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1.  JNK Expression by Macrophages Promotes Obesity-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammation 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2012;339(6116):10.1126/science.1227568.
The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway contributes to inflammation and plays a key role in the metabolic response to obesity, including insulin resistance. Macrophages are implicated in this process. To test the role of JNK, we established mice with selective JNK-deficiency in macrophages. We report that feeding a high fat diet to control and JNK-deficient mice caused similar obesity, but only mice with JNK-deficient macrophages remained insulin sensitive. The protection of mice with macrophage-specific JNK-deficiency against insulin resistance was associated with reduced tissue infiltration by macrophages. Immunophenotyping demonstrated that JNK was required for pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. These studies demonstrate that JNK in macrophages is required for the establishment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.
doi:10.1126/science.1227568
PMCID: PMC3835653  PMID: 23223452
2.  Gut-derived serotonin is a multifunctional determinant to fasting adaptation 
Cell metabolism  2012;16(5):588-600.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.09.014
PMCID: PMC3696514  PMID: 23085101
3.  BAF60c drives glycolytic muscle formation and improves glucose homeostasis through Deptor-mediated AKT activation 
Nature medicine  2013;19(5):640-645.
A shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism has been associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes1–5. However, whether this metabolic switch is deleterious or adaptive remains controversial6–8, in part due to limited understanding of the regulatory network that directs the metabolic and contractile specification of fast-twitch glycolytic muscle. Here we show that BAF60c, a transcriptional cofactor enriched in fast-twitch muscle, promotes a switch from oxidative to glycolytic myofiber type through Deptor-mediated AKT activation. Muscle-specific transgenic expression of BAF60c activates a program of molecular, metabolic, and contractile changes characteristic of glycolytic muscle. In addition, BAF60c is required for maintaining glycolytic capacity in adult skeletal muscle in vivo. BAF60c expression is significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from obese mice. Unexpectedly, transgenic activation of the glycolytic muscle program by BAF60c protects mice from diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Deptor is induced by the BAF60c/Six4 transcriptional complex and mediates activation of AKT and glycolytic metabolism by BAF60c in a cell-autonomous manner. This work defines a fundamental mechanism underlying the specification of fast glycolytic muscle and illustrates that the oxidative to glycolytic metabolic shift in skeletal muscle is potentially adaptive and beneficial in the diabetic state.
doi:10.1038/nm.3144
PMCID: PMC3650110  PMID: 23563706
4.  Role of the mixed-lineage protein kinase pathway in the metabolic stress response to obesity 
Cell reports  2013;4(4):681-688.
Summary
Saturated free fatty acid (FFA) is implicated in the metabolic response to obesity. In vitro studies indicate that FFA signaling may be mediated by the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) pathway that activates cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Here we examined the role of the MLK pathway in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The ubiquitously expressed MLK2 and MLK3 protein kinases have partially redundant functions. We therefore compared wild-type and compound mutant mice that lack expression of MLK2 plus MLK3. MLK-deficiency protected mice against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity. Reduced JNK activation and increased energy expenditure contribute to the metabolic effects of MLK-deficiency. These data confirm that the MLK pathway plays a critical role in the metabolic response to obesity.
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2013.07.019
PMCID: PMC3769115  PMID: 23954791
5.  Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: An Old Story with New Ideas 
Korean Diabetes Journal  2010;34(3):137-145.
Years before insulin was discovered, anti-inflammatory sodium salicylate was used to treat diabetes in 1901. Intriguingly for many years that followed, diabetes was viewed as a disorder of glucose metabolism, and then it was described as a disease of dysregulated lipid metabolism. The diabetes research focused on the causal relationship between obesity and insulin resistance, a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes. It is only within the past 20 years when the notion of inflammation as a cause of insulin resistance began to surface. In obesity, inflammation develops when macrophages infiltrate adipose tissue and stimulate adipocyte secretion of inflammatory cytokines, that in turn affect energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. This report reviews recent discoveries of stress kinase signaling involving molecular scaffolds and endoplasmic reticulum chaperones that regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis. As we advance from a conceptual understanding to molecular discoveries, a century-old story of inflammation and insulin resistance is re-born with new ideas.
doi:10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.137
PMCID: PMC2898926  PMID: 20617073
Obesity; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Stress kinase
6.  ESSENTIAL ROLE OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE 1B IN OBESITY-INDUCED INFLAMMATION AND PERIPHERAL INSULIN RESISTANCE DURING AGING 
Aging Cell  2012;11(2):284-296.
SUMMARY
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this study, we have evaluated the role of PTP1B in the development of aging-associated obesity, inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance by assessing metabolic parameters at 3 and 16 months in PTP1B−/− mice maintained on mixed genetic background (C57Bl/6J x 129Sv/J). Whereas fat mass and adipocyte size were increased in wild-type control mice at 16 months, these parameters did not change with aging in PTP1B−/− mice. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, crown-like structures and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α were observed only in adipose tissue from 16-month old wild-type mice. Similarly, islet hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia were observed in wild-type mice with aging-associated obesity, but not in PTP1B−/− animals. Leanness in 16-month old PTP-1B−/− mice was associated with increased energy expenditure. Whole body insulin sensitivity decreased in 16-month old control mice; however studies with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed that PTP1B-deficiency prevented this obesity-related decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity. At a molecular level, PTP1B expression and enzymatic activity were up-regulated in liver and muscle of 16-month old wild-type mice as were the activation of stress kinases and the expression of p53. Conversely, insulin receptor-mediated Akt/Foxo1 signaling was attenuated in these aged control mice. Collectively, these data implicate PTP1B in the development of inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity during aging and suggest that inhibition of this phosphatase by therapeutic strategies might protect against age-dependent T2DM.
doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00786.x
PMCID: PMC3306541  PMID: 22221695
insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes; obesity; inflammation; PTP1B
7.  New Insights into insulin resistance in the diabetic heart 
Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes and develops in multiple organs, including the heart. Compared to other organs, the physiological role of cardiac insulin resistance is not well understood. The heart uses lipid as a primary fuel, but glucose becomes an important source of energy in ischemia. The impaired ability to utilize glucose may contribute to cell death and abnormal function in the diabetic heart. Recent discoveries on the role of inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress in obesity have advanced our understanding of how insulin resistance develops in peripheral organs. This review will apply these findings to the diabetic heart to provide new insights into the mechanism of cardiac insulin resistance.
doi:10.1016/j.tem.2011.05.001
PMCID: PMC3183400  PMID: 21680199
8.  Long-term, efficient inhibition of microRNA function in mice using rAAV vectors 
Nature methods  2012;9(4):403-409.
Understanding the function of individual microRNA (miRNA) species in mice would require the production of hundreds of loss-of-function strains. To accelerate analysis of miRNA biology in mammals, we combined recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors with miRNA `Tough Decoys' (TuDs) to inhibit specific miRNAs. Intravenous injection of rAAV9 expressing anti-miR-122 or anti-let-7 TuD depleted the corresponding miRNA and increased its mRNA targets. rAAV producing anti-miR-122—but not anti-let-7—TuD reduced serum cholesterol by >30% for 25 weeks in wild-type mice. High throughput sequencing of liver miRNAs from the treated mice confirmed that the targeted miRNAs were depleted and revealed that TuD RNAs induce miRNA tailing and trimming in vivo. rAAV-mediated miRNA inhibition thus provides a simple way to study miRNA function in adult mammals and a potential therapy for dyslipidemia and other diseases caused by miRNA deregulation.
doi:10.1038/nmeth.1903
PMCID: PMC3420816  PMID: 22388288
10.  Links Between Insulin Resistance, Adenosine A2B Receptors, and Inflammatory Markers in Mice and Humans 
Diabetes  2011;60(2):669-679.
OBJECTIVE
To determine the mechanisms by which blockade of adenosine A2B receptors (A2BRs) reduces insulin resistance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We investigated the effects of deleting or blocking the A2BR on insulin sensitivity using glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The effects of diabetes on A2BR transcription and signaling were measured in human and mouse macrophages and mouse endothelial cells. In addition, tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ∼42 kb encompassing the A2BR gene, ADORA2B, were evaluated for associations with markers of diabetes and inflammation.
RESULTS
Treatment of mice with the nonselective adenosine receptor agonist 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadensoine (NECA) increased fasting blood glucose and slowed glucose disposal during GTTs. These responses were inhibited by A2BR deletion or blockade and minimally affected by deletion of A1Rs or A2ARs. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp of diabetic KKAY mice, A2BR antagonism increased glucose infusion rate, reduced hepatic glucose production, and increased glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Diabetes caused a four- to sixfold increase in A2BR mRNA in endothelial cells and macrophages and resulted in enhanced interleukin (IL)-6 production in response to NECA due to activation of protein kinases A and C. Five consecutive tag SNPs in ADORA2B were highly correlated with IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). Diabetes had a highly significant independent effect on variation in inflammatory markers. The strength of associations between several ADORA2B SNPs and inflammatory markers was increased when accounting for diabetes status.
CONCLUSIONS
Diabetes affects the production of adenosine and the expression of A2BRs that stimulate IL-6 and CRP production, insulin resistance, and the association between ADORA2B SNPs and inflammatory markers. We hypothesize that increased A2BR signaling in diabetes increases insulin resistance in part by elevating proinflammatory mediators. Selective A2BR blockers may be useful to treat insulin resistance.
doi:10.2337/db10-1070
PMCID: PMC3028369  PMID: 21270276
11.  A Role for CEACAM2 in the Central Control of Energy Balance and Peripheral Insulin Action 
Gastroenterology  2010;139(2):644-652.e1.
Background & Aims:
The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) exhibits pleotropic functions, including promoting hepatic insulin clearance. The current studies investigate the functions of its close relative, CEACAM2, with more limited tissue-specific distribution.
Methods:
A global Ceacam2 (Cc2−/−) null mouse (on 129/Sv × C57BL/6J) was generated. Females were subjected to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, indirect calorimetry, body fat composition, and pair-feeding followed by insulin tolerance test for phenotypic characterization.
Results:
Female, but not male Cc2−/− mice exhibit obesity, which results from hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. Hyperphagia leads to peripheral insulin resistance, as demonstrated by pair-feeding experiments. Whereas insulin action is normal in liver, it is compromised in skeletal muscle, which exhibits incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired glucose uptake and disposal. The mechanism of hyperphagia in Cc2−/− mice is not well delineated, but appears to result partly from hyperinsulinemia-induced hypothalamic fatty acid synthase level and activity. Hyperinsulinemia is, in turn, caused by increased insulin secretion.
Conclusions:
Consistent with the absence of CEACAM2 from peripheral insulin target tissues and its localization to the hypothalamus, the phenotype of Cc2−/− mice identifies a novel role for CEACAM2 in the central regulation of energy balance and insulin sensitivity.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.03.056
PMCID: PMC2910848  PMID: 20381490
hypothalamic obesity; hyperphagia; CEACAM2; energy balance
12.  PKCζ-regulated inflammation in the non-hematopoietic compartment is critical for obesity-induced glucose intolerance 
Cell metabolism  2010;12(1):65-77.
SUMMARY
Obesity-induced inflammation is critical for the development of insulin resistance. Here we show, that genetic inactivation of PKCζ in vivo leads to a hyperinflammatory state in obese mice that correlates with a higher glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Previous studies implicated PKCζ in the regulation of type 2 inflammatory responses in T cells. By using ex vivo and in vivo experiments, here we demonstrate that although PKCζ is involved in the alternative (M2) activation of macrophages, surprisingly, PKCζ ablation in the non-hematopoietic compartment but not in the hematopoietic system is sufficient to drive inflammation and IL-6 synthesis in the adipose tissue, as well as insulin resistance. Experiments using PKCζ/IL-6 double-knockout mice demonstrated that IL-6 production accounts for obesity-associated glucose intolerance induced by PKCζ deficiency. These results establish PKCζ as a critical negative regulator of IL-6 in the control of obesity-induced inflammation in adipocytes.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.05.003
PMCID: PMC2907185  PMID: 20620996
13.  Early Hepatic Insulin Resistance Precedes the Onset of Diabetes in Obese C57BLKS-db/db Mice 
Diabetes  2010;59(7):1616-1625.
OBJECTIVE
To identify metabolic derangements contributing to diabetes susceptibility in the leptin receptor–deficient obese C57BLKS/J-db/db (BKS-db) mouse strain.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Young BKS-db mice were used to identify metabolic pathways contributing to the development of diabetes. Using the diabetes-resistant B6-db strain as a comparison, in vivo and in vitro approaches were applied to identify metabolic and molecular differences between the two strains.
RESULTS
Despite higher plasma insulin levels, BKS-db mice exhibit lower lipogenic gene expression, rate of lipogenesis, hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content, and impaired insulin suppression of gluconeogenic genes. Hepatic insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 expression and insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation are decreased in BKS-db primary hepatocytes. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies indicate that in contrast to hepatic insulin resistance, skeletal muscle is more insulin sensitive in BKS-db than in B6-db mice. We also demonstrate that elevated plasma triglyceride levels in BKS-db mice are associated with reduced triglyceride clearance due to lower lipase activities.
CONCLUSIONS
Our study demonstrates the presence of metabolic derangements in BKS-db before the onset of β-cell failure and identifies early hepatic insulin resistance as a component of the BKS-db phenotype. We propose that defects in hepatic insulin signaling contribute to the development of diabetes in the BKS-db mouse strain.
doi:10.2337/db09-0878
PMCID: PMC2889760  PMID: 20393148
14.  Fat Cell–Specific Ablation of Rictor in Mice Impairs Insulin-Regulated Fat Cell and Whole-Body Glucose and Lipid Metabolism 
Diabetes  2010;59(6):1397-1406.
OBJECTIVE
Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. To determine the physiological role of rictor/mTORC2 in insulin signaling and action in fat cells, we developed fat cell–specific rictor knockout (FRic−/−) mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Insulin signaling and glucose and lipid metabolism were studied in FRic−/− fat cells. In vivo glucose metabolism was evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.
RESULTS
Loss of rictor in fat cells prevents insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt at S473, which, in turn, impairs the phosphorylation of downstream targets such as FoxO3a at T32 and AS160 at T642. However, glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation at S9 is not affected. The signaling defects in FRic−/− fat cells lead to impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and decreased glucose transport. Furthermore, rictor-null fat cells are unable to suppress lipolysis in response to insulin, leading to elevated circulating free fatty acids and glycerol. These metabolic perturbations are likely to account for defects observed at the whole-body level of FRic−/− mice, including glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, and hepatic steatosis.
CONCLUSIONS
Rictor/mTORC2 in fat cells plays an important role in whole-body energy homeostasis by mediating signaling necessary for the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fat cells.
doi:10.2337/db09-1061
PMCID: PMC2874700  PMID: 20332342
15.  Requirement of the ATM/p53 Tumor Suppressor Pathway for Glucose Homeostasis▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2010;30(24):5787-5794.
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients can develop multiple clinical pathologies, including neuronal degeneration, an elevated risk of cancer, telangiectasias, and growth retardation. Patients with A-T can also exhibit an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The ATM protein kinase, the product of the gene mutated in A-T patients (Atm), has been implicated in metabolic disease, which is characterized by insulin resistance and increased cholesterol and lipid levels, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. ATM phosphorylates the p53 tumor suppressor on a site (Ser15) that regulates transcription activity. To test whether the ATM pathway that regulates insulin resistance is mediated by p53 phosphorylation, we examined insulin sensitivity in mice with a germ line mutation that replaces the p53 phosphorylation site with alanine. The loss of p53 Ser18 (murine Ser15) led to increased metabolic stress, including severe defects in glucose homeostasis. The mice developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The insulin resistance correlated with the loss of antioxidant gene expression and decreased insulin signaling. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment restored insulin signaling in late-passage primary fibroblasts. The addition of an antioxidant in the diet rendered the p53 Ser18-deficient mice glucose tolerant. This analysis demonstrates that p53 phosphorylation on an ATM site is an important mechanism in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00347-10
PMCID: PMC3004274  PMID: 20956556
16.  Deficiency of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Enhancer Protects Mice From Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2010;59(4):883-893.
OBJECTIVE
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a proto-oncogene that promotes tumor growth and transformation by enhancing Akt activity. However, the physiological functions of PIKE-A in peripheral tissues are unknown. Here, we describe the effect of PIKE deletion in mice and explore the role of PIKE-A in obesity development.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Whole-body PIKE knockout mice were generated and subjected to high-fat–diet feeding for 20 weeks. The glucose tolerance, tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, adipocyte differentiation, and lipid oxidation status were determined. The molecular mechanism of PIKE in the insulin signaling pathway was also studied.
RESULTS
We show that PIKE-A regulates obesity development by modulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. PIKE-A is important for insulin to suppress AMPK phosphorylation. The expression of PIKE-A is markedly increased in adipose tissue of obese mice, whereas depletion of PIKE-A inhibits adipocyte differentiation. PIKE knockout mice exhibit a prominent phenotype of lipoatrophy and are resistant to high-fat diet–induced obesity, liver steatosis, and diabetes. PIKE knockout mice also have augmented lipid oxidation, which is accompanied by enhanced AMPK phosphorylation in both muscle and adipose tissue. Moreover, insulin sensitivity is improved in PIKE-A–deficient muscle and fat, thus protecting the animals from diet-induced diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that PIKE-A is implicated in obesity and associated diabetes development by negatively regulating AMPK activity.
doi:10.2337/db09-1404
PMCID: PMC2844836  PMID: 20068140
17.  Grp78 Heterozygosity Promotes Adaptive Unfolded Protein Response and Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2009;59(1):6-16.
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78/BiP in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Male Grp78+/− mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) regimen. Pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes was examined by multiple approaches of metabolic phenotyping. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was analyzed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Molecular mechanism was explored via immunoblotting and tissue culture manipulation.
RESULTS
Grp78 heterozygosity increases energy expenditure and attenuates HFD-induced obesity. Grp78+/− mice are resistant to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, liver steatosis, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that Grp78 heterozygosity improves glucose metabolism independent of adiposity and following an HFD increases insulin sensitivity predominantly in WAT. As mechanistic explanations, Grp78 heterozygosity in WAT under HFD stress promotes adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), attenuates translational block, and upregulates ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase–like protein (EDEM) and ER chaperones, thus improving ER quality control and folding capacity. Further, overexpression of the active form of ATF6 induces protective UPR and improves insulin signaling upon ER stress.
CONCLUSIONS
HFD-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes are improved in Grp78+/− mice. Adaptive UPR in WAT could contribute to this improvement, linking ER homeostasis to energy balance and glucose metabolism.
doi:10.2337/db09-0755
PMCID: PMC2797945  PMID: 19808896
18.  Nutrient Stress Activates Inflammation and Reduces Glucose Metabolism by Suppressing AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Heart 
Diabetes  2009;58(11):2536-2546.
OBJECTIVE
Heart failure is a major cause of mortality in diabetes and may be causally associated with altered metabolism. Recent reports indicate a role of inflammation in peripheral insulin resistance, but the impact of inflammation on cardiac metabolism is unknown. We investigated the effects of diet-induced obesity on cardiac inflammation and glucose metabolism in mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks, and heart samples were taken to measure insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. Heart samples were also examined following acute interleukin (IL)-6 or lipid infusion in C57BL/6 mice and in IL-6 knockout mice following an HFD.
RESULTS
Diet-induced obesity reduced cardiac glucose metabolism, GLUT, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels, and this was associated with increased levels of macrophages, toll-like receptor 4, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), and cytokines in heart. Acute physiological elevation of IL-6 suppressed glucose metabolism and caused insulin resistance by increasing SOCS3 and via SOCS3-mediated inhibition of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and possibly AMPK in heart. Diet-induced inflammation and defects in glucose metabolism were attenuated in IL-6 knockout mice, implicating the role of IL-6 in obesity-associated cardiac inflammation. Acute lipid infusion caused inflammation and raised local levels of macrophages, C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, SOCS3, and cytokines in heart. Lipid-induced cardiac inflammation suppressed AMPK, suggesting the role of lipid as a nutrient stress triggering inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings that nutrient stress activates cardiac inflammation and that IL-6 suppresses myocardial glucose metabolism via inhibition of AMPK and IRS-1 underscore the important role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic heart.
doi:10.2337/db08-1361
PMCID: PMC2768176  PMID: 19690060
19.  Requirement of JIP1-Mediated c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation for Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance▿ §  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2010;30(19):4616-4625.
The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) interacting protein 1 (JIP1) has been proposed to act as a scaffold protein that mediates JNK activation. However, recent studies have implicated JIP1 in multiple biochemical processes. Physiological roles of JIP1 that are related to the JNK scaffold function of JIP1 are therefore unclear. To test the role of JIP1 in JNK activation, we created mice with a germ line point mutation in the Jip1 gene (Thr103 replaced with Ala) that selectively blocks JIP1-mediated JNK activation. These mutant mice exhibit a severe defect in JNK activation caused by feeding of a high-fat diet. The loss of JIP1-mediated JNK activation protected the mutant mice against obesity-induced insulin resistance. We conclude that JIP1-mediated JNK activation plays a critical role in metabolic stress regulation of the JNK signaling pathway.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00585-10
PMCID: PMC2950523  PMID: 20679483
20.  Role of Muscle c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 1 in Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2009;30(1):106-115.
Obesity caused by feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with an increased activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Activated JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Significantly, Jnk1−/− mice are protected against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that an ablation of the Jnk1 gene in skeletal muscle does not influence HFD-induced obesity. However, muscle-specific JNK1-deficient (MKO) mice exhibit improved insulin sensitivity compared with control wild-type (MWT) mice. Thus, insulin-stimulated AKT activation is suppressed in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue of HFD-fed MWT mice but is suppressed only in the liver and adipose tissue of MKO mice. These data demonstrate that JNK1 in muscle contributes to peripheral insulin resistance in response to diet-induced obesity.
doi:10.1128/MCB.01162-09
PMCID: PMC2798290  PMID: 19841069
21.  Increased Hepatic Insulin Action in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Following Inhibition of Glucosylceramide Synthase 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(6):e11239.
Background
Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver and other tissues, leading to insulin resistance. We have previously shown that a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, which inhibits the initial step in the synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), improved glucose metabolism and decreased hepatic steatosis in both ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Here we have determined in the DIO mouse model the efficacy of a related small molecule compound, Genz-112638, which is currently being evaluated clinically for the treatment of Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder.
Methodology/Principal Findings
DIO mice were treated with the Genz-112638 for 12 to 16 weeks by daily oral gavage. Genz-112638 lowered HbA1c levels and increased glucose tolerance. Whole body adiposity was not affected in normal mice, but decreased in drug-treated obese mice. Drug treatment also significantly lowered liver triglyceride levels and reduced the development of hepatic steatosis. We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps on the DIO mice treated with Genz-112638 and showed that insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production increased significantly compared to the placebo treated mice, indicating a marked improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity.
Conclusions/Significance
These results indicate that GSL inhibition in obese mice primarily results in an increase in insulin action in the liver, and suggests that GSLs may have an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in conditions of obesity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011239
PMCID: PMC2888613  PMID: 20574539
22.  Prevention of Steatosis by Hepatic JNK1 
Cell metabolism  2009;10(6):491-498.
Non-alcoholic steatosis (fatty liver) is a major cause of liver dysfunction that is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The cJun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and drugs that target JNK1 may be useful for treatment of this disease. Indeed, mice with defects in JNK1 expression in adipose tissue are protected against hepatic steatosis. Here we report that mice with specific ablation of Jnk1 in hepatocytes exhibit glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. JNK1 therefore serves opposing actions in liver and adipose tissue to both promote and prevent hepatic steatosis. This finding has profound implications for the design of JNK1-selective drugs for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.09.007
PMCID: PMC2804105  PMID: 19945406
24.  Liver-Specific Deletion of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) Improves Metabolic Syndrome and Attenuates Diet-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress 
Diabetes  2009;58(3):590-599.
OBJECTIVE—The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin signaling; consequently, mice deficient in PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin. Because PTP1B−/− mice have diminished fat stores, the extent to which PTP1B directly regulates glucose homeostasis is unclear. Previously, we showed that brain-specific PTP1B−/− mice are protected against high-fat diet–induced obesity and glucose intolerance, whereas muscle-specific PTP1B−/− mice have increased insulin sensitivity independent of changes in adiposity. Here we studied the role of liver PTP1B in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We analyzed body mass/adiposity, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid metabolism in liver-specific PTP1B−/− and PTP1Bfl/fl control mice, fed a chow or high-fat diet.
RESULTS—Compared with normal littermates, liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit improved glucose homeostasis and lipid profiles, independent of changes in adiposity. Liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice have increased hepatic insulin signaling, decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes PEPCK and G-6-Pase, enhanced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production, and improved glucose tolerance. Liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and diminished expression of lipogenic genes SREBPs, FAS, and ACC. Liver-specific PTP1B deletion also protects against high-fat diet–induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, PERK, and eIF2α and lower expression of the transcription factors C/EBP homologous protein and spliced X box-binding protein 1.
CONCLUSIONS—Liver PTP1B plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism, independent of alterations in adiposity. Inhibition of PTP1B in peripheral tissues may be useful for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and reduction of cardiovascular risk in addition to diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-0913
PMCID: PMC2646057  PMID: 19074988
25.  Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Reverses Hepatic Steatosis, Increases Energy Expenditure, and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obese Mice 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):250-259.
OBJECTIVE—Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet–induced obesity (DIO) model.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—DIO or normal lean mice were treated with vehicle or recombinant murine FGF21. Metabolic parameters including body weight, glucose, and lipid levels were monitored, and hepatic gene expression was analyzed. Energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity were assessed using indirect calorimetry and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques.
RESULTS—FGF21 dose dependently reduced body weight and whole-body fat mass in DIO mice due to marked increases in total energy expenditure and physical activity levels. FGF21 also reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels and reversed hepatic steatosis. The profound reduction of hepatic triglyceride levels was associated with FGF21 inhibition of nuclear sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and the expression of a wide array of genes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. FGF21 also dramatically improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in both lean and DIO mice independently of reduction in body weight and adiposity.
CONCLUSIONS—FGF21 corrects multiple metabolic disorders in DIO mice and has the potential to become a powerful therapeutic to treat hepatic steatosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-0392
PMCID: PMC2606881  PMID: 18840786

Results 1-25 (52)