Transcription factor E2F1 exerts effects on many types of cancers. As an upstream regulator of a host of genes, E2F1 can trigger diverse aberrant transcription processes that may dominate malignancy. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype in renal cell carcinoma which displays high malignancy and has a shortage of biomarkers in clinics. Our study aimed to explore the function of E2F1 in ccRCC and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters.
Transcription factor E2F1 was mainly distributed in cancer cell nucleus and mRNA expression signiﬁcantly increased in 72 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous kidney tissues (p<0.001). The protein expression was consistent with mRNA expression. Further analysis in 92 cases indicated that E2F1 mRNA level expression was associated with the tumor pathologic parameters embracing diameter, Fuhrman tumor grade, pT stage, TNM stage grouping and macrovascular infiltration (MAVI). These surgical specimens had high grade tumors accompanied with an elevated E2F1 expression. Moreover, E2F1 transfection was found to contribute significantly to cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro.
Overexpression of E2F1 may be a key event in the local and vascular infiltration of ccRCC indicated by the activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9. These findings highlighted the implication of E2F1’s function in the metastatic process. Furthermore, the clinical relevance of E2F1 in ccRCC pointed to a potential new therapeutic target.
Naringenin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus, grapefruits and tomatoes, has been used as a traditional anti-inflammatory agent for centuries. However, the molecular mechanism of naringenin in intestinal inflammation remains unknown so far. The present study investigated a molecular basis for the protective effect of naringenin in dextran sulphate Sodium-induced murine colitis. Pre-administration of naringenin significantly reduced the severity of colitis and resulted in down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (inducible NO synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox2), TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA) in the colon mucosa. The decline in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-α and IL-6, correlated with a decrease in mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein. Phospho-NF-κB p65 protein was significantly decreased, which correlated with a similar decrease in phospho-IκBα protein. Consistent with the in vivo results, naringenin exposure blocked lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. In addition, in vitro NF-κB reporter assays performed on human colonic HT-29 cells exposed to naringenin demonstrated a significant inhibition of TNF-α-induced NF-κB luciferase expression. Thus, for the first time, the present study indicates that targeted inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signalling pathway might be an important mechanism for naringenin in abrogating experimental colitis.
Dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis; Toll-like receptor 4; NF-κB; Signalling pathways; Naringenin
The oncological and functional results of 329 cases in a population treated with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (ELRP) were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 329 inconsecutive patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent ELRP were retrospectively analyzed. The median initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 17.35 ng/ml. The median biopsy Gleason score was 7.77. Patients with a T2 or T3a clinical stage had received preoperative neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) for 3 to 9 months prior to ELRP. No conversion or re-intervention were observed. The median time for anastomosis, surgery time and postoperative catheterization time were 13.0 min, 90.0 min and 6 days, respectively. The median estimated blood loss was 75 ml. There were 12 temporary urinary leakages requiring prolonged catheterization to 14 days. There was 1 case of deep vein thrombosis, 1 case of alimentary tract hemorrhage and 7 cases of anterior urethral stricture. The median follow-up time was 27 months. A total of 17 patients were lost during the follow-up period. No rectal injury, lymphocele, incision hernia, postoperative persistent urinary leak or anastomotic stricture occurred. Younger patients (≤67 years of age) had a more rapid recovery of continence and a better postoperative potency. The overall positive surgical margin rate was 16.7%, which correlated with the pathological stage and Gleason score, respectively (both P<0.001). A total of 89 (28.6%) patients were diagnosed with biochemical recurrence. The initial PSA value, PSM, pathological stage and Gleason score were identified as independent prognostic factors for biochemical recurrence-free survival using multivariate analysis. Our results demonstrated that preoperative NHT had significant effects on the pathological Gleason score (P<0.001) and surgical margin (P=0.027), but no significant impact on biochemical recurrence (P=0.202). The reproducibility of ELRP has been proven as a reliable curative treatment in Western countries during the last 15 years. Due to the increase in PCa patients, the results of our study may aid surgeons who use ELRP for the first time.
prostate cancer; laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; follow-up; continence; potency; biochemical recurrence
The aim of this study was to validate the advantages of the intrafascial nerve-sparing technique compared with the interfascial nerve-sparing technique in extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. From March 2010 to August 2011, 65 patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) underwent bilateral intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. These patients were matched in a 1∶2 ratio to 130 patients with localized PCa who had undergone bilateral interfascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between January 2008 and August 2011. Operative data and oncological and functional results of both groups were compared. There was no difference in operative data, pathological stages and overall rates of positive surgical margins between the groups. There were 9 and 13 patients lost to follow-up in the intrafascial group and interfascial group, respectively. The intrafascial technique provided earlier recovery of continence at both 3 and 6 months than the interfascial technique. Equal results in terms of continence were found in both groups at 12 months. Better rates of potency at 6 months and 12 months were found in younger patients (age ≤65 years) and overall patients who had undergone the intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Biochemical progression-free survival rates 1 year postoperatively were similar in both groups. Using strict indications, compared with the interfascial nerve-sparing technique, the intrafascial technique provided similar operative outcomes and short-term oncological results, quicker recovery of continence and better potency. The intrafascial nerve-sparing technique is recommended as a preferred approach for young PCa patients who are clinical stages cT1 to cT2a and have normal preoperative potency.
continence; interfascial nerve-sparing; intrafascial nerve-sparing; laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; potency; prostate cancer (PCa)
Endothelial DLL4 plays an important role in controlling of tumor angiogenesis, which is required for tumor invasive growth and metastasis. However, the regulation of DLL4 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not yet been systematically elucidated.
We performed bioinformatical analysis to explore miRNAs targeting DLL4. miR-30a was selected as a representative to validate its functional association in endothelial cell. Then, the expressions of DLL4 and mature miR-30a from 90 cases of ccRCC and 28 cases of nonmatched adjacent non-tumor tissues were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, the expression of miR-30a was correlated with DLL4 expression, tumor features (metastatic condition and microvessel density), and patient metastasis-free survival. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to select the risk factors associated with hematogenous metastasis, respectively.
miR-30a negatively regulated DLL4 and inhibited the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. DLL4 was up-regulated in ccRCC and further increased in hematogenous metastatic cases, while miR-30a was down-regulated in tumor tissues and further decreased in hematogenous metastatic ccRCC (student t test, all p<0.05). Additionally, expression of miR-30a was inversely correlated with expression of DLL4 and microvessel density (linear correlation analysis, both p<0.05). Low-level miR-30a also indicated a higher probability of developing metastasis (log-rank test, p = 0.010). Most importantly, miR-30a expression was an independent predictor of ccRCC hematogenous metastasis by the univariate analysis and binary logistic regression model (both p<0.05).
Down-regulated miR-30a in ccRCC was associated with tumor hematogenous metastasis through increasing microvessel density by targeting angiogenesis-specific DLL4.
Electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in relieving pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of EA in PHN is still unclear. Systemic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent analog of TRPV1 agonist, in adult rats can reproduce the clinical symptoms of PHN by ablating TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons. In this study, we determined the beneficial effect of EA and the potential mechanisms in this rat model of PHN.
PHN was induced in rats by a single injection of RTX. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested with a radiant heat stimulus, and mechanical allodynia was quantified with von Frey filaments. TRPV1 receptors were shown by using immunofluorescence labeling. The ultrastructural changes of the sciatic nerve were assessed by electron microscopic examination. The sprouting of myelinated primary afferent terminals into the spinal dorsal horn was mapped by using the transganglionic tracer cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB).
RTX injection diminished thermal sensitivity and gradually induced tactile allodynia within 3 weeks. EA applied to GB30 and GB34 at 2 and 15 Hz, but not 100 Hz, significantly increased the thermal sensitivity 4 weeks after treatment and decreased the tactile allodynia 2 weeks after treatment in RTX-treated rats. EA treatment at 2 and 15 Hz recovered the loss of TRPV1-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons and their central terminals of afferent fibers in the spinal superficial dorsal horn of RTX-treated rats. Moreover, EA significantly reduced the loss of unmyelinated fibers and the damage of the myelinated nerve fibers of RTX-treated rats. Furthermore, EA at 2 and 15 Hz inhibited the sprouting of myelinated primary afferent terminals into the spinal lamina II of RTX-treated rats.
EA treatment improves thermal perception by recovering TRPV1-positive sensory neurons and nerve terminals damaged by RTX. EA Also reduces RTX-induced tactile allodynia by attenuating the damage of myelinated afferent nerves and their abnormal sprouting into the spinal lamina II. Our study provides new information about the mechanisms of the therapeutic actions of EA in the treatment of PHN.
Neuropathic pain; Postherpetic neuralgia; Capsaicin; Acupuncture; Analgesia; Allodynia; TRPV1; Axonal sprouting
Norisoboldine (NOR) is the main alkaloid constituent in the dry root of Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. (L. strychnifolia Vill.). As reported previously, orally administered NOR displayed a robust inhibition of joint bone destruction present in both mouse collagen-induced arthritis and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis with lower efficacious doses than that required for ameliorating systemic inflammation. This attracted us to assess the effects of NOR on differentiation and function of osteoclasts, primary effector cells for inflammatory bone destruction, to get insight into its anti-rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms.
Both RAW264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were stimulated with RANKL (100 ng/mL) to establish osteoclast differentiation models. ELISA, RT-PCR, gelatin zymography, western blotting, immunoprecipitation and EMSA were used to reveal related signalling pathways. NOR (10 and 30 µM), without significant cytotoxicity, showed significant reduction of the number of osteoclasts and the resorption pit areas, and it targeted osteoclast differentiation at the early stage. In conjunction with the anti-resorption effect of NOR, mRNA levels of cathepsin K and MMP-9 were decreased, and the activity of MMP-9 was attenuated. Furthermore, our mechanistic studies indicated that NOR obviously suppressed the ubiquitination of TRAF6, the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK, and reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. However, NOR had little effect on expressions of TRAF6 or the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Moreover, NOR markedly inhibited expressions of transcription factor NFATc1, but not c-Fos. Intriguingly, the subsequent nuclear translocations of c-Fos and NFATc1 were substantially down-regulated. Hence, we demonstrated for the first time that preventing the differentiation and function of osteoclasts at the early stage was an important anti-bone destruction mechanism of NOR, which might be attributed to inhibition of ubiquitination of TRAF6, the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and the activation of MAPKs/NF-κB/c-Fos/NFATc1 pathways.
LIV-1, a zinc transporter, is a mediator downstream of STAT3 both in zebrafish and mammalian cells, and is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Despite LIV-1 participates in cancer growth and metastasis, little is known about the association of LIV-1 with human liver cancer development. Therefore, the expression of LIV-1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 4 cultured cell lines (3 carcinoma and 1 normal liver cell lines), and the localization of LIV-1 protein was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of LIV-1 protein was analyzed by Western blot both in 4 cultured cell lines and 120 liver tissues (100 carcinoma and 20 histologically normal tissues), and the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological finding was investigated in 100 hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) tissues. Then stable siRNA expressing Hep-G2 cells were generated to assess the function of LIV-1 in liver cancer cells. We found that LIV-1 mRNA was more highly expressed in liver cancer cell lines compared to normal liver cell line. Western blot showed the expression of LIV-1 was higher in 61% liver carcinoma tissues than that in normal liver tissues. Down-regulated LIV-1 cells showed significant inhibition of proliferation in vitro and reduction of tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression increased in LIV-1 siRNA expressing Hep-G2. These findings indicated that LIV-1 may induce the EMT in HCC cells.
Allergic inflammation and severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) are important in allergen induced diseases. Bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are ubiquitous and can facilitate allergen induced Th2 immune responses. Phosphatase SHP-1 is critical in regulating immunological homeostasis and in allergen induced Th2 immune responses in the lung. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of allergic inflammation and allergen induced anaphylaxis are still not completely elucidated and it is unclear whether SHP-1 plays any role in LPS-induced airway inflammation and in allergen-induced anaphylaxis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that phosphatase SHP-1 plays an important role in allergic inflammation and anaphylaxis and determined whether its effects are through regulation of mast cell functions. SHP-1 deficient (mev/+ and mev/mev) and mast cell deficient (KitW-sh) mice were examined in their responses to LPS airway stimulation and to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen induced systemic anaphylaxis. Compared to wild type mice, mev/+ mice had significantly enhanced LPS induced airway inflammation and OVA induced anaphylactic responses, including hypothermia and clinical symptoms. These changes were mast cell dependent as KitW-sh mice had reduced responses whereas adoptive transfer of mast cells restored the responses. However, T and B cells were not involved and macrophages did not play a significant role in LPS induced airway inflammation. Interestingly, basophil differentiation from SHP-1 deficient bone marrow cells was significantly reduced. These findings provided evidence that through regulation of mast cell functions SHP-1 plays a critical role as a negative regulator in allergic inflammation and in allergen induced anaphylaxis. In addition, SHP-1 seems to be required for normal basophil development.
The effectiveness of nucleoside analogue on patients with chronic hepatitis B-associated liver failure is still controversial. To address this issue, we did a review of the literatures and analyzed the data with emphasis on the survival and reduction in serum HBV DNA level.
We searched 11 randomized controlled trials that included 654 patients with chronic hepatitis B-associated liver failure. 340 patients adopted nucleoside analogue, such as lamivudine (LAM), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and the remaining 314 patients adopted no nucleoside analogue or placebo. A meta-analysis was carried out to examine the survival, HBV e antigen serologic conversion, and reduction in serum HBV DNA level. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was used to reflect the treatment effects.
The overall analysis revealed nucleoside analogue significantly improved 1-month(OR = 2.10; 95% CI, [1.29, 3.41]; p = 0.003), 3-month (OR = 2.15; 95% CI, [1.26, 3.65]; p = 0.005), 12-month survival (OR = 4.62; 95% CI, [1.96, 10.89]; p = 0.0005). Comparison of 3-month HBV DNA showed significant reduction for adoptive nucleoside analogue patients (OR = 54.47; 95% CI, [16.37, 201.74]; p<0.00001). Comparison of 3-month HBV e antigen serologic conversion showed a highly significant improvement of HBV e antigen lost for patients received adoptive antiviral therapy (OR = 6.57; 95% CI, [1.64, 26.31]; p = 0.008).
The benefits of nucleoside analogue on patients with chronic hepatitis B-associated liver failure is significant for improving patient survival, HBV e antigen serologic conversion, and rapid reduction of HBV DNA levels.
The effectiveness of immunotherapy for postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients is still controversial. To address this issue, we did a systemic review of the literatures and analyzed the data with emphasis on the recurrence and survival.
We searched six randomized controlled trials that included adoptive immunotherapy in the postoperative management of hepatocellular carcinoma and compared with non-immunotherapy postoperation. A meta-analysis was carried out to examine one- and 3-year recurrence and survival.
The overall analysis revealed significantly reduced risk of 1-year recurrence in patients receiving adoptive immunotherapy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.71; p = 0.003), in that the risk of 3-year recurrence with a pooled OR estimated at 0.31 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.61; p = 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference was observed for 3-year survival between groups with adoptive immunotherapy and without adjuvant treatment (OR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.84; P = 0.792).
Adjuvant immunotherapy with cytokine induced killer cells or lymphokine activated killer cells may reduce recurrence in postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients, but may not improve survival.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the initial step of the atopic march: the progression from AD to allergic rhinitis and asthma. There is a close association between skin barrier abnormalities and the development of AD and the atopic march. One of cardinal features of AD is that the lesional skin of the majority of AD patients is chronically colonized with Staphylococcus aureus with half isolates producing superantigen enterotoxin B (SEB). Although diverse roles of SEB in the pathogenesis and severity of AD have been recognized, whether SEB contributes to the dermal inflammation that drives lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) has not been examined. Here we show a novel role of S. aureus superantigen SEB in augmenting allergen ovalbumin (Ova) induced atopic march through an IL-17A dependent mechanism. When mice epicutaneously (EC) sensitized with allergen Ova, addition of topical SEB led to not only augmented systemic Th2 responses but also a markedly exaggerated systemic Th17/IL-17 immune environment. The ability of SEB in enhancing Th17/IL-17 was mediated through stimulating lymphocytes in spleen and draining lymph nodes to promote IL-6 production. Epicutaneous sensitization of mice with a combination of Ova and SEB significantly enhanced Ova-induced AHR and granulocytic lung inflammation than Ova allergen alone. When IL-17A was deleted genetically, the effects of SEB on augmenting lung inflammation and AHR were markedly diminished. These findings suggest that chronic heavy colonization of enterotoxin producing S. aureus in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis may have an important role in the development of atopic march via an IL-17A dependent mechanism.
Skin fibrotic remodeling is a major feature in human atopic dermatitis (AD). Inflammation and tissue fibrosis are common consequences of Th2 responses. Elevated IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have been found in the AD skin lesions. Fibrocytes can be recruited to inflamed tissues to promote wound healing and fibrosis. Dermal transgenic expression of IL-13 causes an AD-like phenotype with fibrosis and increased TSLP. However, the role of TSLP in fibrotic remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of TSLP and fibrocytes in the generation of IL-13–induced skin fibrosis. In AD lesion, cessation of IL-13 transgene expression resulted in reduced skin inflammation but with no effect on further progression of fibrosis. This was accompanied by markedly increased CD34+/procollagen 1+ fibrocytes. Furthermore, fibrocytes express TSLP receptor (TSLPR), and TSLP directly promotes PBMC-derived fibrocytes to produce collagen. Neutralization of TSLP or genetic deletion of TSLPR in IL-13 transgenic mice resulted in a significant reduction in fibrocytes and in skin fibrosis. Furthermore, reduction of fibrosis by depletion of TSLP was independent of IL-13. Interestingly, the number of fibrocytes was highly increased in the skin samples of AD patients. These data indicate that the progression of skin fibrosis in IL-13–induced AD occurs via TSLP/TSLPR-dependent but IL-13–independent novel mechanisms by promoting fibrocyte functions.
Pregnane X Receptor (PXR), a master regulator of drug metabolism and inflammation, is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Baicalein and its O-glucuronide baicalin are potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer herbal flavonoids that undergo a complex cycle of interconversion in the liver and gut. We sought to investigate the role these flavonoids play in inhibiting gut inflammation by an axis involving PXR and other potential factors. The consequences of PXR regulation and activation by the herbal flavonoids, baicalein and baicalin were evaluated in vitro in human colon carcinoma cells and in vivo using wild-type, Pxr-null, and humanized (hPXR) PXR mice. Baicalein, but not its glucuronidated metabolite baicalin, activates PXR in a Cdx2-dependent manner in vitro, in human colon carcinoma LS174T cells, and in the murine colon in vivo. While both flavonoids abrogate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-mediated colon inflammation in vivo, oral delivery of a potent bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibitor eliminates baicalin’s effect on gastrointestinal inflammation by preventing the microbial conversion of baicalin to baicalien. Finally, reduction of gastrointestinal inflammation requires the binding of Cdx2 to a specific proximal site on the PXR promoter. Pharmacological targeting of intestinal PXR using natural metabolically labile ligands could serve as effective and potent therapeutics for gut inflammation that avert systemic drug interactions.
Flavonoids, a group of compounds mainly derived from vegetables and herbal medicines, chemically resemble estrogen and some have been used as estrogen substitutes. Kaempferol, a flavonol derived from the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga L., is a well-known phytoestrogen possessing osteogenic effects that is also found in a large number of plant foods.
The herb K. galanga is a popular traditional aromatic medicinal plant that is widely used as food spice and in medicinal industries. In the present study, both the estrogenic and osteogenic properties of kaempferol are evaluated.
Kaempferol was first evaluated for its estrogenic properties, including its effects on estrogen receptors. The osteogenic properties of kaempferol were further determined its induction effects on specific osteogenic enzymes and genes as well as the mineralization process in cultured rat osteoblasts.
Kaempferol activated the transcriptional activity of pERE-Luc (3.98 ± 0.31 folds at 50 μM) and induced estrogen receptor α (ERα) phosphorylation in cultured rat osteoblasts, and this ER activation was correlated with induction and associated with osteoblast differentiation biomarkers, including alkaline phosphatase activity and transcription of osteoblastic genes, e.g., type I collagen, osteonectin, osteocalcin, Runx2 and osterix. Kaempferol also promoted the mineralization process of osteoblasts (4.02 ± 0.41 folds at 50 μM). ER mediation of the kaempferol-induced effects was confirmed by pretreatment of the osteoblasts with an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780, which fully blocked the induction effect.
Our results showed that kaempferol stimulates osteogenic differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by acting through the estrogen receptor signaling.
Although metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is basically observed in late stage tumors, T1 stage metastasis of ccRCC can also be found with no definite molecular cause resulting inappropriate selection of surgery method and poor prognosis. Notch signaling is a conserved, widely expressed signal pathway that mediates various cellular processes in normal development and tumorigenesis. This study aims to explore the potential role and mechanism of Notch signaling in the metastasis of T1 stage ccRCC.
The expression of Notch1 and Jagged1 were analyzed in tumor tissues and matched normal adjacent tissues obtained from 51 ccRCC patients. Compared to non-tumor tissues, Notch1 and Jagged1 expression was significantly elevated both in mRNA and protein levels in tumors. Tissue samples of localized and metastatic tumors were divided into three groups based on their tumor stages and the relative mRNA expression of Notch1 and Jagged1 were analyzed. Compared to localized tumors, Notch1 expression was significantly elevated in metastatic tumors in T1 stage while Jagged1 expression was not statistically different between localized and metastatic tumors of all stages. The average size of metastatic tumors was significantly larger than localized tumors in T1 stage ccRCC and the elevated expression of Notch1 was significantly positive correlated with the tumor diameter. The functional significance of Notch signaling was studied by transfection of 786-O, Caki-1 and HKC cell lines with full-length expression plasmids of Notch1 and Jagged1. Compared to the corresponding controls, all cell lines demonstrated significant promotion in cell proliferation and migration while cell cycle remained unaffected.
High-level expression of Notch signaling increased the risk of metastasis in T1 stage ccRCC by stimulating the proliferation and migration of tumor cells, which may be helpful for the selection of suitable operation method and prognosis of ccRCC.
As an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a molecular adaptor, Cbl-b controls the activation threshold of the antigen receptor and negatively regulates CD28 co-stimulation, functioning as an intrinsic mediator of T cell anergy that maintains tolerance. However, the role of Cbl-b in the airway immune response to aeroallergens is unclear.
To determine the contribution of Cbl-b in tolerance to aeroallergens, we examined ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammation in Cbl-b deficient mice.
Cbl-b-/- mice and wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA intranasally, a procedure normally tolerated by WT mice. We analyzed lung histology, BAL total cell counts and differential, cytokines and chemokines in the airway, and cytokine response by lymphocytes after re-stimulation by OVA antigen.
Compared with WT mice, OVA challenged Cbl-b-/- mice showed significantly increased neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltration in the lung and mucus hyperplasia. The serum levels of IgG2a and IgG1, but not IgE, were increased. The levels of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, Eotaxin, and RANTES, but not IL-17A or IL-6, were elevated in the airway of Cbl-b-/- mice. Lymphocytes from Cbl-b-/-mice released increased amount of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, and IP-10 in response to OVA re-stimulation. However, no significant changes were noted in the CD4+CD25+ Treg cell populations in the lung tissues after OVA stimulation and there was no difference between WT and Cbl-b-/- mice.
These results demonstrate that Cbl-b deficiency leads to a breakdown of tolerance to OVA allergen in the murine airways, probably through increased activation of T effector cells, indicating that Cbl-b is a critical factor in maintaining lung homeostasis upon environmental exposure to aeroallergens.
Cbl-b; Ubiquitin E3 Ligase; Aeroallergen; Allergic inflammation; Asthma
Sialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)–F, an inhibitory receptor on mouse eosinophils, preferentially recognizes the glycan ligand 6′-sulfated sialyl Lewis X, but little is known about the requirements for its lung expression. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect and localize the sulfotransferase keratin sulfate galactose 6-O sulfotransferase (KSGal6ST, also known as carbohydrate sulfotransferase 1; gene name, Chst1) that is putatively required for 6′-sulfated Sialyl Lewis X synthesis. RT-PCR detected the greatest constitutive expression of Chst1 in lung, liver, and spleen tissue. Immunohistochemistry localized the expression of KSGal6ST in lung tissue primarily to airway epithelium. Siglec-F–Ig fusion protein selectively bound in a similar pattern, and was unaffected in lung tissue treated with methanol or deficient in Type 2 α2,3 sialyltransferase (St3gal2), but was eliminated by proteinase K or sialidase, and was absent in tissue deficient in the Type 3 α2,3 sialyltransferase (St3gal3). Binding of the Siglec-F–Ig fusion protein was similar in pattern to, and completely blocked by, a plant lectin recognizing α2,3-linked sialic acid. Thus, α2,3-linked sialic acid–containing glycoprotein Siglec-F ligands and the enzymes required for their synthesis are constitutively expressed in murine lungs, especially by airway epithelium. St3gal3, but not St3gal2, is required for constitutive Siglec-F ligand synthesis. The survival of eosinophils entering the lung may be shortened by encountering these Siglec-F sialoside ligands.
eosinophil; sialyltransferase; lung epithelium; sialic acid; glycan ligand
We report here a novel selectable marker for the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. The marker cassette is composed of the sac7d promoter and the hmg gene coding for the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (Psac7d-hmg), which confers simvastatin resistance to this crenarchaeon. The basic plasmid vector pSSR was constructed by substituting the pyrEF gene of the expression vector pSeSD for Psac7d-hmg with which the Sulfolobus expression plasmids pSSRlacS, pSSRAherA, and pSSRNherA were constructed. Characterization of Sulfolobus transformants carrying pSSRlacS indicated that the plasmid was properly maintained under selection. High-level expression of the His6-tagged HerA helicase was obtained with the cells harboring pSSRAherA. The establishment of two efficient selectable markers (pyrEF and hmg) was subsequently exploited for genetic analysis. A herA merodiploid strain of S. islandicus was constructed using pyrEF marker and used as the host to obtain pSSRNherA transformant with simvastatin selection. While the gene knockout (ΔherA) cells generated from the herA merodiploid cells failed to form colonies in the presence of 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), the mutant cells could be rescued by expression of the gene from a plasmid (pSSRNherA), because their transformants formed colonies on a solid medium containing 5-FOA and simvastatin. This demonstrates that HerA is essential for cell viability of S. islandicus. To our knowledge, this is the first application of an antibiotic selectable marker in genetic study for a hyperthermophilic acidophile and in the crenarchaeal lineage.
A simple and reliable method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) was developed to control the quality of Radix Isatidis (dried root of Isatis indigotica) for chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of eight bioactive constituents, including R,S-goitrin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, gluconapin, adenosine, uridine, guanosine, and hypoxanthine. In quantitative analysis, the eight components showed good regression (R > 0.9997) within test ranges, and the recovery method ranged from 99.5% to 103.0%. The UPLC fingerprints of the Radix Isatidis samples were compared by performing chemometric procedures, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis. The chemometric procedures classified Radix Isatidis and its finished products such that all samples could be successfully grouped according to crude herbs, prepared slices, and adulterant Baphicacanthis cusiae Rhizoma et Radix. The combination of quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used for the quality assessment of Radix Isatidis and its finished products.
Radix Isatidis; UPLC-PDA; quality control; quantitative; fingerprint
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is the initial step of the “atopic march”, a progression from AD to asthma, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Selective expression of IL-13 in the skin of mice caused an AD phenotype resembling human AD, and the disorder was associated with enhanced production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the AD skin with a systemic Th2 immunity. Here we show that IL-13 transgenic mice with AD had significantly enhanced lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) when sensitized and challenged by allergen. In addition, the level of TSLP was significantly higher in acute AD than in chronic AD. Furthermore, elimination of TSLP signaling significantly diminished the allergic asthma responses, immune cell production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13), and serum IgE. These studies indicate that IL-13 induces AD and atopic march via a TSLP dependent mechanism.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is an essential regulatory molecule in many different signaling pathways. The biological importance of SHP-1 is underscored by the motheaten mutant mouse strains with immunological disorders involving multiple organs and by the close association of aberrant SHP-1 expression with several human diseases. Recent studies provided some compelling evidence that supports a role of SHP-1 in regulating mast cell development and function and also in regulating type 2 allergic inflammatory responses in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this article, we summarize the recent advancement of our understanding of this interesting phosphatase in the important area of allergic inflammation.
Phosphatase; Mast cells; Th2 cytokines; Allergic inflammatory response; Allergy; Asthma
The present work tested the hypothesis that short-term (S-T) dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would: 1) result in reduction in serum(s) sphingomyelin (SM) and changes in several blood lipids, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) concomitant with elevations in s cholesterol (chol), s LDL+VLDL and trigycerides (TG), as well as reduction in the PC/cholesterol ratio; 2) lead to oxidative stress, characterized by reductions in glutathione (glut) content in the various chambers of the heart and activation of e-NOS and n-NOS in the atria, ventricles and aortic smooth muscle (ASM); 3) produce early cardiac damage characterized by leakage of creatine kinase (CK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); and 4) demonstrate that these pathophysiological changes are a result of profound reductions in s ionized Mg (Mg2+) and activation of the SM-ceramide pathway. In addition, we hypothesized that: 1) exposure of primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to low extracellular Mg2+ would lead to de novo synthesis of ceramide and activation of NO synthase with reduction in glut, both of which would be attenuated by inhibition of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and serine palmitoyl CoA transferase (SPT); and 2) low levels of Mg2+added to the drinking water would either prevent or ameliorate these manifestations. Our data indicate that S-T Mg deficiency resulted in reductions in s Mg2+, SM, PC, HDL-C and the PC/chol ratio concomitant with decreases in tissue levels of glut, leakage of cardiac CK and LDH, as well as activation of e-NOS and n-NOS in all chambers of the heart and ASM. The greater the reduction in s Mg2+, the greater the effects on all parameters analyzed; very significant correlations to levels of s SM and Mg2+ were found with all of the serum and tissue biochemical -molecular analytes measured. Our experiments also showed that VSMCs exposed to low Mg2+resulted in activation of NO synthase, loss of glut and de novo synthesis of ceramide which were attenuated by inhibitors of SMase and SPT. Low levels of drinking water Mg2+(e.g., 15 ppm) were cardio- and vascular protective. We believe these new findings support our concept of an important role for the SM-ceramide pathway in the manifestations of Mg deficiency and atherogenesis.
sphingomyelin; lipids; NO synthases; glutathione; cardiac enzymes; vascular muscle
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease characterized by pruritic skin lesions. The pathogenesis of AD may include disrupted epidermal barrier function, immunodysregulation, and IgE-mediated sensitization to food and environmental allergens. AD is also part of a process called the atopic march, a progression from AD to allergic rhinitis and asthma. This has been supported by multiple cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and experimental data. Research on the mechanisms of AD has been centered on the adaptive immune system with an emphasis on the T-helper 1 (Th1)-Th2 paradigm. Recently, the conceptual focus has largely shifted to include a primary defect in the epithelial barrier as an initial event in AD providing a significant insight into the disease initiation and pointing to a complex secondary interplay of environmental and immunological sequelae with barrier disruption. Further understanding of AD will help the development of more effective treatment for AD and ultimately, preventative algorithms for the atopic march. In this review we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of AD and the atopic march.
Eczema; atopic dermatitis; allergic rhinitis; asthma; atopic march
In early 2009, new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico and the United States. The emerging influenza virus
had made global influenza pandemic for nearly one year. To every emerging pathogen, exploring the origin sources is vital for
viral control and clearance. Influenza virus is different from other virus in that it has 8 segments, making the segment reassortment
a main drive in virus evolution. In exploring reassortment evolution origins of a newly emerging influenza virus, integrated
comparing of the origin sources of all the segments is necessary. If some segments have high homologous with one parental strain,
lower homologous with another parental strain, while other segments are reverse, can we proposed that this emerging influenza virus
may re-assort from the two parental strains. Here we try to explore the multilevel reassortment evolution origins of 2009 H1N1
influenza virus using this method. By further validating the fidelity of this strategy, this method might be useful in judging the
reassortment origins of newly emerging influenza virus.
influenza virus; reassortment; origin sources