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1.  mTOR signaling in liver regeneration: Rapamycin combined with growth factor treatment 
AIM: To investigate the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition on liver regeneration and autophagy in a surgical resection model.
METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) and treated intraperitoneally every 24 h with a combination of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2.5 mg/kg per day) and the steroid dexamethasone (2.0 mg/kg per day) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or with PBS alone as vehicle control. In the immunosuppressant group, part of the group was treated subcutaneously 4 h prior to and 24 h after PH with a combination of human recombinant interleukin 6 (IL-6; 500 μg/kg per day) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 100 μg/kg per day) in PBS. Animals were sacrificed 2, 3 or 5 d after PH and liver tissue and blood were collected for further analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to quantify hepatocyte proliferation. Western blotting was used to detect hepatic microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II protein expression as a marker for autophagy. Hepatic gene expression levels of proliferation-, inflammation- and angiogenesis-related genes were examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and serum bilirubin and transaminase levels were analyzed at the clinical chemical core facility of the Erasmus MC-University Medical Center.
RESULTS: mTOR inhibition significantly suppressed regeneration, shown by decreased hepatocyte proliferation (2% vs 12% BrdU positive hepatocyte nuclei at day 2, P < 0.01; 0.8% vs 1.4% at day 5, P = 0.02) and liver weight reconstitution (63% vs 76% of initial total liver weight at day 3, P = 0.04), and furthermore increased serum transaminase levels (aspartate aminotransferase 641 U/L vs 185 U/L at day 2, P = 0.02). Expression of the autophagy marker LC3-II, which was reduced during normal liver regeneration, increased after mTOR inhibition (46% increase at day 2, P = 0.04). Hepatic gene expression showed an increased inflammation-related response [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α 3.2-fold upregulation at day 2, P = 0.03; IL-1Ra 6.0-fold upregulation at day 2 and 42.3-fold upregulation at day 5, P < 0.01] and a reduced expression of cell cycle progression and angiogenesis-related factors (HGF 40% reduction at day 2; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 50% reduction at days 2 and 5; angiopoietin 1 60% reduction at day 2, all P ≤ 0.01). Treatment with the regeneration stimulating cytokine IL-6 and growth factor HGF could overcome the inhibitory effect on liver weight (75% of initial total liver weight at day 3, P = 0.02 vs immunosuppression alone and P = 0.90 vs controls) and partially reversed gene expression changes caused by rapamycin (TNF-α and IL-1Ra levels at day 2 were restored to control levels). However, no significant changes in hepatocyte proliferation, serum injury markers or autophagy were found.
CONCLUSION: mTOR inhibition severely impairs liver regeneration and increases autophagy after PH. These effects are partly reversed by stimulation of the IL-6 and HGF pathways.
doi:10.5500/wjt.v3.i3.36
PMCID: PMC3832859  PMID: 24255881
Hepatocyte proliferation; Autophagy; Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; Partial hepatectomy; Rapamycin
4.  Ischemia of the lung causes extensive long-term pulmonary injury: an experimental study 
Respiratory Research  2008;9(1):28.
Background
Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) is suggested to be a major risk factor for development of primary acute graft failure (PAGF) following lung transplantation, although other factors have been found to interplay with LIRI. The question whether LIRI exclusively results in PAGF seems difficult to answer, which is partly due to the lack of a long-term experimental LIRI model, in which PAGF changes can be studied. In addition, the long-term effects of LIRI are unclear and a detailed description of the immunological changes over time after LIRI is missing. Therefore our purpose was to establish a long-term experimental model of LIRI, and to study the impact of LIRI on the development of PAGF, using a broad spectrum of LIRI parameters including leukocyte kinetics.
Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 135) were subjected to 120 minutes of left lung warm ischemia or were sham-operated. A third group served as healthy controls. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 30 or 90 days after surgery. Blood gas values, lung compliance, surfactant conversion, capillary permeability, and the presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in broncho-alveolar-lavage fluid (BALf) were determined. Infiltration of granulocytes, macrophages and lymphocyte subsets (CD45RA+, CD5+CD4+, CD5+CD8+) was measured by flowcytometry in BALf, lung parenchyma, thoracic lymph nodes and spleen. Histological analysis was performed on HE sections.
Results
LIRI resulted in hypoxemia, impaired left lung compliance, increased capillary permeability, surfactant conversion, and an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the BALf, most granulocytes were found on day 1 and CD5+CD4+ and CD5+CD8+-cells were elevated on day 3. Increased numbers of macrophages were found on days 1, 3, 7 and 90. Histology on day 1 showed diffuse alveolar damage, resulting in fibroproliferative changes up to 90 days after LIRI.
Conclusion
The short-, and long-term changes after LIRI in this model are similar to the changes found in both PAGF and ARDS after clinical lung transplantation. LIRI seems an independent risk factor for the development of PAGF and resulted in progressive deterioration of lung function and architecture, leading to extensive immunopathological and functional abnormalities up to 3 months after reperfusion.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-28
PMCID: PMC2335107  PMID: 18366783

Results 1-4 (4)