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1.  A Comparison of Pharmacy Students’ and Active Older Adults' Perceptions Regarding Geriatric Quality of Life 
Objectives. To measure perceptions of quality of life (QOL) in an active geriatric population and compare their responses with pharmacy students’ perceptions of older adult QOL.
Methods. Pharmacy students and active older adults completed the modified and standard version of a validated health survey instrument, respectively, and their responses were compared.
Results. Eighty-six students and 20 active older adults participated. Student perceptions of geriatric QOL were significantly lower in all domains except health change compared to older adult perceptions (p<0.001 for all domains). Interest in a geriatric pharmacy career (p=0.04) and previously having taken the Perspectives in Geriatrics course and laboratory (p=0.05 and 0.02, respectively) were significantly associated with higher student scores on the physical component portion of the survey.
Conclusion. Stronger emphasis on geriatric QOL within pharmacy curricula may improve pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding outcomes related to healthy older adults.
doi:10.5688/ajpe78110
PMCID: PMC3930234  PMID: 24558278
geriatrics; geriatric education; quality of life; student perceptions
2.  Cost-effectiveness of clostridial collagenase ointment on wound closure in patients with diabetic foot ulcers: economic analysis of results from a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial 
Background
Approximately 10%–15% of people with diabetes develop at least one foot ulcer during their lifetime. Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) represents a significant economic burden. Enzymatic debridement with clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) can be used to remove necrotic tissue from wounds. This study examined the impact of CCO as an effective adjunct therapy to serial sharp debridement (SSD) and assessed the cost-effectiveness of CCO compared with standard DFU treatments over 1 year.
Methods
Adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes who had a neuropathic DFU were enrolled in a 12-week, randomized, open-label trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either treatment with CCO + SSD or to investigator-selected supportive care + SSD (Control). A 3-state Markov model with a 1-week cycle length was developed using wound-closure rates from the trial to estimate the number of healed-wound weeks and the expected DFU cost per patient. The 3 states included unhealed, healed, and death. Results were extrapolated to 1 year to estimate the number of healed-wound weeks per treatment and the average cost to achieve epithelialization. The perspective of the analysis was that of the payer, specifically, the third party payer.
Results
The study sample included 55 patients (28 in CCO group; 27 Control). The majority were men (74.5%) with a mean age of 57.9 years. Projected healing rates were greater for the CCO + SSD group compared to Control (89% vs. 80%, respectively). The expected number of epithelialized weeks accumulated over 1 year was 25% greater in the CCO + SSD group than for Control (35 vs. 28 weeks, respectively). Over a 1-year time horizon, the expected cost per DFU was greater in the Control group than the CCO group ($2,376 vs. $2,099, respectively). The estimated cost per ulcer-free week was 40% higher for Control ($85/closed-wound week) than for CCO + SSD ($61/closed-wound week).
Conclusions
CCO + SSD therapy is a cost-effective method of debridement in the management of patients with DFUs, providing better outcomes at a lower cost. Further high quality trials are needed to confirm this finding.
Trial registration
This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01408277.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13047-015-0065-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13047-015-0065-x
PMCID: PMC4357050  PMID: 25767565
Clinical outcome; Collagenase; Cost-effectiveness; Debridement; Diabetes; Foot ulcer; Health resource utilization; Economic outcome; Wound healing
3.  Educating Pharmacy Students to Improve Quality (EPIQ) in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To assess course instructors’ and students’ perceptions of the Educating Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists to Improve Quality (EPIQ) curriculum.
Methods. Seven colleges and schools of pharmacy that were using the EPIQ program in their curricula agreed to participate in the study. Five of the 7 collected student retrospective pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Changes in students’ perceptions were evaluated to assess their relationships with demographics and course variables. Instructors who implemented the EPIQ program at each of the 7 colleges and schools were also asked to complete a questionnaire.
Results. Scores on all questionnaire items indicated improvement in students’ perceived knowledge of quality improvement. The university the students attended, completion of a class project, and length of coverage of material were significantly related to improvement in the students’ scores. Instructors at all colleges and schools felt the EPIQ curriculum was a strong program that fulfilled the criteria for quality improvement and medication error reduction education.
Conclusion The EPIQ program is a viable, turnkey option for colleges and schools of pharmacy to use in teaching students about quality improvement.
doi:10.5688/ajpe766109
PMCID: PMC3425924  PMID: 22919085
quality improvement; medication error; pharmacy education; pharmacy student; assessment; curriculum
4.  Pharmacy Students’ Retention of Knowledge of Drug-Drug Interactions 
Objectives. To evaluate pharmacy students' drug-drug interaction (DDI) knowledge retention over 1 year and to determine whether presenting DDI vignettes increased knowledge retention.
Methods. A knowledge assessment tool was distributed to fourth-year pharmacy students before and after completing a DDI educational session. The questionnaire was re-administered after 1 year to assess knowledge retention. During the intervening year, students had the option of presenting DDI case vignettes to preceptors and other health professionals as part of their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).
Results. Thirty-four of 78 pharmacy students completed both the post-intervention and 1-year follow-up assessments. Students’ knowledge of 4 DDI pairs improved, knowledge of 3 DDI pairs did not change, and knowledge of the remainder of DDI pairs decreased. Average scores of the 18 students who completed all tests and presented at least 1 vignette during their APPEs were higher on the 1-year follow-up assessment than students who did not, suggesting greater DDI knowledge retention (p = 0.04).
Conclusion. Although pharmacy students’ overall DDI knowledge decreased in the year following an educational session, those who presented vignettes to health professionals retained more DDI knowledge, particularly on those DDIs for which they gave presentations. Other methods to enhance pharmacy students’ retention of DDI knowledge of clinically important DDIs are needed.
doi:10.5688/ajpe756110
PMCID: PMC3175677  PMID: 21931448
drug-drug interaction; assessment

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