Self-assessment is an important skill necessary for continued development of a health care professional from student pharmacist throughout their professional career. This paper reviews the literature on student and practitioner self-assessment and whether this skill can be improved upon. Although self-assessment appears to be a skill that can be improved, both students and professionals continue to have difficulty with accurate self-assessment. Experts' external assessment of students should remain the primary method of testing skills and knowledge until self-assessment strategies improve. While self-assessment is important to lifelong learning, external assessment is also important for practitioners' continuing professional development.
Educational programs in pharmacy must focus on educating pharmacists of the future who are prepared to serve as competent and confident health care “providers” whose “practice” can occur in any number of current and future settings; and whose expertise is essential to an interprofessional health care team. Graduates must be able to incorporate a scholarly approach to their practice in identifying patient care problems; practicing in an evidence-based manner; and ensuring safe, effective, and appropriate use of medications. It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to implement contemporary teaching and assessment strategies that facilitate effective and efficient student learning that is focused at the graduate professional level, to evolve the content around which the curriculum is organized, and clearly articulate the abilities graduates must have to function effectively in the myriad professional roles in which they may find themselves.
Although there is evidence to support implementing interprofessional education (IPE) in the health sciences, widespread implementation in health professions education is not yet a reality. Challenges include the diversity in location and settings of schools and colleges, ie, many are not located within an academic health center. Faculty members may not have the necessary skill set for teaching in an IPE environment. Certain topics or themes in a pharmacy curriculum may be more appropriate than others for teaching in an IPE setting. This paper offers solutions to teaching IPE in diverse settings, the construct for implementing a faculty development program for IPE, and suggested curricular topics with their associated learning objectives, potential teaching methods, and timelines for implementation.
interprofessional education; faculty development; curriculum
To determine whether a relationship exists between the number of years of college completed before entering pharmacy school and students' leadership involvement.
All pharmacy students from 2004-2007 were classified based upon their educational level at time of matriculation: Early Assurance Program (EA); 2 years of college, but not EA (2Y); 3 or more years of college but no degree (3Y+); and bachelor's degree or higher (BD). In terms of leadership positions, students were classified as holding any office, total number of offices, and Phi Lambda Sigma (PLS) membership.
Students who entered the pharmacy program as EA students held 27.1% or 71 offices compared to 31.9% or 45 for 2Y, 26.8% or 39 for 3Y+ and 30.2% or 80 for BD students. Students selected for PLS were 12.1% for EA, 15.3% for 2Y, 16.1% for 3Y+ and 13.5% for BD. There was no significant relationship between prepharmacy education and leadership measurements.
Although no relationship was found between pharmacy students' involvement in leadership activities and number of prepharmacy years of education, the importance of predictive factors and approaches to evaluate students' leadership activities and involvement merits further research.
leadership; prepharmacy; early assurance; Phi Lambda Sigma; bachelor's degree; student organizations
There has been an increased emphasis on scholarly activities by health sciences faculty members given the importance of the promotion of public health over the last 50 years. Consequently, faculty members are required to place greater emphasis on scholarly activities while maintaining their teaching and service responsibilities. This increasing requirement of scholarly activities has placed great demands on clinical practice faculty members and it has made their management of clinical practice, teaching responsibilities, and expectations for promotion and tenure a difficult task. This retrospective literature review identifies barriers to the scholarship activities of clinical faculty members in dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy and discusses strategies for enabling faculty members to pursue scholarly activities in the current health science academic environment. The review indicates commonalities of barriers across these 4 disciplines and suggests strategies that could be implemented by all of these disciplines to enable clinical practice faculty members to pursue scholarly activities.
scholarship; promotion; practice faculty; medicine; dentistry; pharmacy; nursing
This study investigated whether there was a significant difference in the cumulative grade point average (GPA) of individual students at the end of their first 3 professional years in the doctor of pharmacy curriculum as a function of previous years in college.
The cumulative GPA for the first- through third-professional years was calculated for the 2004-2007 graduating classes. Previous college education was classified as 2 years, 3 or more years without a bachelor's degree, and bachelor's degree or higher. Students with 2 years of prepharmacy education were classified as early assurance (EA) versus non-early assurance. Specifically, non-early assurance students were those who transferred in after 2 years but did not participate in the early assurance program. Statistical differences in the cumulative GPA were calculated using MANOVA with repeated measures followed by a LSD Post-Hoc test.
Students with a bachelor's degree performed better academically, especially in the first professional year of the program compared to those with other levels of education including those who entered through our EA program. There was a consistent decrease in cumulative GPA during the second-professional year, but no additional change in the third-professional year.
Students who obtain a bachelor's degree perform better academically presumably because of previous college experiences.
grades; early assurance; bachelors; academics; students
To provide students with an understanding of the principles and applications of human genetics and genomics in drug therapy optimization, patient care, and counseling.
A 2-credit hour course entitled Principles of the Human Genome, Pharmacogenomics, and Bioinformatics was offered to third-professional year PharmD students. Written examinations, in-class exercises, and a written paper evaluating the current literature were used to evaluate student learning.
Student course ratings on the pedagogical format of the course and the relevance of course material to professional practice have improved significantly since first implementation in 2002.
This course provided pharmacy students with an understanding of pharmacogenetics ranging from genetic principles and the inheritance of complex traits to specific examples of pharmacogenomics in drug therapy.
pharmacogenomics; pharmacogenetics; new course; genomics; bioinformatics