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1.  The Pore-Forming Toxin β hemolysin/cytolysin Triggers p38 MAPK-Dependent IL-10 Production in Macrophages and Inhibits Innate Immunity 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(7):e1002812.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns and immune-compromised adults. The pore-forming toxin (PFT) β hemolysin/cytolysin (βh/c) is a major virulence factor for GBS, which is generally attributed to its cytolytic functions. Here we show βh/c has immunomodulatory properties on macrophages at sub-lytic concentrations. βh/c-mediated activation of p38 MAPK drives expression of the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and inhibits both IL-12 and NOS2 expression in GBS-infected macrophages, which are critical factors in host defense. Isogenic mutant bacteria lacking βh/c fail to activate p38-mediated IL-10 production in macrophages and promote increased IL-12 and NOS2 expression. Furthermore, targeted deletion of p38 in macrophages increases resistance to invasive GBS infection in mice, associated with impaired IL-10 induction and increased IL-12 production in vivo. These data suggest p38 MAPK activation by βh/c contributes to evasion of host defense through induction of IL-10 expression and inhibition of macrophage activation, a new mechanism of action for a PFT and a novel anti-inflammatory role for p38 in the pathogenesis of invasive bacterial infection. Our studies suggest p38 MAPK may represent a new therapeutic target to blunt virulence and improve clinical outcome of invasive GBS infection.
Author Summary
Our studies show β hemolysin/cytolysin (βh/c) from Group B Streptococcus (GBS), inhibits the activation of macrophages and the innate immune response to GBS. We show that βh/c triggers activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in GBS-infected macrophages leading to expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and the suppression of genes required for effective anti-bacterial immunity. Furthermore, mice deficient in MAPK activation, specifically in macrophages, show increased resistance to invasive GBS infection. Our data describe a new role for a PFT in the evasion of host immunity that may have significant impact on the pathogenesis of invasive bacterial infections, and suggest targeting the signaling pathways triggered by PFTs in immune cells could increase innate immunity and host resistance.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002812
PMCID: PMC3400567  PMID: 22829768
2.  An antiinflammatory role for IKKβ through the inhibition of “classical” macrophage activation 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2008;205(6):1269-1276.
The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway plays a central role in inflammation and immunity. In response to proinflammatory cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, NF-κB activation is controlled by IκB kinase (IKK)β. Using Cre/lox-mediated gene targeting of IKKβ, we have uncovered a tissue-specific role for IKKβ during infection with group B streptococcus. Although deletion of IKKβ in airway epithelial cells had the predicted effect of inhibiting inflammation and reducing innate immunity, deletion of IKKβ in the myeloid lineage unexpectedly conferred resistance to infection that was associated with increased expression of interleukin (IL)-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II by macrophages. We also describe a previously unknown role for IKKβ in the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)1 signaling in macrophages, which is critical for IL-12, NOS2, and MHC class II expression. These studies suggest that IKKβ inhibits the “classically” activated or M1 macrophage phenotype during infection through negative cross talk with the Stat1 pathway. This may represent a mechanism to prevent the over-exuberant activation of macrophages during infection and contribute to the resolution of inflammation. This establishes a new role for IKKβ in the regulation of macrophage activation with important implications in chronic inflammatory disease, infection, and cancer.
doi:10.1084/jem.20080124
PMCID: PMC2413025  PMID: 18490491
3.  Sustained desensitization to bacterial Toll-like receptor ligands after resolutionof respiratory influenza infection 
The World Health Organization estimates that lower respiratory tract infections (excluding tuberculosis) account for ∼35% of all deaths caused by infectious diseases. In many cases, the cause of death may be caused by multiple pathogens, e.g., the life-threatening bacterial pneumonia observed in patients infected with influenza virus. The ability to evolve more efficient immunity on each successive encounter with antigen is the hallmark of the adaptive immune response. However, in the absence of cross-reactive T and B cell epitopes, one lung infection can modify immunity and pathology to the next for extended periods of time. We now report for the first time that this phenomenon is mediated by a sustained desensitization of lung sentinel cells to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands; this is an effect that lasts for several months after resolution of influenza or respiratory syncytial virus infection and is associated with reduced chemokine production and NF-κB activation in alveolar macrophages. Although such desensitization may be beneficial in alleviating overall immunopathology, the reduced neutrophil recruitment correlates with heightened bacterial load during secondary respiratory infection. Our data therefore suggests that post-viral desensitization to TLR signals may be one possible contributor to the common secondary bacterial pneumonia associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza infection.
doi:10.1084/jem.20070891
PMCID: PMC2271005  PMID: 18227219
4.  Effect of Selenite on Growth and Protein Synthesis in the Phototrophic Bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2001;67(10):4440-4447.
The effect of selenite on the growth rate and protein synthesis has been investigated in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This photosynthetic bacterium efficiently reduces selenite with intracellular accumulation under both dark aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic conditions. Addition of 1 mM selenite under these two growth conditions does not affect the final cell density, although a marked slowdown in growth rate is observed under aerobic growth. The proteome analysis of selenite response by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis shows an enhanced synthesis of some chaperones, an elongation factor, and enzymes associated to oxidative stress. The induction of these antioxidant proteins confirms that the major toxic effect of selenite is the formation of reactive oxygen species during its metabolism. In addition, we show that one mutant unable to precipitate selenite, selected from a transposon library, is affected in the smoK gene. This encodes a constituent of a putative ABC transporter implicated in the uptake of polyols. This mutant is less sensitive to selenite and does not express stress proteins identified in the wild type in response to selenite. This suggests that the entry of selenite into the cytoplasm is mediated by a polyol transporter in R. sphaeroides.
doi:10.1128/AEM.67.10.4440-4447.2001
PMCID: PMC93187  PMID: 11571140

Results 1-4 (4)