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author:("Lee, Gap rol")
1.  PPARγ Negatively Regulates T Cell Activation to Prevent Follicular Helper T Cells and Germinal Center Formation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99127.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. Although studies of PPARγ ligands have demonstrated its regulatory functions in inflammation and adaptive immunity, its intrinsic role in T cells and autoimmunity has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we used CD4-PPARγKO mice to investigate PPARγ-deficient T cells, which were hyper-reactive to produce higher levels of cytokines and exhibited greater proliferation than wild type T cells with increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation. Diminished expression of IκBα, Sirt1, and Foxo1, which are inhibitors of NF-κB, was observed in PPARγ-deficient T cells that were prone to produce all the signature cytokines under Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 skewing condition. Interestingly, 1-year-old CD4-PPARγKO mice spontaneously developed moderate autoimmune phenotype by increased activated T cells, follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and germinal center B cells with glomerular inflammation and enhanced autoantibody production. Sheep red blood cell immunization more induced TFH cells and germinal centers in CD4-PPARγKO mice and the T cells showed increased of Bcl-6 and IL-21 expression suggesting its regulatory role in germinal center reaction. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARγ has a regulatory role for TFH cells and germinal center reaction to prevent autoimmunity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099127
PMCID: PMC4055678  PMID: 24921943
2.  TGF-β-treated antigen presenting cells suppress collagen-induced arthritis through the promotion of Th2 responses 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2010;42(3):187-194.
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is mediated by self-reactive CD4+ T cells that produce inflammatory cytokines. TGF-β2-treated tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (Tol-APCs) are known to induce tolerance in various autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated whether collagen-specific Tol-APCs could induce suppression of CIA. We observed that Tol-APCs could suppress the development and severity of CIA and delay the onset of CIA. Treatment of Tol-APCs reduced the number of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells and increased IL-4- and IL-5-producing CD4+ T cells upon collagen antigen stimulation in vitro. The suppression of CIA conferred by Tol-APCs correlated with their ability to selectively induce IL-10 production. We also observed that treatment of Tol-APCs inhibited not only cellular immune responses but also humoral immune responses in the process of CIA. Our results suggest that in vitro-generated Tol-APCs have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as well as other autoimmune diseases.
doi:10.3858/emm.2010.42.3.019
PMCID: PMC2845003  PMID: 20164680
antigen-presenting cells; arthritis, experimental; autoimmune diseases; immune tolerance; Th1 cells; Th2 cells
3.  The presence of CD8+ invariant NKT cells in mice 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(12):866-872.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells develop in the thymus upon recognition of CD1d expressed on developing thymocytes. Although CD4 and CD8 coreceptors are not directly involved in the interaction between CD1d and the T cell receptors (TCRs) of iNKT cells, a conspicuous lack of CD8+ iNKT cells in mice raised the question of whether CD8+ iNKT cells are excluded due to negative selection during their thymic development, or if there is no lineage commitment for the development of murine CD8+ iNKT cells. To address this question, we analyzed iNKT cell-specific TCR Vα14+ transgenic mice, where the Vα14 transgene forces the generation of iNKT cells. This allows detailed study of the iNKT cell repertoire. We were able to identify CD8+ iNKT cells which respond to the NKT cell-specific glycolipid ligand α-galactosylceramide. Unlike conventional iNKT cells, CD8+ iNKT cells produce predominantly IFN-γ but not IL-4 upon antigen stimulation. We also confirmed the presence of CD8+ iNKT cells in wild type mice. Our results suggest that CD8+ NKT cells do exist in mice, although their population size is quite small. Their Th1-skewed phenotype might explain why the population size of this subtype needs to be controlled tightly.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.12.092
PMCID: PMC2802682  PMID: 19745607
antigens, CD1d; CD8-positive T-lymphocytes; α-galactosylceramide; mice, transgenic; natural killer T-cells
4.  Role of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39)/chitinase 3-like-1 in Th2 and IL-13–induced tissue responses and apoptosis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2009;206(5):1149-1166.
Mouse breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39; Chi3l1) and its human homologue YKL-40 are chitinase-like proteins that lack chitinase activity. Although YKL-40 is expressed in exaggerated quantities and correlates with disease activity in asthma and many other disorders, the biological properties of BRP-39/YKL-40 have only been rudimentarily defined. We describe the generation and characterization of BRP-39−/− mice, YKL-40 transgenic mice, and mice that lack BRP-39 and produce YKL-40 only in their pulmonary epithelium. Studies of these mice demonstrated that BRP-39−/− animals have markedly diminished antigen-induced Th2 responses and that epithelial YKL-40 rescues the Th2 responses in these animals. The ability of interleukin13 to induce tissue inflammation and fibrosis was also markedly diminished in the absence of BRP-39. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that BRP-39 and YKL-40 play an essential role in antigen sensitization and immunoglobulin E induction, stimulate dendritic cell accumulation and activation, and induce alternative macrophage activation. These proteins also inhibit inflammatory cell apoptosis/cell death while inhibiting Fas expression, activating protein kinase B/AKT, and inducing Faim 3. These studies establish novel regulatory roles for BRP-39/YKL-40 in the initiation and effector phases of Th2 inflammation and remodeling and suggest that these proteins are therapeutic targets in Th2- and macrophage-mediated disorders.
doi:10.1084/jem.20081271
PMCID: PMC2715037  PMID: 19414556

Results 1-4 (4)