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1.  Adult Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy 
Endocrinology and Metabolism  2014;29(3):394-399.
We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated.
doi:10.3803/EnM.2014.29.3.394
PMCID: PMC4192804  PMID: 25309800
Histiocytosis, Langerhans-cell; Drug therapy; Diabetes insipidus
2.  Gestational hyperlipidemia and acute pancreatitis with underlying partial lipoprotein lipase deficiency and apolipoprotein E3/E2 genotype 
We report the case of a patient who experienced extreme recurrent gestational hyperlipidemia. She was diagnosed with partial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency but without an associated LPL gene mutation in the presence of the apolipoprotein E3/2 genotype. This is the first reported case of extreme gestational hyperlipidemia with a partial LPL deficiency in the absence of an LPL gene mutation and the apolipoprotein E 3/2 genotype. She was managed with strict dietary control and medicated with omega-3 acid ethyl esters. A patient with extreme hyperlipidemia that is limited to the gestational period should be considered partially LPL-deficient. Extreme instances of hyperlipidemia increase the risk of acute pancreatitis, and the effect of parturition on declining plasma lipid levels can be immediate and dramatic. Therefore, decisions regarding the timing and route of delivery with extreme gestational hyperlipidemia are critical and should be made carefully.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2013.28.5.609
PMCID: PMC3759769  PMID: 24009459
Apolipoproteins E; Hyperlipidemias; Lipoprotein lipase; Pregnancy
4.  The Effect of an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker on Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Hypertension 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(3):236-242.
Background
Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study analyzed the changes in central aortic waveforms and pulse wave velocity as well as related parameters after treatment with valsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
Methods
We used pulse wave analysis to measure central aortic waveform in a total of 98 subjects. In 47 of these patients, pulse wave velocity measurements were obtained before and after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan.
Results
In the central aortic waveform analysis, the aortic pulse pressure and augmentation index were significantly decreased after valsartan treatment, as was the aortic pulse wave velocity. Factors contributing to the improvement in pulse wave velocity were the fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels.
Conclusion
Short-term treatment with valsartan improves arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and the glucose status at baseline was associated with this effect.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.236
PMCID: PMC3138103  PMID: 21785743
Angiotensin receptor blocker; Arterial stiffness; Diabetes mellitus; Hypertension
5.  Interleukin-10 Prevents Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance by Attenuating Macrophage and Cytokine Response in Skeletal Muscle 
Diabetes  2009;58(11):2525-2535.
OBJECTIVE
Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes and is causally associated with obesity. Inflammation plays an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with lower circulating levels in obese subjects, and acute treatment with IL-10 prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance. We examined the role of IL-10 in glucose homeostasis using transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of IL-10 (MCK-IL10).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
MCK-IL10 and wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks, and insulin sensitivity was determined using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in conscious mice. Biochemical and molecular analyses were performed in muscle to assess glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and inflammatory responses.
RESULTS
MCK-IL10 mice developed with no obvious anomaly and showed increased whole-body insulin sensitivity. After 3 weeks of HFD, MCK-IL10 mice developed comparable obesity to wild-type littermates but remained insulin sensitive in skeletal muscle. This was mostly due to significant increases in glucose metabolism, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt activity in muscle. HFD increased macrophage-specific CD68 and F4/80 levels in wild-type muscle that was associated with marked increases in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 levels. In contrast, MCK-IL10 mice were protected from diet-induced inflammatory response in muscle.
CONCLUSIONS
These results demonstrate that IL-10 increases insulin sensitivity and protects skeletal muscle from obesity-associated macrophage infiltration, increases in inflammatory cytokines, and their deleterious effects on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-1261
PMCID: PMC2768157  PMID: 19690064
6.  KSR2 Is An Essential Regulator of AMP Kinase, Energy Expenditure, and Insulin Sensitivity 
Cell metabolism  2009;10(5):366-378.
Summary
Kinase Suppressors of Ras 1 and 2 (KSR1 and KSR2) function as molecular scaffolds to potently regulate the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and affect multiple cell fates. Here we show that KSR2 interacts with and modulates the activity of AMPK. KSR2 regulates AMPK-dependent glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in mouse embryo fibroblasts and glycolysis in a neuronal cell line. Disruption of KSR2 in vivo impairs AMPK-regulated processes affecting fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis to cause obesity. Despite their increased adiposity, ksr2-/- mice are hypophagic and hyperactive, but expend less energy than wild type mice. In addition, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies reveal that ksr2-/- mice are profoundly insulin resistant. The expression of genes mediating oxidative phosphorylation is also down regulated in the adipose tissue of ksr2-/- mice. These data demonstrate that ksr2-/- mice are highly efficient in conserving energy, revealing a novel role for KSR2 in AMPK-mediated regulation of energy metabolism.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.09.010
PMCID: PMC2773684  PMID: 19883615
7.  Increased Hepatic Insulin Action in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Following Inhibition of Glucosylceramide Synthase 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(6):e11239.
Background
Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver and other tissues, leading to insulin resistance. We have previously shown that a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, which inhibits the initial step in the synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), improved glucose metabolism and decreased hepatic steatosis in both ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Here we have determined in the DIO mouse model the efficacy of a related small molecule compound, Genz-112638, which is currently being evaluated clinically for the treatment of Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder.
Methodology/Principal Findings
DIO mice were treated with the Genz-112638 for 12 to 16 weeks by daily oral gavage. Genz-112638 lowered HbA1c levels and increased glucose tolerance. Whole body adiposity was not affected in normal mice, but decreased in drug-treated obese mice. Drug treatment also significantly lowered liver triglyceride levels and reduced the development of hepatic steatosis. We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps on the DIO mice treated with Genz-112638 and showed that insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production increased significantly compared to the placebo treated mice, indicating a marked improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity.
Conclusions/Significance
These results indicate that GSL inhibition in obese mice primarily results in an increase in insulin action in the liver, and suggests that GSLs may have an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in conditions of obesity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011239
PMCID: PMC2888613  PMID: 20574539
8.  Liver-Specific Deletion of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) Improves Metabolic Syndrome and Attenuates Diet-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress 
Diabetes  2009;58(3):590-599.
OBJECTIVE—The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin signaling; consequently, mice deficient in PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin. Because PTP1B−/− mice have diminished fat stores, the extent to which PTP1B directly regulates glucose homeostasis is unclear. Previously, we showed that brain-specific PTP1B−/− mice are protected against high-fat diet–induced obesity and glucose intolerance, whereas muscle-specific PTP1B−/− mice have increased insulin sensitivity independent of changes in adiposity. Here we studied the role of liver PTP1B in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We analyzed body mass/adiposity, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid metabolism in liver-specific PTP1B−/− and PTP1Bfl/fl control mice, fed a chow or high-fat diet.
RESULTS—Compared with normal littermates, liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit improved glucose homeostasis and lipid profiles, independent of changes in adiposity. Liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice have increased hepatic insulin signaling, decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes PEPCK and G-6-Pase, enhanced insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production, and improved glucose tolerance. Liver-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and diminished expression of lipogenic genes SREBPs, FAS, and ACC. Liver-specific PTP1B deletion also protects against high-fat diet–induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response in vivo, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, PERK, and eIF2α and lower expression of the transcription factors C/EBP homologous protein and spliced X box-binding protein 1.
CONCLUSIONS—Liver PTP1B plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism, independent of alterations in adiposity. Inhibition of PTP1B in peripheral tissues may be useful for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and reduction of cardiovascular risk in addition to diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-0913
PMCID: PMC2646057  PMID: 19074988
9.  Skeletal Muscle–Specific Deletion of Lipoprotein Lipase Enhances Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle but Causes Insulin Resistance in Liver and Other Tissues 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):116-124.
OBJECTIVE—Skeletal muscle–specific LPL knockout mouse (SMLPL−/−) were created to study the systemic impact of reduced lipoprotein lipid delivery in skeletal muscle on insulin sensitivity, body weight, and composition.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. Gene expression and insulin-signaling molecules were compared in skeletal muscle and liver of SMLPL−/− and control mice.
RESULTS—Nine-week-old SMLPL−/− mice showed no differences in body weight, fat mass, or whole-body insulin sensitivity, but older SMLPL−/− mice had greater weight gain and whole-body insulin resistance. High-fat diet feeding accelerated the development of obesity. In young SMLPL−/− mice, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased 58% in the skeletal muscle, but was reduced in white adipose tissue (WAT) and heart. Insulin action was also diminished in liver: 40% suppression of hepatic glucose production in SMLPL−/− vs. 90% in control mice. Skeletal muscle triglyceride was 38% lower, and insulin-stimulated phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) was twofold greater in SMLPL−/− mice without changes in IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Hepatic triglyceride and liver X receptor, carbohydrate response element–binding protein, and PEPCK mRNAs were unaffected in SMLPL−/− mice, but peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1α and interleukin-1β mRNAs were higher, and stearoyl–coenzyme A desaturase-1 and PPARγ mRNAs were reduced.
CONCLUSIONS—LPL deletion in skeletal muscle reduces lipid storage and increases insulin signaling in skeletal muscle without changes in body composition. Moreover, lack of LPL in skeletal muscle results in insulin resistance in other key metabolic tissues and ultimately leads to obesity and systemic insulin resistance.
doi:10.2337/db07-1839
PMCID: PMC2606858  PMID: 18952837
10.  Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 
Diabetes  2008;57(9):2296-2303.
OBJECTIVE—Liver-specific inactivation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) by a dominant-negative transgene (l-SACC1 mice) impaired insulin clearance, caused insulin resistance, and increased hepatic lipogenesis. To discern whether this phenotype reflects a physiological function of CEACAM1 rather than the effect of the dominant-negative transgene, we characterized the metabolic phenotype of mice with null mutation of the Ceacam1 gene (Cc1−/−).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Mice were originally generated on a mixed C57BL/6x129sv genetic background and then backcrossed 12 times onto the C57BL/6 background. More than 70 male mice of each of the Cc1−/− and wild-type Cc1+/+ groups were subjected to metabolic analyses, including insulin tolerance, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, insulin secretion in response to glucose, and determination of fasting serum insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels.
RESULTS—Like l-SACC1, Cc1−/− mice exhibited impairment of insulin clearance and hyperinsulinemia, which caused insulin resistance beginning at 2 months of age, when the mutation was maintained on a mixed C57BL/6x129sv background, but not until 5–6 months of age on a homogeneous inbred C57BL/6 genetic background. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that the inbred Cc1−/− mice developed insulin resistance primarily in liver. Despite substantial expression of CEACAM1 in pancreatic β-cells, insulin secretion in response to glucose in vivo and in isolated islets was normal in Cc1−/− mice (inbred and outbred strains).
CONCLUSIONS—Intact insulin secretion in response to glucose and impairment of insulin clearance in l-SACC1 and Cc1−/− mice suggest that the principal role of CEACAM1 in insulin action is to mediate insulin clearance in liver.
doi:10.2337/db08-0379
PMCID: PMC2518480  PMID: 18544705
11.  Improved Glucose Homeostasis in Mice with Muscle-Specific Deletion of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(21):7727-7734.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance. Mice lacking the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in all tissues are hypersensitive to insulin but also have diminished fat stores. Because adiposity affects insulin sensitivity, the extent to which PTP1B directly regulates glucose homeostasis has been unclear. We report that mice lacking PTP1B only in muscle have body weight and adiposity comparable to those of controls on either chow or a high-fat diet (HFD). Muscle triglycerides and serum adipokines are also affected similarly by HFD in both groups. Nevertheless, muscle-specific PTP1B−/− mice exhibit increased muscle glucose uptake, improved systemic insulin sensitivity, and enhanced glucose tolerance. These findings correlate with and are most likely caused by increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its downstream signaling components. Thus, muscle PTP1B plays a major role in regulating insulin action and glucose homeostasis, independent of adiposity. In addition, rosiglitazone treatment of HFD-fed control and muscle-specific PTP1B−/− mice revealed that rosiglitazone acts additively with PTP1B deletion. Therefore, combining PTP1B inhibition with thiazolidinediones should be more effective than either alone for treating insulin-resistant states.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00959-07
PMCID: PMC2169063  PMID: 17724080
12.  Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Krüppel-like Factor 15 
Cell metabolism  2007;5(4):305-312.
SUMMARY
In the postabsorptive state, certain tissues, including the brain, require glucose as the sole source of energy. After an overnight fast, hepatic glycogen stores are depleted, and gluconeogenesis becomes essential for preventing life-threatening hypoglycemia. Mice with a targeted deletion of KLF15, a member of the Krüppel-like family of transcription factors, display severe hypoglycemia after an overnight (18 hr) fast. We provide evidence that defective amino acid catabolism promotes the development of fasting hypoglycemia in KLF15−/− mice by limiting gluconeogenic substrate availability. KLF15−/− liver and skeletal muscle show markedly reduced mRNA expression of amino acid-degrading enzymes. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), which converts the critical gluconeogenic amino acid alanine into pyruvate, is decreased (~50%) in KLF15−/− hepatocytes. Consistent with this observation, intraperitoneal injection of pyruvate, but not alanine, rescues fasting hypoglycemia in KLF15−/− mice. We conclude that KLF15 plays an important role in the regulation of gluconeogenesis.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.03.002
PMCID: PMC1892530  PMID: 17403374
13.  Insulin and glucagon secretions, and morphological change of pancreatic islets in OLETF rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 
This study was performed to observe the changes of glucose-related hormones and the morphological change including ultrastructure of the pancreatic islets in the male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose at the 30th (709 plus minus 73 mg.h/dL) and at the 40th week (746 plus minus 87 mg.h/ dL) of age were significantly higher than that at the 10th week (360 plus minus 25 mg.h/ dL). AUC of insulin of the 10th week was 2.4 plus minus 0.9 ng.h/mL, increased gradually to 10.8 plus minus 8.3 ng.h/mL at the 30th week, and decreased to 1.8 plus minus 1.2 ng.h/mL at the 40th week. The size of islet was increased at 20th week of age and the distribution of peripheral alpha cells and central beta cells at the 10th and 20th weeks was changed to a mixed pattern at the 40th week. On electron microscopic examination, beta cells at the 20th week showed many immature secretory granules, increased mitochondria, and hypertrophied Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum. At the 40th week, beta cell contained scanty intracellular organelles and secretory granules and apoptosis of acinar cell was observed. In conclusion, as diabetes progressed, increased secretion of insulin was accompanied by increases in size of islets and number of beta-cells in male OLETF rats showing obese type 2 diabetes. However, these compensatory changes could not overcome the requirement of insulin according to the continuous hyperglycemia after development of diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3054832  PMID: 11850586

Results 1-13 (13)