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1.  A Psychometric Evaluation of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Clinical Competency Framework 
Objective. To assess the psychometric properties of the clinical competency framework known as the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS), including its internal consistency and content, construct, and criterion validity.
Methods. Sub-competency items within each hypothesized competency pair were subjected to principal components factor analysis to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. Varimax rotation was conducted for each competency pair (eg, competency 1 vs competency 2, competency 1 vs competency 3, competency 2 vs competency 3). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach alpha.
Results. Of the initial 78 pairings, 44 (56%) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. Five pairs of competencies were unidimensional. Of the 34 pairs where at least 1 competency was multidimensional, most (91%) were from competencies 7, 11, and 12, indicating modifications were warranted in those competencies. After reconfiguring the competencies, 76 (94%) of the 81 pairs resulted in 2 factors as required. A unidimensional factor emerged when all 13 of the competencies were entered into a factor analysis. The internal consistency of all of the competencies was satisfactory.
Conclusion. Psychometric evaluation shows the SUCCESS framework demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for most competencies. However, it also provides guidance where improvements are needed as part of a continuous quality improvement program.
PMCID: PMC4386740  PMID: 25861100
Pharmacy practice competency; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; experiential education; psychometrics; reliability; validity
3.  Educating Students for Practice: Educational Outcomes and Community Experience 
The education of pharmacists in the United States integrates classroom and experiential learning. Two organizations played a key role in determining the current education of pharmacy students. They are the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. The curriculum offered today provides opportunities for students to learn and achieve ability-based outcomes in both didactic and experiential courses. This review of pharmacy education focuses generally on the national leadership of pharmacy education both past and present and specifically on outcomes of practice that students are expected to achieve. Included in the discussion are recommendations for how preceptors in a community practice model can build on the college curriculum by recognizing and incorporating ability-based outcomes into their activities of the introductory and advanced practice courses.
PMCID: PMC1636890  PMID: 17136161
curriculum; ability-based outcomes; introductory pharmacy practice experience; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community pharmacy
6.  National Survey of Volunteer Pharmacy Preceptors 
To survey pharmacy preceptors regarding experiential education and determine the implications of the findings on colleges and schools of pharmacy.
An online survey was sent to 4,396 experiential sites. The survey instrument consisted of 41 questions regarding the experiential education environment from the preceptor's perspective (eg, experiential load, time-quality issues, compensation, etc).
One thousand one hundred sixty-three preceptors responded (26.5%) to the survey. Concerning experiential load, 73% took 2 or more students in the past year and almost half of the sites had to turn placements away. Nearly all preceptors felt that the more time they spent with students, the higher quality the experience, and 20% felt they didn't have enough time to provide a quality experience. Thirty-six percent of respondents chose monetary stipend as the form of compensation they valued most.
This study provides insights into the issues that concern volunteer preceptors and the findings could be used to enhance the quality of experiential education in pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2630137  PMID: 19214266
preceptor; experiential education; rotation; clerkship; advanced practice experiences

Results 1-6 (6)