNA) all four nucleic acids are involved in this type interaction.
The Hp-π in proteins are studied using high level QM method CCSD/6-311 + G(d,p) + H-Bq (ghost hydrogen basis functions) in vacuum and in solutions (water, acetonitrile, and cyclohexane). Three quantum chemical methods (B3LYP, CCSD, and CCSD(T)) and three basis sets (6-311 + G(d,p), TZVP, and cc-pVTZ) are compared. The Hp-π donors include R2NH, RNH2, ROH, and C6H5OH; and the acceptors are aromatic amino acids, peptide bond unit, and small conjugate π-groups. The Hp-π interaction energies of four amino acid pairs (Ser-Phe, Lys-Phe, His-Phe, and Tyr-Phe) are quantitatively calculated.
Five conclusion points are abstracted from the calculation results. (1) The common DFT method B3LYP fails in describing the Hp-π interactions. On the other hand, CCSD/6-311 + G(d,p) plus ghost atom H-Bq can yield better results, very close to the state-of-the-art method CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ. (2) The Hp-π interactions are point to π-plane interactions, possessing much more interaction conformations and broader energy range than other interaction types, such as common hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions. (3) In proteins the Hp-π interaction energies are in the range 10 to 30 kJ/mol, comparable or even larger than common hydrogen bond interactions. (4) The bond length of Hp-π interactions are in the region from 2.30 to 3.00 Å at the perpendicular direction to the π-plane, much longer than the common hydrogen bonds (~1.9 Å). (5) Like common hydrogen bond interactions, the Hp-π interactions are less affected by solvation effects.
Protein structures; Molecular interactions; Hydrogen-π interactions; Protein backbones; CCSD; Ghost atom
Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Aromhum) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5′-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Aromhum mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.
aromatase; overweight; weight gain; obesity; mammary; breast cancer
To determine the contribution of insulin signaling versus systemic metabolism to metabolic and mitochondrial alterations in type 1 diabetic hearts and test the hypothesis that antecedent mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to impaired cardiac efficiency (CE) in diabetes.
Methods and Results
Control mice (WT) and mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of insulin receptors (CIRKO) were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (WT-STZ and CIRKO-STZ, respectively), non-diabetic controls received vehicle (citrate buffer). Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography; myocardial metabolism, oxygen consumption (MVO2) and CE were determined in isolated perfused hearts; mitochondrial function was determined in permeabilized cardiac fibers and mitochondrial proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Pyruvate supported respiration and ATP synthesis were equivalently reduced by diabetes and genotype, with synergistic impairment in ATP synthesis in CIRKO-STZ. In contrast, fatty acid delivery and utilization was increased by diabetes irrespective of genotype, but not in non-diabetic CIRKO. Diabetes and genotype synergistically increased MVO2 in CIRKO-STZ, leading to reduced CE. Irrespective of diabetes, genotype impaired ATP/O ratios in mitochondria exposed to palmitoyl carnitine, consistent with mitochondrial uncoupling. Proteomics revealed reduced content of fatty acid oxidation proteins in CIRKO mitochondria, which were induced by diabetes, whereas tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation proteins were reduced both in CIRKO mitochondria and by diabetes.
Deficient insulin signaling and diabetes mediate distinct effects on cardiac mitochondria. Antecedent loss of insulin signaling markedly impairs CE when diabetes is induced, via mechanisms that may be secondary to mitochondrial uncoupling and increased FA utilization.
Insulin signaling; cardiac efficiency; mitochondria; diabetes
ATP leads to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)/NO-mediated vasodilation, a process hypothesized to depend on the endothelial caveolar eNOS partitioning and subcellular domain-specific multisite phosphorylation state. We demonstrate herein that, in both the absence and presence of ATP, the uterine artery endothelial caveolae contain specific protein machinery related to subcellular partitioning and act as specific focal “hubs” for NO- and ATP-related proteins. ATP-induced eNOS regulation showed a complex set of multisite posttranslational phosphorylation events that were closely associated with the enzyme’s partitioning between caveolar and noncaveolar endothelial subcellular domains. The comprehensive model that we present demonstrates that ATP repartitioned eNOS between the caveolar and noncaveolar subcellular domains; specifically, the stimulatory PSer635eNOS was substantially higher in the caveolar pool with subcellular domain-independent increased levels on ATP treatment. The stimulatory PSer1179eNOS was not altered by ATP treatment. However, the inhibitory PThr495eNOS was regulated predominantly in the caveolar domain with decreased levels on ATP action. In contrast, the agonist-specific PSer114eNOS was localized in the noncaveolar pool with increased levels on ATP stimulation. Thus, the endothelial caveolar membrane system plays a pivotal role(s) in ATP-associated subcellular partitioning and possesses the relevant protein machinery for ATP-induced NO regulation. Furthermore, these subcellular domain-specific phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events provide evidence relating to eNOS spatio-temporal dynamics.
ATP; eNOS; endothelium; vasodilation; phosphorylation