Allergic inflammation and severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) are important in allergen induced diseases. Bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are ubiquitous and can facilitate allergen induced Th2 immune responses. Phosphatase SHP-1 is critical in regulating immunological homeostasis and in allergen induced Th2 immune responses in the lung. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of allergic inflammation and allergen induced anaphylaxis are still not completely elucidated and it is unclear whether SHP-1 plays any role in LPS-induced airway inflammation and in allergen-induced anaphylaxis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that phosphatase SHP-1 plays an important role in allergic inflammation and anaphylaxis and determined whether its effects are through regulation of mast cell functions. SHP-1 deficient (mev/+ and mev/mev) and mast cell deficient (KitW-sh) mice were examined in their responses to LPS airway stimulation and to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen induced systemic anaphylaxis. Compared to wild type mice, mev/+ mice had significantly enhanced LPS induced airway inflammation and OVA induced anaphylactic responses, including hypothermia and clinical symptoms. These changes were mast cell dependent as KitW-sh mice had reduced responses whereas adoptive transfer of mast cells restored the responses. However, T and B cells were not involved and macrophages did not play a significant role in LPS induced airway inflammation. Interestingly, basophil differentiation from SHP-1 deficient bone marrow cells was significantly reduced. These findings provided evidence that through regulation of mast cell functions SHP-1 plays a critical role as a negative regulator in allergic inflammation and in allergen induced anaphylaxis. In addition, SHP-1 seems to be required for normal basophil development.
Skin fibrotic remodeling is a major feature in human atopic dermatitis (AD). Inflammation and tissue fibrosis are common consequences of Th2 responses. Elevated IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have been found in the AD skin lesions. Fibrocytes can be recruited to inflamed tissues to promote wound healing and fibrosis. Dermal transgenic expression of IL-13 causes an AD-like phenotype with fibrosis and increased TSLP. However, the role of TSLP in fibrotic remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of TSLP and fibrocytes in the generation of IL-13–induced skin fibrosis. In AD lesion, cessation of IL-13 transgene expression resulted in reduced skin inflammation but with no effect on further progression of fibrosis. This was accompanied by markedly increased CD34+/procollagen 1+ fibrocytes. Furthermore, fibrocytes express TSLP receptor (TSLPR), and TSLP directly promotes PBMC-derived fibrocytes to produce collagen. Neutralization of TSLP or genetic deletion of TSLPR in IL-13 transgenic mice resulted in a significant reduction in fibrocytes and in skin fibrosis. Furthermore, reduction of fibrosis by depletion of TSLP was independent of IL-13. Interestingly, the number of fibrocytes was highly increased in the skin samples of AD patients. These data indicate that the progression of skin fibrosis in IL-13–induced AD occurs via TSLP/TSLPR-dependent but IL-13–independent novel mechanisms by promoting fibrocyte functions.
Chronic inflammatory airway diseases including asthma are characterized by immune dysfunction to inhaled allergens. Our previous studies demonstrated that T cell priming to inhaled allergens requires LPS, which is ubiquitously present in household dust allergens. In this study, we evaluated the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development of T cell priming and its polarization to Th1 or Th17 cells when exposed to LPS-contaminated allergens. An asthma mouse model was induced by airway sensitization with LPS-contaminated allergens and then challenged with allergens alone. Therapeutic intervention was performed during allergen sensitization. The present study showed that lung inflammation induced by sensitization with LPS-contaminated allergens was decreased in mice with homozygous disruption of the IL-17 gene; in addition, allergen-specific Th17 immune response was abolished in IL-6 knockout mice. Meanwhile, in vivo production of VEGF was up-regulated by airway exposure of LPS. In addition, airway sensitization of allergen plus recombinant VEGF induced both type 1 and type 17 Th cell (Th1 and Th17) responses. Th1 and Th17 responses induced by airway sensitization with LPS-contaminated allergens were blocked by treatment with a pan-VEGF receptor (VEGFR; VEGFR-1 plus VEGFR-2) inhibitor during sensitization. These effects were accompanied by inhibition of the production of Th1 and Th17 polarizing cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-6, respectively. These findings indicate that VEGF produced by LPS plays a key role in activation of naive T cells and subsequent polarization to Th1 and Th17 cells.
Eosinophilic inflammation is a hallmark of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. To model this disease process experimentally, nasal sensitization of mice with ovalbumin or aspergillus has been described. Here, we describe a genetically mutant mouse that develops robust spontaneous nasal eosinophilic inflammation. These mice lack the enzyme SHP-1 that down-regulates the IL-4Rα/stat6 signaling pathway. We compared nasal inflammation and inflammatory mediators in SHP-1 deficient mice (mev) and an ovalbumin-induced nasal allergy model.
A novel technique of trans-pharyngeal nasal lavage was developed to obtain samples of inflammatory cells from the nasal passages of allergic and mev mice. Total and differential cell counts were performed on cytospin preparations. Expression of tissue mRNA for IL-4, IL-13, and mouse beta-defensin-1 (MBD-1) was determined by quantitative PCR. Eotaxin in the lavage fluid was assessed by ELISA.
Allergic and mev mice had increased total cells and eosinophils compared with controls. Expression of IL-4 was similarly increased in both allergic and mev mice, but expression of IL-13 and eotaxin was significantly greater in the allergic mice than mev mice. Eotaxin was significantly up-regulated in both allergic rhinitis and mev mice. In both models of eosinophilic inflammation, down-regulation of the innate immune marker MBD-1 was observed.
The mev mice display spontaneous chronic nasal eosinophilic inflammation with potential utility for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps research. The eosinophilic infiltrate is more robust in the mev mice than allergic mice, but Th2 cytokine expression is not as pronounced. Decreased MBD-1 expression in both models supports the concept that Th2-cytokines down-regulate sinonasal innate immunity in humans, and suggests a role for mouse models in investigating the interaction between adaptive and innate immunity in the sinonasal mucosa.
As an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a molecular adaptor, Cbl-b controls the activation threshold of the antigen receptor and negatively regulates CD28 co-stimulation, functioning as an intrinsic mediator of T cell anergy that maintains tolerance. However, the role of Cbl-b in the airway immune response to aeroallergens is unclear.
To determine the contribution of Cbl-b in tolerance to aeroallergens, we examined ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammation in Cbl-b deficient mice.
Cbl-b-/- mice and wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA intranasally, a procedure normally tolerated by WT mice. We analyzed lung histology, BAL total cell counts and differential, cytokines and chemokines in the airway, and cytokine response by lymphocytes after re-stimulation by OVA antigen.
Compared with WT mice, OVA challenged Cbl-b-/- mice showed significantly increased neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltration in the lung and mucus hyperplasia. The serum levels of IgG2a and IgG1, but not IgE, were increased. The levels of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, Eotaxin, and RANTES, but not IL-17A or IL-6, were elevated in the airway of Cbl-b-/- mice. Lymphocytes from Cbl-b-/-mice released increased amount of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, and IP-10 in response to OVA re-stimulation. However, no significant changes were noted in the CD4+CD25+ Treg cell populations in the lung tissues after OVA stimulation and there was no difference between WT and Cbl-b-/- mice.
These results demonstrate that Cbl-b deficiency leads to a breakdown of tolerance to OVA allergen in the murine airways, probably through increased activation of T effector cells, indicating that Cbl-b is a critical factor in maintaining lung homeostasis upon environmental exposure to aeroallergens.
Cbl-b; Ubiquitin E3 Ligase; Aeroallergen; Allergic inflammation; Asthma
Intestinal infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E.coli is a leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute renal injury in otherwise healthy children in the US. Antibiotics are contraindicated and a therapeutic priority is agents that act intracellularly against the bacterial toxins which drive kidney injury. Our aim was to evaluate whether intravenous administration of a cell-permeable peptide (TVP) that binds to Stx2 will reduce disease severity and rescue juvenile baboons from a lethal Stx2 dose (50ng/kg).
TVP (5mg/kg) was delivered i.v. simultaneously with toxin (prevention protocol) or at 6 or 24 hours after toxin with daily 1mg/kg supplements up to Day 4 (rescue protocols). Biomarkers were monitored in blood and urine up to 28 days.
Results and Conclusions
TVP therapy resulted in either absence of clinical signs of acute kidney injury and normal urine output (prevention), or delayed and reduced BUN and creatinine levels (rescue) with concomitant survival. Delayed peptide administration significantly reduced thrombocytopenia, but surprisingly did not alter anemia even when monitored for 28 days in rescued survivors. This is the first successful cell-permeable therapeutic that counteracts Stx2 lethality in an animal model which recapitulates many of the human responses to enteric infection.
Shiga toxins; enterohemorrhagic E.coli; hemolytic uremic syndrome; nonhuman primate; acute renal injury
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily ligands have important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis, embryonic development, differentiation, proliferation, immune surveillance, angiogenesis, motility, and apoptosis in a cell type and context specific manner. TGF-β superfamily signaling pathways also have diverse roles in human cancer, functioning to either suppress or promote cancer progression. The TGF-β superfamily co-receptor, the type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII, also known as betaglycan) mediates TGF-β superfamily ligand dependent as well as ligand independent signaling to both Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. Loss of TβRIII expression during cancer progression and direct effects of TβRIII on regulating cell migration, invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis support a role for TβRIII as a suppressor of cancer progression and/or as a metastasis suppressor. Defining the physiological function and mechanism of TβRIII action and alterations in TβRIII function during cancer progression should enable more effective targeting of TβRIII and TβRIII mediated functions for the diagnosis and treatment of human cancer.
TβRIII; TGF-β; BMP; cancer; receptor
Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is an essential regulatory molecule in many different signaling pathways. The biological importance of SHP-1 is underscored by the motheaten mutant mouse strains with immunological disorders involving multiple organs and by the close association of aberrant SHP-1 expression with several human diseases. Recent studies provided some compelling evidence that supports a role of SHP-1 in regulating mast cell development and function and also in regulating type 2 allergic inflammatory responses in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this article, we summarize the recent advancement of our understanding of this interesting phosphatase in the important area of allergic inflammation.
Phosphatase; Mast cells; Th2 cytokines; Allergic inflammatory response; Allergy; Asthma
Th2-dominated inflammatory response in the airway is an integral component in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is involved in the process. We previously reported that SHIP-1, a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, is essential in maintaining lung immunohomeostasis, potentially through regulation of innate immune cells. However, the function of SHIP-1 in adaptive immune response in the lung has not been defined. We sought to determine the role of SHIP-1 in adaptive immunity in response to aeroallergen stimulation in the airway.
SHIP-1 knockout (SHIP-1−/−) mice on BALB/c background were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus aluminum hydroxide, a strong Th2-inducing immunization, and challenged with OVA. Airway and lung inflammation, immunoglobulin response, Th2 cytokine production and lymphocyte response were analyzed and compared with wild type mice. Even though there was mild spontaneous inflammation in the lung at baseline, SHIP-1−/− mice showed altered responses, including less cell infiltration around the airways but more in the parenchyma, less mucus production, decreased Th2 cytokine production, and diminished serum OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, but not IgG2a. Naïve and OVA sensitized SHIP-1−/− T cells produced a lower amount of IL-4. In vitro differentiated SHIP-1−/− Th2 cells produced less IL-4 compared to wild type Th2 cells upon T cell receptor stimulation.
These findings indicate that, in contrast to its role as a negative regulator in the innate immune cells, SHIP-1 acts as a positive regulator in Th2 cells in the adaptive immune response to aeroallergen. Thus any potential manipulation of SHIP-1 activity should be adjusted according to the specific immune response.
IL-4 and IL-13 are closely related cytokines that are produced by Th2 cells. However, IL-4 and IL-13 have different effects on the development of asthma phenotypes. Here, we evaluated downstream molecular mechanisms involved in the development of Th2 type asthma phenotypes. A murine model of Th2 asthma was used that involved intraperitoneal sensitization with an allergen (ovalbumin) plus alum and then challenge with ovalbumin alone. Asthma phenotypes, including airway-hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation, and immunologic parameters were evaluated after allergen challenge in mice deficient in candidate genes. The present study showed that methacholine AHR and lung inflammation developed in allergen-challenged IL-4-deficient mice but not in allergen-challenged IL-13-deficient mice. In addition, the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10 was also impaired in the absence of IL-13, but not of IL-4. Lung-targeted IFN-γ over-expression in the airways enhanced methacholine AHR and non-eosinophilic inflammation; in addition, these asthma phenotypes were impaired in allergen-challenged IFN-γ-deficient mice. Moreover, AHR, non-eosinophilic inflammation, and IFN-γ expression were impaired in allergen-challenged IL-12Rβ2- and STAT4-deficient mice; however, AHR and non-eosinophilic inflammation were not impaired in allergen-challenged IL-4Rα-deficient mice, and these phenomena were accompanied by the enhanced expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The present data suggest that IL-13-mediated asthma phenotypes, such as AHR and non-eosinophilic inflammation, in the Th2 type asthma are dependent on the IL-12-STAT4-IFN-γ axis, and that these asthma phenotypes are independent of IL-4Ralpha-mediated signaling.
asthma; interferon-γ; interleukin-12; interleukin-13; respiratory hypersensitivity; Th2 cells
Asthma is a disease that affects all ages, races and ethnic groups. Its incidence is increasing both in Westernized countries and underdeveloped countries. It involves inflammation, genetics and environment and therefore, proteins that exacerbate the asthmatic, allergic phenotype are important. Our laboratory purified and cloned a histamine releasing factor (HRF) that was a complete stimulus for histamine and IL-4 secretion from a subpopulation of allergic donors' basophils. Throughout the course of studying HRF, it was uncovered that HRF enhances or primes histamine release and IL-13 production from all anti-IgE antibody stimulated basophils. In order to further delineate the biology of HRF, we generated a mouse model.
We constructed an inducible transgenic mouse model with HRF targeted to lung epithelial cells, via the Clara cells. In antigen naïve mice, overproduction of HRF yielded increases in BAL macrophages and statistical increases in mRNA levels for MCP-1 in the HRF transgenic mice compared to littermate controls. In addition to demonstrating intracellular HRF in the lung epithelial cells, we have also been able to document HRF's presence extracellularly in the BAL fluid of these transgenic mice. Furthermore, in the OVA challenged model, we show that HRF exacerbates the allergic, asthmatic responses. We found statistically significant increases in serum and BAL IgE, IL-4 protein and eosinophils in transgenic mice compared to controls.
This mouse model demonstrates that HRF expression enhances allergic, asthmatic inflammation and can now be used as a tool to further dissect the biology of HRF.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Type 2 T helper (Th) cell–dominated inflammation in the lung is a hallmark of asthma. Src homology 2 domain–containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 is a negative regulator in the signaling pathways of many growth factor and cytokine receptors. However, a direct role of SHP-1 in the IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathway has not been established. In this study, we sought to define the function of SHP-1 in the lung by characterizing the pulmonary inflammation of viable motheaten (mev) mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Pulmonary histology, physiology, and cytokine expression of mev mice were analyzed to define the nature of the inflammation, and the gene-deletion approach was used to identify critical molecules involved. In mev mice, we observed spontaneous Th2-like inflammatory responses in the lung, including eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, airway epithelial hypertrophy, pulmonary fibrosis, and increased airway resistance and airway hyperresponsiveness. The pulmonary phenotype was accompanied by up-regulation of Th2 cytokines and chemokines. Selective deletion of IL-13 or signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, key genes in the Th2 signaling pathway, significantly reduced, but did not completely eliminate, the inflammation in the lung. These findings suggest that SHP-1 plays a critical role in regulating the IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathway and in maintaining lung homeostasis.
Src homology 2 domain–containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1; protein tyrosine phosphatase; motheaten mouse; type 2 T helper cell inflammation; lung
The differentiation of activated CD4+ T cells into the T helper type 1 (TH1) or TH2 fate is regulated by cytokines and the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3. Whereas interleukin 12 (IL-12) produced by antigen-presenting cells initiates the TH1 fate, signals that initiate the TH2 fate are not completely characterized. Here we show that early GATA-3 expression, required for TH2 differentiation, was induced by T cell factor 1 (TCF-1) and its cofactor β-catenin, mainly from the proximal Gata3 promoter upstream of exon 1b. This activity was induced after T cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation and was independent of IL-4 receptor signaling through the transcription factor STAT6. Furthermore, TCF-1 blocked TH1 fate by negatively regulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression independently of β-catenin. Thus, TCF-1 initiates TH2 differentiation of activated CD4+ T cells by promoting GATA-3 expression and suppressing IFN-γ expression.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in allergic responses. SHP-1 is a target of oxidants and has been reported as a negative regulator in a mouse model of asthma. We investigated the effect of oxidative stress on the development of allergic airway inflammation in heterozygous viable motheaten (mev/+) mice deficient of SHP-1. Wild-type (WT) and mev/+ mice were compared in this study. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) transfected with mutant SHP-1 gene were used to evaluate the role of SHP-1 in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Paraquat were used in vitro and in vivo, respectively. We also investigated whether mev/+ mice can break immune tolerance when exposed to aeroallergen intranasally. Compared with WT mice, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and splenocytes from mev/+ mice showed a different response to oxidant stress. This includes a significant enhancement of intracellular reactive oxygen species and STAT6 phosphorylation in vitro and increased CCL20, decreased IL-10, and increased number of dendritic cells in BAL fluid in vivo. Mutant SHP-1-transfected epithelial cells secreted higher levels of CCL20 and RANTES after exposure to oxidative stress. Furthermore, break of immune tolerance, as development of allergic airway inflammation, was observed in mev/+ mice after allergen exposure, which was suppressed by antioxidant N-acetylcystein. These data suggest that SHP-1 plays an important role in regulating oxidative stress. Thus, increased intracellular oxidative stress and lack of SHP-1 in the presence of T helper cell type 2–prone cellular activation may lead to the development of allergic airway inflammation.
SHP-1; oxidative stress; allergen; asthma; immune tolerance
We report a case of recurrent Streptococcus Pneumoniae meningoencephalitis with a transethmoidal meningoencephalocele (TEME) but without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage.
A 35-year-old man was admitted with S. pneumoniae meningitis. He had suffered from four episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis during the previous 4 years. A computed tomography scan of the paranasal sinus showed the TEME protruding through a bony defect of the right frontal base. However, the patient did not have symptoms that could be attributable to CSF leakage, and radioisotope cisternography did not identify a leak. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical lesions overlying the TEME, and electroencephalography revealed epileptiform discharges in frontal regions. Appropriate antibiotics therapy without steroids was given to improve his condition.
The presented case suggests that even in the absence of clinically demonstrable CSF leakage, an occult skullbase defect and its associated meningoencephalocele should be considered in patients with recurrent bacterial meningitis.
Recurrent meningitis; Streptococcus Pneumoniae; Transethmoidal meningoencephalocele
Background and purpose
Congenital nystagmus (CN) is an ocular oscillation that usually manifests during early infancy. Typical features of CN include bilateral, conjugate, uniplanar, and usually horizontal eye movements, a null position, increased oscillation during fixation, and decreased amplitude during convergence. Our purposes were description and analysis of clinical and oculomotor findings of patients with X-linked familial CN.
We describe the clinical and oculographic features of five patients from three families with X-linked CN. Three-dimensional video-oculography disclosed various patterns of CN and variable degrees of gaze-holding deficits and visual impairments.
The features of CN varied even in patients from the same family. Head tilt, strabismus, reversal of optokinetic nystagmus, and impairments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, smooth pursuits, and saccades were frequent findings.
The intra- and interfamilial diversities imply that heredity plays a secondary role in determining the clinical phenotypes and waveforms of CN.
Congenital nystagmus; Video-oculography
Lamotrigine is an effective antiepileptic drug with few adverse effects. Nystagmus is one of the commonly observable signs of lamotrigine overdose, which may result from central nervous system involvement. However, the physiologic basis of lamotrigine-induced nystagmus is not fully understood. Here we report a patient who presented with lamotrigine-associated nystagmus that was probably related to cerebellar dysfunction.
Lamotrigine toxicity; Downbeat nystagmus; Perverted head-shaking nystagmus
Background and Purpose
The mechanism of upbeat nystagmus is unknown and clinicoanatomical correlative studies in series of patients with upbeat nystagmus are limited.
Fifteen patients with upbeat nystagmus received full neuro-ophthalmological evaluation by the senior author. Nystagmus was observed using video Frenzel goggles and recorded with video-oculography. Brain lesions were documented with MRI.
Lesions responsible for nystagmus were found throughout the brainstem, mainly in the paramedian area: in the medulla (n=8), pons (n=3), pons and midbrain with or without cerebellar lesions (n=3), and midbrain and thalamus (n=1). Underlying diseases comprised cerebral infarction (n=10), multiple sclerosis (n=2), cerebral hemorrhage (n=1), Wernicke encephalopathy (n=1), and hydrocephalus (n=1). Upbeat nystagmus was mostly transient and showed occasional evolution during the acute phase. In one patient with a bilateral medial medullary infarction, the upbeat nystagmus changed into a hemiseesaw pattern with near complete resolution of the unilateral lesion. Gaze and positional changes usually affected both the intensity and direction of the nystagmus. A patient with a cervicomedullary lesion showed a reversal of upbeat into downbeat nystagmus by straight-head hanging and leftward head turning while in the supine position. Gaze-evoked nystagmus (n=7), ocular tilt reaction (n=7), and internuclear ophthalmoplegia (n=4) were also commonly associated with upbeat nystagmus.
In view of the responsible lesions and associated neuro-ophthalmological findings, upbeat nystagmus may be ascribed to damage to the pathways mediating the upward vestibulo-ocular reflex or the neural integrators involved in vertical gaze holding.
Upbeat nystagmus; Vestibulo-ocular reflex; Neural integrator
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a fatal genetic disorder in which phagocytes fail to produce antimicrobial superoxide because of NADPH oxidase deficiency. Molecular defects in CYBB gene causing X-linked CGD are responsible for about 70% of all cases. This study was done to confirm genetic defects of CYBB gene in five Korean patients who were highly suggestive of having CGD by clinical history. We performed initial screening for five unrelated Korean patients using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and then selective sequencing for the regions involving the abnormal bands. Activated NBT tests revealed that all patients were X-linked. SSCP analysis for CYBB gene showed abnormal bands in all patients. The molecular defects of five patients were as follows: c.1663insT, c.1111-1G>T, c.39_40insG, c.927delC and c.434T>C mutation. This result will help the families with prenatal diagnosis or genetic counseling.
CYBB gene Product; Genetic Diseases, X-linked; Granulomatous Disease, Chronic; Neutrophils; Korea