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1.  Interleukin-10 Prevents Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance by Attenuating Macrophage and Cytokine Response in Skeletal Muscle 
Diabetes  2009;58(11):2525-2535.
OBJECTIVE
Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of type 2 diabetes and is causally associated with obesity. Inflammation plays an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with lower circulating levels in obese subjects, and acute treatment with IL-10 prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance. We examined the role of IL-10 in glucose homeostasis using transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of IL-10 (MCK-IL10).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
MCK-IL10 and wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks, and insulin sensitivity was determined using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in conscious mice. Biochemical and molecular analyses were performed in muscle to assess glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and inflammatory responses.
RESULTS
MCK-IL10 mice developed with no obvious anomaly and showed increased whole-body insulin sensitivity. After 3 weeks of HFD, MCK-IL10 mice developed comparable obesity to wild-type littermates but remained insulin sensitive in skeletal muscle. This was mostly due to significant increases in glucose metabolism, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt activity in muscle. HFD increased macrophage-specific CD68 and F4/80 levels in wild-type muscle that was associated with marked increases in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 levels. In contrast, MCK-IL10 mice were protected from diet-induced inflammatory response in muscle.
CONCLUSIONS
These results demonstrate that IL-10 increases insulin sensitivity and protects skeletal muscle from obesity-associated macrophage infiltration, increases in inflammatory cytokines, and their deleterious effects on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-1261
PMCID: PMC2768157  PMID: 19690064
2.  Dendritic Cell Migration Limits the Duration of CD8+ T-Cell Priming to Peripheral Viral Antigen▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(7):3586-3594.
CD8+ T cells (TCD8+) play a crucial role in immunity to viruses. Antiviral TCD8+ are initially activated by recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-peptide complexes on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPC). Migration of pAPC from the site of infection to secondary lymphoid organs is likely required during a natural infection. Migrating pAPC can be directly infected with virus or may internalize antigen derived from virus-infected cells. The use of experimental virus infections to assess the requirement for pAPC migration in initiation of TCD8+ responses has proven difficult to interpret because injected virus can readily drain to secondary lymphoid organs without the need for cell-mediated transport. To overcome this ambiguity, we examined the generation of antigen-specific TCD8+ after immunization with recombinant adenoviruses that express antigen driven by skin-specific or ubiquitous promoters. We show that the induction of TCD8+ in response to tissue-targeted antigen is less efficient than the response to ubiquitously expressed antigen and that the resulting TCD8+ fail to clear all target cells pulsed with the antigenic peptide. This failure to prime a fully functional TCD8+ response results from a reduced period of priming to peripherally expressed antigen versus ubiquitously expressed antigen and correlated with a brief burst of pAPC migration from the skin, a requirement for induction of the response to peripheral antigen. These results indicate that a reduced duration of pAPC migration after virus infection likely reduces the amplitude of the TCD8+ response, allowing persistence of the peripheral virus.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01975-09
PMCID: PMC2838146  PMID: 20089641
3.  Viral Sequestration of Antigen Subverts Cross Presentation to CD8+ T Cells 
PLoS Pathogens  2009;5(5):e1000457.
Virus-specific CD8+ T cells (TCD8+) are initially triggered by peptide-MHC Class I complexes on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPC). Peptide-MHC complexes are produced by two spatially distinct pathways during virus infection. Endogenous antigens synthesized within virus-infected pAPC are presented via the direct-presentation pathway. Many viruses have developed strategies to subvert direct presentation. When direct presentation is blocked, the cross-presentation pathway, in which antigen is transferred from virus-infected cells to uninfected pAPC, is thought to compensate and allow the generation of effector TCD8+. Direct presentation of vaccinia virus (VACV) antigens driven by late promoters does not occur, as an abortive infection of pAPC prevents production of these late antigens. This lack of direct presentation results in a greatly diminished or ablated TCD8+ response to late antigens. We demonstrate that late poxvirus antigens do not enter the cross-presentation pathway, even when identical antigens driven by early promoters access this pathway efficiently. The mechanism mediating this novel means of viral modulation of antigen presentation involves the sequestration of late antigens within virus factories. Early antigens and cellular antigens are cross-presented from virus-infected cells, as are late antigens that are targeted to compartments outside of the virus factories. This virus-mediated blockade specifically targets the cross-presentation pathway, since late antigen that is not cross-presented efficiently enters the MHC Class II presentation pathway. These data are the first to describe an evasion mechanism employed by pathogens to prevent entry into the cross-presentation pathway. In the absence of direct presentation, this evasion mechanism leads to a complete ablation of the TCD8+ response and a potential replicative advantage for the virus. Such mechanisms of viral modulation of antigen presentation must also be taken into account during the rational design of antiviral vaccines.
Author Summary
Understanding the pathways by which protective immunity is mediated against viral pathogens is essential to allow the design of effective vaccines. No effective vaccine has been designed to activate killer cells of the immune system expressing CD8, although CD8+ T cells are the most effective cells at modulating anti-viral immunity. We have studied the process that activates the CD8+ T cell to better understand how the cells are triggered so future vaccines might readily activate these cells. CD8+ T cells are activated following recognition of small peptides derived from a virus that binds to a cell surface MHC molecule. Many viruses have evolved to prevent the presentation of these peptide-MHC complexes to CD8+ T cells. However, the immune system avoids these viral “evasion” mechanisms by allowing virus-derived peptides to be generated from viral proteins that are taken up by uninfected cells, a process termed “cross presentation”. We have shown that a poxvirus can specifically prevent the presentation of its proteins by uninfected cells, the first demonstration of evasion of cross presentation. This knowledge is vital in the use of certain viral vectors during vaccine design and adds to the numerous ways in which viruses can evade the immune system.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000457
PMCID: PMC2680035  PMID: 19478869

Results 1-3 (3)