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1.  Enrichment of MTHFR 677 T in a Chinese long-lived cohort and its association with lipid modulation 
Background
Variants in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may result in a lowered catalytic activity and associate with subsequent elevated serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, abnormal DNA synthesis and methylation, cardiovascular risk, and unhealthy aging. Several investigations on the relationship of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with serum lipid profile and longevity have been conducted in some populations, but the findings remain mixed. Herein, we sought to look at the association between MTHFR C677T and lipid profile in a longevous cohort in Bama, a well-known home of longevity in China.
Methods
Genotyping of MTHFR C677T was undertaken in 516 long-lived inhabitants (aged 90 and older, long-lived group, LG) and 493 healthy controls (aged 60–75, non-long-lived group, non-LG) recruited from Bama area. Correlation between MTHFR genotypes and lipids was then evaluated.
Results
T allele and TT genotype were significantly more prevalent in LG (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), especially in females, than in non-LG. No difference in the tested lipid measures among MTHFR C677T genotypes was observed in LG, non-LG and total population (P > 0.05 for all). However, female but not male T carriers exhibited higher TC and LDL-C levels than did T noncarriers in the total population and in LG after stratification by sex (P < 0.05 for each). These differences did not however remain through further subdivision by hyperlipidemia and normolipidemia.
Conclusion
The higher prevalence of MTHFR 677 T genotypes and its modest unfavorable impact on lipids in Bama long-lived individuals may imply an existence of other protective genotypes which require further determination.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-104
PMCID: PMC4092207  PMID: 24968810
2.  The Chitinase-like Proteins Breast Regression Protein-39 and YKL-40 Regulate Hyperoxia-induced Acute Lung Injury 
Rationale: Prolonged exposure to 100% O2 causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury and death. We previously demonstrated that the murine chitinase-like protein, breast regression protein (BRP)–39 and its human homolog, YKL-40, inhibit cellular apoptosis. However, the regulation and roles of these molecules in hyperoxia have not been addressed.
Objectives: We hypothesized that BRP-39 and YKL-40 (also called chitinase-3–like 1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of HALI.
Methods: We characterized the regulation of BRP-39 during HALI and the responses induced by hyperoxia in wild-type mice, BRP-39–null (−/−) mice, and BRP-39−/− mice in which YKL-40 was overexpressed in respiratory epithelium. We also compared the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 in premature newborns with respiratory failure.
Measurements and Main Results: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39 in vivo in the murine lung and in vitro in epithelial cells. They also demonstrate that BRP-39−/− mice have exaggerated permeability, protein leak, oxidation, inflammatory, chemokine, and epithelial apoptosis responses, and experience premature death in 100% O2. Lastly, they demonstrate that YKL-40 ameliorates HALI, prolongs survival in 100% O2, and rescues the exaggerated injury response in BRP-39−/− animals. In accord with these findings, the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 were lower in premature infants treated with hyperoxia for respiratory failure who subsequently experienced bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death compared with those that did not experience these complications.
Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39/YKL-40, and that BRP-39 and YKL-40 are critical regulators of oxidant injury, inflammation, and epithelial apoptosis in the murine and human lung.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200912-1793OC
PMCID: PMC2970863  PMID: 20558631
BRP-39; YKL-40; hyperoxygen; BPD; HALI
3.  Endogenous IL-11 Signaling Is Essential in Th2- and IL-13–Induced Inflammation and Mucus Production 
IL-11 and IL-11 receptor (R)α are induced by Th2 cytokines. However, the role(s) of endogenous IL-11 in antigen-induced Th2 inflammation has not been fully defined. We hypothesized that IL-11, signaling via IL-11Rα, plays an important role in aeroallergen-induced Th2 inflammation and mucus metaplasia. To test this hypothesis, we compared the responses induced by the aeroallergen ovalbumin (OVA) in wild-type (WT) and IL-11Rα–null mutant mice. We also generated and defined the effects of an antagonistic IL-11 mutein on pulmonary Th2 responses. Increased levels of IgE, eosinophilic tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) inflammation, IL-13 production, and increased mucus production and secretion were noted in OVA-sensitized and -challenged WT mice. These responses were at least partially IL-11 dependent because each was decreased in mice with null mutations of IL-11Rα. Importantly, the administration of the IL-11 mutein to OVA-sensitized mice before aerosol antigen challenge also caused a significant decrease in OVA-induced inflammation, mucus responses, and IL-13 production. Intraperitoneal administration of the mutein to lung-specific IL-13–overexpressing transgenic mice also reduced BAL inflammation and airway mucus elaboration. These studies demonstrate that endogenous IL-11R signaling plays an important role in antigen-induced sensitization, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway mucus production. They also demonstrate that Th2 and IL-13 responses can be regulated by interventions that manipulate IL-11 signaling in the murine lung.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2008-0053OC
PMCID: PMC2586049  PMID: 18617680
IL-11; mutein; airway inflammation; mucus; IL-13
4.  The regulatory role of DR4 in a spontaneous diabetes DQ8 transgenic model 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2001;107(7):871-880.
MHC class II molecules are critical determinants of genetic susceptibility to human type 1 diabetes. In patients, the most common haplotype contains the DRA1*0101-DRB1*0401 (DR4) and DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) loci. To assess directly the relative roles of HLA-DQ8 and DR4 for diabetes development in vivo, we generated C57BL/6 transgenic mice that lack endogenous mouse MHC class II molecules but express HLA-DQ8 and/or DR4. Neither HLA-DQ nor HLA-DR transgenic mice developed insulitis or spontaneous diabetes. However, when they were crossed to transgenic mice (C57BL/6) expressing the B7.1 costimulatory molecules on pancreatic β cells that do not normally develop diabetes, T cells from these double transgenic mice were no longer tolerant to islet autoantigens. The majority of DQ8/RIP-B7 mice developed spontaneous diabetes, whereas only 25% of DR4/RIP-B7 mice did so. Interestingly, when DQ8 and DR4 were coexpressed (DQ8DR4/RIP-B7), only 23% of these mice developed diabetes, an incidence indistinguishable from the DR4/RIP-B7 mice. T cells from both DR4/RIP-B7 and DQ8DR4/RIP-B7 mice, unlike those from DQ8/RIP-B7 mice, exhibited a Th2-like phenotype. Thus, the expression of DR4 appeared to downregulate DQ8-restricted autoreactive T cells in DQ8DR4/RIP-B7 mice. Our data suggest that although both DQ8 and DR4 can promote spontaneous diabetes in mice with a non–autoimmune-prone genetic background, the diabetogenic effect of the DQ8 allele is much greater, whereas DR4 expression downregulates the diabetogenic effect of DQ8, perhaps by enhancing Th2-like immune responses.
PMCID: PMC199575  PMID: 11285306
5.  In Vivo Evidence for the Contribution of Human Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen (Hla)-Dq Molecules to the Development of Diabetes 
Although DQA1*0301/DQB1*0302 is the human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II gene most commonly associated with human type 1 diabetes, direct in vivo experimental evidence for its diabetogenic role is lacking. Therefore, we generated C57BL/6 transgenic mice that bear this molecule and do not express mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules (DQ8+/mII−). They did not develop insulitis or spontaneous diabetes. However, when DQ8+/mII− mice were bred with C57BL/6 mice expressing costimulatory molecule B7-1 on β cells (which normally do not develop diabetes), 81% of the DQ8+/mII−/B7-1+ mice developed spontaneous diabetes. The diabetes was accompanied by severe insulitis composed of both T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) and B cells. T cells from the diabetic mice secreted large amounts of interferon γ, but not interleukin 4, in response to DQ8+ islets and the putative islet autoantigens, insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Diabetes could also be adoptively transferred to irradiated nondiabetic DQ8+/mII−/B7-1+ mice. In striking contrast, none of the transgenic mice in which the diabetes protective allele (DQA1*0103/DQB1*0601, DQ6 for short) was substituted for mouse MHC class II molecules but remained for the expression of B7-1 on pancreatic β cells (DQ6+/mII−/B7-1+) developed diabetes. Only 7% of DQ−/mII−/B7-1+ mice developed diabetes at an older age, and none of the DQ−/mII+/B7-1+ mice or DQ8+/mII+/B7-1+ mice developed diabetes. In conclusion, substitution of HLA-DQA1*0301/DQB1*0302, but not HLA-DQA1*0103/DQB1*0601, for murine MHC class II provokes autoimmune diabetes in non–diabetes-prone rat insulin promoter (RIP).B7-1 C57BL/6 mice. Our data provide direct in vivo evidence for the diabetogenic effect of this human MHC class II molecule and a unique “humanized” animal model of spontaneous diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2195792  PMID: 10620608
type 1 diabetes; animal model; human MHC molecules; transgenic mice

Results 1-5 (5)