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2.  Mutations in Kelch-like 3 and Cullin 3 cause hypertension and electrolyte abnormalities 
Nature  2012;482(7383):98-102.
Hypertension affects one billion people and is a principal reversible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A rare Mendelian syndrome, pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), featuring hypertension, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis, has revealed previously unrecognized physiology orchestrating the balance between renal salt reabsorption versus K+ and H+ excretion1. We used exome sequencing to identify mutations in Kelch-like 3 (KLHL3) or Cullin 3 (CUL3) in 41 PHAII kindreds. KLHL3 mutations are either recessive or dominant, while CUL3 mutations are dominant and predominantly de novo. CUL3 and BTB-Kelch proteins such as KLHL3 are components of Cullin/RING E3 ligase complexes (CRLs) that ubiquitinate substrates bound to Kelch propeller domains2–8. Dominant KLHL3 mutations are clustered in short segments within the Kelch propeller and BTB domains implicated in substrate9 and Cullin5 binding, respectively. Diverse CUL3 mutations all result in skipping of exon 9, producing an in-frame deletion. Because dominant KLHL3 and CUL3 mutations both phenocopy recessive loss-of-function KLHL3 mutations, they may abrogate ubiquitination of KLHL3 substrates. Disease features are reversed by thiazide diuretics, which inhibit the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in the distal nephron of the kidney; KLHL3 and CUL3 are expressed in this location, suggesting a mechanistic link between KLHL3/CUL3 mutations, increased Na-Cl reabsorption, and disease pathogenesis. These findings demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing in disease gene identification despite combined complexities of locus heterogeneity, mixed models of transmission, and frequent de novo mutation, and establish a fundamental role for KLHL3/CUL3 in blood pressure, K+, and pH homeostasis.
doi:10.1038/nature10814
PMCID: PMC3278668  PMID: 22266938
3.  Adenosine metabolism and murine strain–specific IL-4–induced inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2006;116(5):1274-1283.
To define the factors that control the tissue effects of IL-4, we compared the effects of Tg IL-4 in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. In the former, IL-4 caused modest eosinophilic inflammation and mild airway fibrosis and did not shorten survival. In C57BL/6 mice, IL-4 caused profound eosinophilic inflammation, airway fibrosis, emphysematous alveolar destruction, and premature death. These differences could not be accounted for by changes in Th2 or Th1 cytokines, receptor components, STAT6 activation, MMPs, or cathepsins. In contrast, in C57BL/6 mice, alveolar remodeling was associated with decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2, -3, and -4 and α1-antitrypsin, and fibrosis was associated with increased levels of total and bioactive TGF-β1. Impressive differences in adenosine metabolism were also appreciated, with increased tissue adenosine levels and A1, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptor expression and decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in C57BL/6 animals. Treatment with ADA also reduced the inflammation, fibrosis, and emphysematous destruction and improved the survival of C57BL/6 Tg animals. These studies demonstrate that genetic influences control IL-4 effector pathways in the murine lung. They also demonstrate that IL-4 has different effects on adenosine metabolism in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice and that these differences contribute to the different responses that IL-4 induces in these inbred animals.
doi:10.1172/JCI26372
PMCID: PMC1451205  PMID: 16670768

Results 1-3 (3)