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author:("Ma, hexi")
1.  Leptin treatment inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis by attenuating hypercholesterolemia in type 1 diabetic Ins2+/Akita:apoE-/- mice 
Atherosclerosis  2012;225(2):341-347.
The impact of leptin deficiency and its replacement in T1D remain unclear in the context of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The current study has investigated the physiologic role of leptin in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in T1D.
Methods and results
The present study has employed Ins2+/Akita:apoE–/– mouse model that spontaneously develops T1D, hypercholesterolemia, and atherosclerosis. At age 13 weeks, diabetic Ins2+/Akita:apoE–/– mice showed leptin deficiency by ~92% compared with nondiabetic Ins2+/+:apoE–/– mice. From 13 weeks to 25 weeks of age, diabetic Ins2+/Akita:apoE–/– mice were treated with low-dose leptin (at 0.4 μg/g body weight daily). Leptin treatment diminished food intake by 22-27% in diabetic mice without affecting body weight and lean mass throughout the experiment. Importantly, leptin therapy substantially reduced plasma cholesterol concentrations by ~41%, especially in LDL fractions, in diabetic Ins2+/Akita:apoE-/- mice. Moreover, leptin therapy decreased atherosclerotic lesion in diabetic mice by ~62% comparable to that seen in nondiabetic mice. In addition, leptin restored repressed expression of hepatic sortilin-1, a receptor for LDL clearance, and reversed altered expression of several hepatic genes involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis characteristic of diabetic mice. These findings were accompanied by normalization of reduced hepatic expression of IRS1 and IRS2 mRNA as well as their protein levels, and improved hepatic insulin receptor signaling.
The present findings suggest that leptin administration may be useful to improve dyslipidemia and reduce atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease in human subjects with T1D.
PMCID: PMC3502687  PMID: 23099119
type 1 diabetes; leptin; dyslipidemia; atherosclerosis
2.  Interleukin-10 Prevents Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance by Attenuating Macrophage and Cytokine Response in Skeletal Muscle 
Diabetes  2009;58(11):2525-2535.
Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes and is causally associated with obesity. Inflammation plays an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with lower circulating levels in obese subjects, and acute treatment with IL-10 prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance. We examined the role of IL-10 in glucose homeostasis using transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of IL-10 (MCK-IL10).
MCK-IL10 and wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks, and insulin sensitivity was determined using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in conscious mice. Biochemical and molecular analyses were performed in muscle to assess glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and inflammatory responses.
MCK-IL10 mice developed with no obvious anomaly and showed increased whole-body insulin sensitivity. After 3 weeks of HFD, MCK-IL10 mice developed comparable obesity to wild-type littermates but remained insulin sensitive in skeletal muscle. This was mostly due to significant increases in glucose metabolism, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt activity in muscle. HFD increased macrophage-specific CD68 and F4/80 levels in wild-type muscle that was associated with marked increases in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 levels. In contrast, MCK-IL10 mice were protected from diet-induced inflammatory response in muscle.
These results demonstrate that IL-10 increases insulin sensitivity and protects skeletal muscle from obesity-associated macrophage infiltration, increases in inflammatory cytokines, and their deleterious effects on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2768157  PMID: 19690064
3.  Nutrient Stress Activates Inflammation and Reduces Glucose Metabolism by Suppressing AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Heart 
Diabetes  2009;58(11):2536-2546.
Heart failure is a major cause of mortality in diabetes and may be causally associated with altered metabolism. Recent reports indicate a role of inflammation in peripheral insulin resistance, but the impact of inflammation on cardiac metabolism is unknown. We investigated the effects of diet-induced obesity on cardiac inflammation and glucose metabolism in mice.
Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks, and heart samples were taken to measure insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. Heart samples were also examined following acute interleukin (IL)-6 or lipid infusion in C57BL/6 mice and in IL-6 knockout mice following an HFD.
Diet-induced obesity reduced cardiac glucose metabolism, GLUT, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels, and this was associated with increased levels of macrophages, toll-like receptor 4, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), and cytokines in heart. Acute physiological elevation of IL-6 suppressed glucose metabolism and caused insulin resistance by increasing SOCS3 and via SOCS3-mediated inhibition of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and possibly AMPK in heart. Diet-induced inflammation and defects in glucose metabolism were attenuated in IL-6 knockout mice, implicating the role of IL-6 in obesity-associated cardiac inflammation. Acute lipid infusion caused inflammation and raised local levels of macrophages, C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, SOCS3, and cytokines in heart. Lipid-induced cardiac inflammation suppressed AMPK, suggesting the role of lipid as a nutrient stress triggering inflammation.
Our findings that nutrient stress activates cardiac inflammation and that IL-6 suppresses myocardial glucose metabolism via inhibition of AMPK and IRS-1 underscore the important role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic heart.
PMCID: PMC2768176  PMID: 19690060

Results 1-3 (3)