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1.  Role of CCR5 in IFN-γ–induced and cigarette smoke–induced emphysema 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2005;115(12):3460-3472.
Th1 inflammation and remodeling characterized by tissue destruction frequently coexist in human diseases. To further understand the mechanisms of these responses, we defined the role(s) of CCR5 in the pathogenesis of IFN-γ–induced inflammation and remodeling in a murine emphysema model. IFN-γ was a potent stimulator of the CCR5 ligands macrophage inflammatory protein–1α/CCL-3 (MIP-1α/CCL-3), MIP-1β/CCL-4, and RANTES/CCL-5, among others. Antibody neutralization or null mutation of CCR5 decreased IFN-γ–induced inflammation, DNA injury, apoptosis, and alveolar remodeling. These interventions decreased the expression of select chemokines, including CCR5 ligands and MMP-9, and increased levels of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. They also decreased the expression and/or activation of Fas, FasL, TNF, caspase-3, -8, and -9, Bid, and Bax. In accordance with these findings, cigarette smoke induced pulmonary inflammation, DNA injury, apoptosis, and emphysema via an IFN-γ–dependent pathway(s), and a null mutation of CCR5 decreased these responses. These studies demonstrate that IFN-γ is a potent stimulator of CC and CXC chemokines and highlight the importance of CCR5 in the pathogenesis of IFN-γ–induced and cigarette smoke–induced inflammation, tissue remodeling, and emphysema. They also demonstrate that CCR5 is required for optimal IFN-γ stimulation of its own ligands, other chemokines, MMPs, caspases, and cell death regulators and the inhibition of antiproteases.
doi:10.1172/JCI24858
PMCID: PMC1280966  PMID: 16284650
2.  Reciprocal and dynamic control of CD8 T cell homing by dendritic cells from skin- and gut-associated lymphoid tissues 
T cell activation by intestinal dendritic cells (DC) induces gut-tropism. We show that, reciprocally, DC from peripheral lymph nodes (PLN-DC) induce homing receptors promoting CD8 T cell accumulation in inflamed skin, particularly ligands for P- and E-selectin. Differential imprinting of tissue-tropism was independent of Th1/Th2 cytokines and not restricted to particular DC subsets. Fixed PLN-DC retained the capacity to induce selectin ligands on T cells, which was suppressed by addition of live intestinal DC. By contrast, fixed intestinal DC failed to promote gut-tropism and instead induced skin-homing receptors. Moreover, the induction of selectin ligands driven by antigen-pulsed PLN-DC could be suppressed “in trans” by adding live intestinal DC, but PLN-DC did not suppress gut-homing receptors induced by intestinal DC. Reactivation of tissue-committed memory cells modified their tissue-tropism according to the last activating DC's origin. Thus, CD8 T cells activated by DC acquire selectin ligands by default unless they encounter fixation-sensitive signal(s) for gut-tropism from intestinal DC. Memory T cells remain responsive to these signals, allowing for dynamic migratory reprogramming by skin- and gut-associated DC.
doi:10.1084/jem.20041645
PMCID: PMC2212803  PMID: 15642741
3.  Essential Role for the C5a Receptor in Regulating the Effector Phase of Synovial Infiltration and Joint Destruction in Experimental Arthritis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2002;196(11):1461-1471.
A characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis is the abundance of inflammatory cells in the diseased joint. Two major components of this infiltrate are neutrophils in the synovial fluid and macrophages in the synovial tissue. These cells produce cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α and other proinflammatory mediators that likely drive the disease through its effector phases. To investigate what mechanisms underlie the recruitment of these cells into the synovial fluid and tissue, we performed expression analyses of chemoattractant receptors in a related family that includes the anaphylatoxin receptors and the formyl-MetLeuPhe receptor. We then examined the effect of targeted disruption of two abundantly expressed chemoattractant receptors, the receptors for C3a and C5a, on arthritogenesis in a mouse model of disease. We report that genetic ablation of C5a receptor expression completely protects mice from arthritis.
doi:10.1084/jem.20020205
PMCID: PMC2194257  PMID: 12461081
arthritis; C5a receptors; granulocytes; chemoattractants; monocytes
4.  Developmental Switches in Chemokine Response Profiles during B Cell Differentiation and Maturation 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2000;191(8):1303-1318.
Developing B cells undergo dramatic changes in their responses to chemoattractant cytokines (chemokines) and in expression of chemokine receptors. Bone marrow pre–pro-B cells (AA4.1+/natural killer 1.1− Fraction A cells) and cells capable of generating pro-B colonies in the presence of interleukin 7 and flt3 ligand migrate to thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK), a response lost in later stages of B cell development. B cell–attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1) responses correlate with CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5 expression, are first displayed by a pro-B cell subset, are lost in pre-B cells, and then are regained just before and after egress from the marrow. All peripheral B cell subsets, including follicular and germinal center as well as marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells, respond to BCA-1, implying that responsiveness to this follicular chemokine is not sufficient to predict follicle localization. Responses to the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)7 ligands secondary lymphoid tissue chemoattractant (SLC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3β, implicated in homing to lymphoid tissues, are upregulated before B cell exit from the marrow, but increase further in the periphery and are shared by all peripheral B cells. In contrast, responsiveness to MIP-3α and expression of CCR6 are acquired only after emigration to the periphery and during maturation into the recirculating B cell pool. Chemotaxis to stromal cell–derived factor 1α is observed at all stages of B cell differentiation. Thus, unique patterns of chemokine responses may help define developing B cell populations and direct their maturation in the marrow and migration to the periphery.
PMCID: PMC2193143  PMID: 10770798
B lymphocyte; chemokines; chemotaxis; bone marrow; hematopoiesis

Results 1-4 (4)