Complex nervous systems achieve proper connectivity during development and must maintain these connections throughout life. The processes of axon and synaptic maintenance and axon degeneration after injury are jointly controlled by a number of proteins within neurons, including ubiquitin ligases and mitogen activated protein kinases. However, our understanding of these molecular cascades is incomplete. Here we describe the phenotype resulting from mutation of TMEM184b, a protein identified in a screen for axon degeneration mediators. TMEM184b is highly expressed in the mouse nervous system and is found in recycling endosomes in neuronal cell bodies and axons. Disruption of TMEM184b expression results in prolonged maintenance of peripheral axons following nerve injury, demonstrating a role for TMEM184b in axon degeneration. In contrast to this protective phenotype in axons, uninjured mutant mice have anatomical and functional impairments in the peripheral nervous system. Loss of TMEM184b causes swellings at neuromuscular junctions that become more numerous with age, demonstrating that TMEM184b is critical for the maintenance of synaptic architecture. These swellings contain abnormal multivesicular structures similar to those seen in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. Mutant animals also show abnormal sensory terminal morphology. TMEM184b mutant animals are deficient on the inverted screen test, illustrating a role for TMEM184b in sensory-motor function. Overall, we have identified an important function for TMEM184b in peripheral nerve terminal structure, function, and the axon degeneration pathway.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our work has identified both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative roles for a previously undescribed protein, TMEM184b. TMEM184b mutation causes delayed axon degeneration following peripheral nerve injury, indicating that it participates in the degeneration process. Simultaneously, TMEM184b mutation causes progressive structural abnormalities at neuromuscular synapses and swellings within sensory terminals, and animals with this mutation display profound weakness. Thus, TMEM184b is necessary for normal peripheral nerve terminal morphology and maintenance. Loss of TMEM184b results in accumulation of autophagosomal structures in vivo, fitting with emerging studies that have linked autophagy disruption and neurological disease. Our work recognizes TMEM184b as a new player in the maintenance of the nervous system.
autophagy; axon degeneration; intraepidermal nerve fibers; mouse; neuromuscular junction
Overexpression of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT1 leads to preservation of injured axons. While increased NAD+ or decreased NMN levels are thought to be critical to this process, the mechanism(s) of this axon protection remain obscure. Using steady-state and flux analysis of NAD+ metabolites in healthy and injured mouse dorsal root ganglion axons, we find that rather than altering NAD+ synthesis, NMNAT1 instead blocks the injury-induced, SARM1-dependent NAD+ consumption that is central to axon degeneration.
axonal degeneration; NAD; Nmnat; Wlds; Nampt; SARM1; Mouse
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal variant of prostate cancer that is associated with castrate-resistant growth, metastasis, and mortality. The tumor environment of neuroendocrine prostate cancer is heterogeneous and characterized by hypoxia, necrosis, and numerous mitoses. Although acidic extracellular pH has been implicated in aggressive cancer features including metastasis and therapeutic resistance, its role in neuroendocrine prostate cancer physiology and metabolism has not yet been explored. We used the well-characterized PNEC cell line as a model to establish the effects of extracellular pH (pH 6.5, 7.4, and 8.5) on neuroendocrine prostate cancer cell metabolism. We discovered that alkalinization of extracellular pH converted cellular metabolism to a nutrient consumption-dependent state that was susceptible to glucose deprivation, glutamine deprivation, and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) mediated inhibition of glycolysis. Conversely, acidic pH shifted cellular metabolism toward an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent state that was susceptible to OXPHOS inhibition. Based upon this mechanistic knowledge of pH-dependent metabolism, we identified that the FDA-approved anti-helminthic niclosamide depolarized mitochondrial potential and depleted ATP levels in PNEC cells whose effects were enhanced in acidic pH. To further establish relevance of these findings, we tested the effects of extracellular pH on susceptibility to nutrient deprivation and OXPHOS inhibition in a cohort of castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines C4-2B, PC-3, and PC-3M. We discovered similar pH-dependent toxicity profiles among all cell lines with these treatments. These findings underscore a potential importance to acidic extracellular pH in the modulation of cell metabolism in tumors and development of an emerging paradigm that exploits the synergy of environment and therapeutic efficacy in cancer.
The nicotinamide‐nucleotide adenylyltransferase protein Nmnat1 is a potent inhibitor of axonal degeneration in models of acute axonal injury. Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule‐associated protein Tau are associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease and other disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that other Nmnat isoforms can act both as axonoprotective agents and have protein chaperone function, exerting protective effects in drosophila and mouse models of tauopathy. Nmnat1 targeted to the cytoplasm (cytNmnat1) is neuroprotective in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia‐ischemia, but the effect of cytNmnat1 on tauopathy remains unknown.
We examined the impact of overexpression of cytNmnat1 on tau pathology, neurodegeneration, and brain functional connectivity in the P301S mouse model of chronic tauopathy.
Overexpression of cytNmnat1 preserved cortical neuron functional connectivity in P301S mice in vivo. However, whereas Nmnat1 overexpression decreased the accumulation of detergent‐insoluble tau aggregates in the cerebral cortex, it exerted no effect on immunohistochemical evidence of pathologic tau phosphorylation and misfolding, hippocampal atrophy, or inflammatory markers in P301S mice.
Our results demonstrate that cytNmnat1 partially preserves neuronal function and decreases biochemically insoluble tau in a mouse model of chronic tauopathy without preventing tau phosphorylation, formation of soluble aggregates, or tau‐induced inflammation and atrophy. Nmnat1 might thus represent a therapeutic target for tauopathies.
Immediate early genes (IEGs) of the early growth response gene (Egr) family are activated in the brain in response to stress, social stimuli, and administration of psycho-active medications. However, little is known about the role of these genes in the biological or behavioral response to these stimuli. Here we show that mice lacking the IEG transcription factor Egr3 (Egr3–/– mice) display increased aggression, and a decreased latency to attack, in response to the stressful social stimulus of a foreign intruder. Together with our findings of persistent and intrusive olfactory-mediated social investigation of conspecifics, these results suggest increased impulsivity in Egr3–/– mice. We also show that the aggression of Egr3–/– mice is significantly inhibited with chronic administration of the antipsychotic medication clozapine. Despite their sensitivity to this therapeutic effect of clozapine, Egr3–/– mice display a marked resistance to the sedating effects of acute clozapine compared with WT littermate controls. This indicates that the therapeutic, anti-aggressive action of clozapine is separable from its sedating activity, and that the biological abnormality resulting from loss of Egr3 distinguishes these different mechanisms. Thus Egr3–/– mice may provide an important tool for elucidating the mechanism of action of clozapine, as well as for understanding the biology underlying aggressive behavior. Notably, schizophrenia patients display a similar decreased susceptibility to the side effects of antipsychotic medications compared to non-psychiatric controls, despite the medications producing a therapeutic response. This suggests the possibility that Egr3–/– mice may provide insight into the neurobiological abnormalities underlying schizophrenia.
immediate early gene; Egr3; clozapine; behavior; stress; schizophrenia
Axon degeneration is an intrinsic self-destruction program that underlies axon loss during injury and disease. Sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) protein is an essential mediator of axon degeneration. We report that SARM1 initiates a local destruction program involving rapid breakdown of NAD+ after injury. We used an engineered protease-sensitized SARM1 to demonstrate that SARM1 activity is required after axon injury to induce axon degeneration. Dimerization of the Toll-Interleukin Receptor (TIR) domain of SARM1 alone was sufficient to induce locally-mediated axon degeneration. Formation of the SARM1 TIR dimer triggered rapid breakdown of NAD+, whereas SARM1-induced axon destruction could be counteracted by increased NAD+ synthesis. SARM1-induced depletion of NAD+ may explain the potent axon protection in Wallerian Degeneration slow (Wlds) mutant mice.
Schwann cells (SCs) promote axonal integrity independently of myelination by poorly understood mechanisms. Current models suggest that SC metabolism is critical for this support function and that SC metabolic deficits may lead to axonal demise. The LKB1-AMPK kinase pathway targets multiple downstream effectors including mTOR and is a key metabolic regulator implicated in metabolic diseases. We show through integrative molecular, structural, and behavioral characterization of SC-specific mutant mice that LKB1 activity is central to axon stability, whereas AMPK and mTOR in SCs are largely dispensable. The degeneration of axons in LKB1-mutants is most dramatic in unmyelinated small sensory fibers, whereas motor axons are relatively spared. LKB1 deletion in SCs leads to abnormalities in nerve energy and lipid homeostasis, and increased lactate release. The latter acts in a compensatory manner to support distressed axons. LKB1 signaling is essential for SC-mediated axon support, a function that may be dysregulated in diabetic neuropathy.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is the underlying cause of many neurological disorders, including peripheral neuropathies. Mitochondria rely on a proton gradient to generate ATP and interfering with electron transport chain function can lead to the deleterious accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Notably, loss of mitochondrial potential precedes cellular demise in several programmed cell destruction pathways, including axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization triggers axon degeneration and cell death in primary mouse sensory neurons. These degenerative events are not blocked by inhibitors of canonical programmed cell death pathways such as apoptosis, necroptosis, and parthanatos. Instead, the axodestructive factor Sarm1 is required for this axon degeneration and cell death. In the absence of Sarm1, the mitochondrial poison CCCP still induces depolarization of mitochondria, ATP depletion, calcium influx, and the accumulation of ROS, yet cell death and axon degeneration are blocked. The survival of these neurons despite the accumulation of ROS indicates that Sarm1 acts downstream of ROS generation. Indeed, loss of Sarm1 protects sensory neurons and their axons from prolonged exposure to ROS. Therefore, Sarm1 functions downstream of ROS to induce neuronal cell death and axon degeneration during oxidative stress. These findings highlight the central role for Sarm1 in a novel form of programmed cell destruction that we term sarmoptosis.
axon; cell death; degeneration; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; Sarm1
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Much effort has been devoted to examining the role played by neuronal/axonal mitochondria, but how mitochondrial deficits in peripheral nerve glia (Schwann cells, SCs) contribute to peripheral nerve diseases remains unclear. Here, we investigate a mouse model of peripheral neuropathy secondary to SC mitochondrial dysfunction (Tfam-SCKOs). We show that disruption of SC mitochondria activates a maladaptive integrated stress response through actions of heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI), and causes a shift in lipid metabolism away from fatty acid synthesis toward oxidation. These alterations in SC lipid metabolism result in depletion of important myelin lipid components as well as in accumulation of acylcarnitines, an intermediate of fatty acid β-oxidation. Importantly, we show that acylcarnitines are released from SCs and induce axonal degeneration. A maladaptive integrated stress response as well as altered SC lipid metabolism are thus underlying pathological mechanisms in mitochondria-related peripheral neuropathies.
TFAM; sulfatides; cerebrosides; acylcarnitines; integrated stress response; heme-regulated inhibitor kinase; eukaryotic elongation factor 2 alpha; diabetic neuropathy
Axon degeneration is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that eliminates damaged or unneeded axons. Manipulation of this poorly understood pathway may allow treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. In an RNAi-based screen performed in cultured mouse DRG neurons, we observed strong suppression of injury-induced axon degeneration upon knockdown of Sarm1 [SARM (sterile α-motif-containing and armadillo-motif containing protein)]. We find that a SARM-dependent degeneration program is engaged by disparate neuronal insults: SARM ablation blocks axon degeneration induced by axotomy or vincristine treatment, while SARM acts in parallel with a soma-derived caspase-dependent pathway following trophic withdrawal. SARM is a multidomain protein that associates with neuronal mitochondria. Deletion of the N-terminal mitochondrial localization sequence disrupts SARM mitochondrial localization in neurons but does not alter its ability to promote axon degeneration. In contrast, mutation of either the SAM (sterile α motif) or TIR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor) domains abolishes the ability of SARM to promote axonal degeneration, while a SARM mutant containing only these domains elicits axon degeneration and nonapoptotic neuronal death even in the absence of injury. Protein–protein interaction studies demonstrate that the SAM domains are necessary and sufficient to mediate SARM–SARM binding. SARM mutants lacking a TIR domain bind full-length SARM and exhibit strong dominant-negative activity. These results indicate that SARM plays an integral role in the dismantling of injured axons and support a model in which SAM-mediated multimerization is necessary for TIR-dependent engagement of a downstream destruction pathway. These findings suggest that inhibitors of SAM and TIR interactions represent therapeutic candidates for blocking pathological axon loss and neuronal cell death.
The Wlds mutation affords protection of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in retinal ischemia and in inducible and hereditary preclinical models of glaucoma. We undertook the present study to determine whether the Nmnat1 portion of the chimeric protein provides axonal and somatic protection of RGCs in models of ischemia and glaucoma, particularly when localized to nonnuclear regions of the cell.
The survival and integrity of RGC axons and soma from transgenic mice with confirmed cytoplasmic overexpression of Nmnat1 in retina and optic nerve (cytNmnat1-Tg mice) were examined in the retina and postlaminar optic nerve 4 days following acute retinal ischemia, and 3 weeks following the chronic elevation of intraocular pressure.
Ischemia- and glaucoma-induced disruptions of proximal segments of RGC axons that comprise the nerve fiber layer in wild-type mice were both robustly abrogated in cytNmnat1-Tg mice. More distal portions of RGC axons within the optic nerve were also protected from glaucomatous disruption in the transgenic mice. In both disease models, Nmnat1 overexpression in extranuclear locations significantly enhanced the survival of RGC soma.
Overexpression of Nmnat1 in the cytoplasm and axons of RGCs robustly protected against both ischemic and glaucomatous loss of RGC axonal integrity, as well as loss of RGC soma. These findings reflect the more pan-cellular protection of CNS neurons that is realized by cytoplasmic Nmnat1 expression, and thus provide a therapeutic strategy for protecting against retinal neurodegeneration, and perhaps other CNS neurodegenerative diseases as well.
This study demonstrates that Nmnat1 overexpression targeted to the cytoplasm affords protection of retinal ganglion cell soma and axons from acute ischemic injury and chronic glaucomatous neurodegeneration; thus, this enzyme could be a therapeutic target for treating these diseases.
Here we demonstrate that the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes robust regeneration of peripheral axons following nerve injury in mice. Peripheral axon regeneration is accelerated by prior injury, however DLK KO neurons do not respond to a preconditioning lesion with enhanced regeneration in vivo or in vitro. Assays for activation of transcription factors in injury-induced pro-regenerative pathways reveal that loss of DLK abolishes upregulation of p-STAT3 and p-cJun in the cell body following axonal injury. DLK is not required for the phosphorylation of STAT3 at the site of nerve injury, but is necessary for retrograde transport of p-STAT3 to the cell body. These data demonstrate that DLK enhances regeneration by promoting a retrograde injury signal that is required for the activation of the neuronal pro-regenerative program.
Axon degeneration is an evolutionarily conserved process that drives the loss of damaged axons and is an early event in many neurological disorders, and so it is important to identify the molecular constituents of this poorly understood mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the Phr1 E3 ubiquitin ligase is a central component of this axon degeneration program. Loss of Phr1 results in prolonged survival of severed axons both in the peripheral and central nervous systems, as well as preservation of motor and sensory nerve terminals. Phr1 depletion increases the axonal level of the axon survival molecule nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2), and NMNAT2 is necessary to mediate Phr1-dependent axon stability. The profound long-term protection of peripheral and central mammalian axons following Phr1 deletion suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Phr1 function may be an attractive therapeutic candidate for ameliorating axon loss in neurological disease.
The regenerative response of Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury is a critical process directly related to the pathophysiology of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. This SC injury response is dependent on an intricate gene regulatory program coordinated by a number of transcription factors and microRNAs, but the interactions among them remain largely unknown. Uncovering the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks governing the Schwann cell injury response is a key step towards a better understanding of Schwann cell biology and may help develop novel therapies for related diseases. Performing such comprehensive network analysis requires systematic bioinformatics methods to integrate multiple genomic datasets.
In this study we present a computational pipeline to infer transcription factor and microRNA regulatory networks. Our approach combined mRNA and microRNA expression profiling data, ChIP-Seq data of transcription factors, and computational transcription factor and microRNA target prediction. Using mRNA and microRNA expression data collected in a Schwann cell injury model, we constructed a regulatory network and studied regulatory pathways involved in Schwann cell response to injury. Furthermore, we analyzed network motifs and obtained insights on cooperative regulation of transcription factors and microRNAs in Schwann cell injury recovery.
This work demonstrates a systematic method for gene regulatory network inference that may be used to gain new information on gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs.
Transcriptional regulatory network; MicroRNA regulatory network; Myelination; Schwann cells
We have investigated the source(s) and targeting of components to PNS nodes of Ranvier. We show adhesion molecules are diffusible within the axon membrane and accumulate at forming nodes from local axonal sources. In contrast, ion channels and cytoskeletal components exhibit limited planar mobility and require transport to the node. We have characterized further targeting of NF186, an axonal adhesion molecule, which pioneers node formation. NF186 redistributes to nascent nodes from a mobile, surface pool. This initial accumulation, and clearance from the internode require extracellular interactions whereas subsequent targeting to mature nodes, i.e. those flanked by paranodal junctions, requires intracellular interactions. After incorporation into the node, NF186 is immobile, stable, and promotes node integrity. Thus nodes assemble from two sources: adhesion molecules, which initiate assembly, accumulate by diffusion trapping via interactions with Schwann cells whereas ion channels and cytoskeletal components accumulate via subsequent transport. In mature nodes, components turnover slowly and are replenished via transport.
AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the regulatory network responsible for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis during exercise or nutrient deprivation. To understand the function of the regulatory β2 subunit of AMPK in systemic energy metabolism, we characterized β2 subunit-deficient mice. Using these mutant mice, we demonstrated that the β2 subunit plays an important role in regulating glucose, glycogen, and lipid metabolism during metabolic stress. The β2 mutant animals failed to maintain euglycemia and muscle ATP levels during fasting. In addition, β2-deficient animals showed classic symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD), and were unable to maintain muscle ATP levels during exercise. Cell surface-associated glucose transporter levels were reduced in skeletal muscle from β2 mutant animals on an HFD. In addition, they displayed poor exercise performance and impaired muscle glycogen metabolism. These mutant mice had decreased activation of AMPK and deficits in PGC1α-mediated transcription in skeletal muscle. Our results highlight specific roles of AMPK complexes containing the β2 subunit and suggest the potential utility of AMPK isoform-specific pharmacological modulators for treatment of metabolic, cardiac, and neurological disorders.
Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion and movement) are implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, from rare genetic disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, to common conditions including Alzheimer’s disease. However, the relationship between altered mitochondrial dynamics and neurodegeneration is incompletely understood. Here we show that disease associated MFN2 proteins suppressed both mitochondrial fusion and transport, and produced classic features of segmental axonal degeneration without cell body death, including neurofilament filled swellings, loss of calcium homeostasis, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, depletion of Opa1 suppressed mitochondrial fusion while sparing transport, and did not induce axonal degeneration. Axon degeneration induced by mutant MFN2 proteins correlated with the disruption of the proper mitochondrial positioning within axons, rather than loss of overall mitochondrial movement, or global mitochondrial dysfunction. We also found that augmenting expression of MFN1 rescued the axonal degeneration caused by MFN2 mutants, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. These experiments provide evidence that the ability of mitochondria to sense energy requirements and localize properly within axons is key to maintaining axonal integrity, and may be a common pathway by which disruptions in axonal transport contribute to neurodegeneration.
mitochondria; neurodegeneration; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; axonal transport; mitofusin 2
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) surrounding damaged axons undergo an injury response that is driven by an intricate transcriptional program and is critical for nerve regeneration. To examine whether these injury-induced changes in SCs are also regulated posttranscriptionally by miRNAs, we performed miRNA expression profiling of mouse sciatic nerve distal segment after crush injury. We also characterized the SC injury response in mice containing SCs with disrupted miRNA processing due to loss of Dicer. We identified 87 miRNAs that were expressed in mouse adult peripheral nerve, 48 of which were dynamically regulated after nerve injury. Most of these injury-regulated SC miRNAs were computationally predicted to inhibit drivers of SC dedifferentiation/proliferation and thereby re-enforce the transcriptional program driving SC remyelination. SCs deficient in miRNAs manifested a delay in the transition between the distinct differentiation states required to support peripheral nerve regeneration. Among the miRNAs expressed in adult mouse SCs, miR-34a and miR-140 were identified as functional regulators of SC dedifferentiation/proliferation and remyelination, respectively. We found that miR-34a interacted with positive regulators of dedifferentiation and proliferation such as Notch1 and Ccnd1 to control cell cycle dynamics in SCs. miR-140 targeted the transcription factor Egr2, a master regulator of myelination, and modulated myelination in DRG/SC cocultures. Together, these results demonstrate that SC miRNAs are important modulators of the SC regenerative response after nerve damage.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathies. While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. Here we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. These mice (Tfam-SCKOs) were produced through the tissue-specific deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A gene (Tfam), which is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and maintenance. Tfam-SCKOs were viable but, as they aged, they developed a progressive peripheral neuropathy characterized by nerve conduction abnormalities as well as extensive muscle denervation. Morphological examination of Tfam-SCKO nerves revealed early preferential loss of small unmyelinated fibers followed by prominent demyelination and degeneration of larger-caliber axons. Tfam-SCKOs displayed sensory and motor deficits consistent with this pathology. Remarkably, the severe mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain abnormalities in Tfam-SCKO mice did not affect SC proliferation or survival. Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies.
TFAM; metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; axonal degeneration
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central mediator of disease progression in diverse neurodegenerative diseases that often present with prominent gastrointestinal abnormalities. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in these disorders is related, at least in part, to defects in the enteric nervous system (ENS). The role of mitochondrial deficits in ENS neurodegeneration and their relative contribution to gastrointestinal dysfunction, however, are unclear. To better understand how mitochondrial abnormalities in the ENS influence enteric neurodegeneration and affect intestinal function, we generated mice (Tfam-ENSKOs) with impaired mitochondrial metabolism in enteric neurons and glia through the targeted deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A gene (Tfam). Tfam-ENSKO mice were initially viable but, at an early age, they developed severe gastrointestinal motility problems characterized by intestinal pseudo-obstruction resulting in premature death. This gastrointestinal dysfunction was caused by extensive, progressive neurodegeneration of the ENS involving both neurons and glia. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects differentially affected specific subpopulations of enteric neurons and regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Mitochondrial deficiency-related neuronal and glial loss was most prominent in the proximal small intestine, but the first affected neurons, nitrergic inhibitory neurons, had the greatest losses in the distal small intestine. This regional and subtype-specific variability in susceptibility to mitochondrial defects resulted in an imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory neurons that likely accounts for the observed phenotype in Tfam-ENSKO mice. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, is likely to be an important driving force of neurodegeneration in the ENS and contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms in people with neurodegenerative disorders.
Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many neurological disorders. Studies in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases indicate that axonal degeneration is an early event in the disease process, and delaying this process can lead to decreased progression of the disease and survival extension. Overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wlds) protein can delay axonal degeneration initiated via axotomy, chemotherapeutic agents, or genetic mutations. The Wlds protein consists of the N-terminal portion of the ubiquitination factor Ube4b fused to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (Nmnat1). We previously showed that the Nmnat1 portion of this fusion protein was the critical moiety for Wlds-mediated axonal protection. Here, we describe the development of an automated quantitative assay for assessing axonal degeneration. This method successfully showed that Nmnat1 enzymatic activity is important for axonal protection as mutants with reduced enzymatic activity lacked axon protective activity. We also found that Nmnat enzymes with diverse sequences and structures from various species, including Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and archaebacterium Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, which encodes a protein with no homology to eukaryotic Nmnat enzymes, all mediate robust axonal protection after axotomy. Besides the importance of Nmnat enzymatic activity, we did not observe changes in the steady-state NAD+ level, and we found that inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), which synthesizes substrate for Nmnat in mammalian cells, did not affect the protective activity of Nmnat1. These results provide the possibility of a role for new Nmnat enzymatic activity in axonal protection in addition to NAD+ synthesis.
Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many debilitating neurological disorders and is thought to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those governing cell body death. Recently, caspase 6 activation via APP cleavage and activation of DR6 was discovered to induce axon degeneration after NGF withdrawal. We tested whether this pathway is involved in axonal degeneration caused by withdrawal of other trophic support, axotomy or vincristine exposure. Neurturin deprivation, like NGF withdrawal activated this APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway and resulted in axonal degeneration, however, APP cleavage and caspase 6 activation were not involved in axonal degeneration induced by mechanical or toxic insults. However, loss of surface APP (sAPP) and caspase 6 activation were observed during axonal degeneration induced by dynactin 1(Dctn1) dysfunction, which disrupts axonal transport. Mutations in Dctn1 are associated with motor neuron disease and frontal temporal dementia, thus suggesting that the APP/caspase 6 pathway could be important in specific types of disease-associated axonal degeneration. The NGF deprivation paradigm, with its defined molecular pathway, was used to examine the context of Nmnat-mediated axonal protection. We found that although Nmnat blocks axonal degeneration after trophic factor withdrawal, it did not prevent loss of axon sAPP or caspase 6 activation within the axon, suggesting it acts downstream of caspase 6. These results indicate that diverse insults induce axonal degeneration via multiple pathways and that these degeneration signals converge on a common, Nmnat-sensitive program that is uniquely involved in axonal, but not cell body, degeneration.
axonal degeneration; Nmnat; Wlds; NGF; apoptosis
RNA interference (RNAi) is a useful in vitro research tool, but its application as a safe and effective therapeutic agent may benefit from improved understanding of mechanisms of exogenous siRNA delivery, including cell trafficking and sorting patterns. We report the development of a transfection reagent for siRNA delivery which employs a distinctive non-digestive mode of particle-cell membrane interaction through the formation of a hemifusion complex resulting in lipid-raft transport of cargo to the cytosol, bypassing the usual endosomal nanoparticle uptake pathway. We further demonstrate markedly enhanced efficacy over conventional transfection agents for suppressing endothelial cell expression of upregulated vascular adhesion molecules.
Mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2) are outer mitochondrial membrane proteins involved in regulating mitochondrial dynamics. Mutations in Mfn2 cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2A, an inherited disease characterized by degeneration of long peripheral axons, but the nature of this tissue selectivity remains unknown. Here we present evidence that Mfn2 is directly involved in and required for axonal mitochondrial transport, distinct from its role in mitochondrial fusion. Live imaging of neurons cultured from Mfn2 knockout mice, or neurons expressing Mfn2 disease mutants, show that axonal mitochondria spend more time paused and undergo slower anterograde and retrograde movements, indicating an alteration in attachment to microtubule based transport systems. Furthermore, Mfn2 disruption altered mitochondrial movement selectively, leaving transport of other organelles intact. Importantly, both Mfn1 and Mfn2 interact with mammalian Miro (Miro1/Miro2) and Milton (OIP106/GRIF1) proteins, members of the molecular complex that link mitochondria to kinesin motors. Knockdown of Miro2 in cultured neurons produced transport deficits identical to loss of Mfn2, indicating that both proteins must be present at the outer membrane to mediate axonal mitochondrial transport. In contrast, disruption of mitochondrial fusion via knockdown of the inner mitochondrial membrane protein Opa1 had no effect on mitochondrial motility, indicating that loss of fusion does not inherently alter mitochondrial transport. These experiments identify a role for mitofusins in directly regulating mitochondrial transport, and offer important insight into the cell type specificity and molecular mechanisms of axonal degeneration in CMT2A and dominant optic atrophy.
mitochondria; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; axonal transport; axonopathy; mitofusin 2; axon
Small unmyelinated sensory neurons classified as nociceptors are divided into two subpopulations based on phenotypic differences including expression of neurotrophic factor receptors. Approximately half of unmyelinated nociceptors express the NGF receptor TrkA and half express the GDNF Family Ligand (GFL) receptor Ret. The function of NGF/TrkA signaling in the TrkA population of nociceptors has been extensively studied and NGF/TrkA signaling is a well established mediator of pain. The GFLs are analgesic in models of neuropathic pain emphasizing the importance of understanding the physiological function of GFL/Ret signaling in nociceptors. However, perinatal lethality of Ret-null mice has precluded the study of the physiological role of GFL/Ret signaling in the survival, maintenance and function of nociceptors in viable mice. We deleted Ret exclusively in nociceptors by crossing nociceptor-specific Nav1.8 Cre and Ret conditional mice to produce Ret-Nav1.8 conditional knock out (CKO) mice. Loss of Ret exclusively in nociceptors results in a reduction in nociceptor number and size indicating Ret signaling is important for the survival and trophic support of these cells. Ret-Nav1.8 CKO mice exhibit reduced epidermal innervation, but normal central projections. In addition, Ret-Nav1.8 CKO mice have increased sensitivity to cold and increased formalin-induced pain, demonstrating that Ret signaling modulates the function of nociceptors in vivo. Enhanced inflammation-induced pain may be mediated by decreased Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) as PAP levels are markedly reduced in Ret-Nav1.8 CKO mice. The results of this study identify the physiological role of endogenous Ret signaling in the survival and function of nociceptors.
Ret; neurotrophic factor; GDNF; pain; inflammation; nociceptor