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1.  Obese frailty, physical performance deficits, and falls in older men with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy: a case-control study 
Urology  2011;77(4):934-940.
Objectives
Early androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has no proven survival advantage in older men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa), and it may contribute to geriatric frailty; we tested this hypothesis.
Methods
We conducted a case-control study of men aged 60+ with BCR on ADT (n=63) versus PCa survivors without recurrence (n=71). Frailty prevalence, “obese” frailty, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores and falls were compared. An exploratory analysis of frailty biomarkers (CRP, ESR, hemoglobin, albumin, and total cholesterol) was performed. Summary statistics, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted.
Results
More patients on ADT were obese (BMI >30; 46.2% vs. 20.6%; p=0.03). There were no statistical differences in SPPB (p=0.41) or frailty (p=0.20). Using a proposed “obese” frailty criteria, 8.7% in ADT group were frail and 56.5% were “prefrail”, compared with 2.9% and 48.8% of controls (p=0.02). Falls in the last year were higher in ADT group (14.3% vs. 2.8%; p=0.02). In analyses controlling for age, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities, the ADT group trended toward significance for “obese” frailty (p = 0.14) and falls (OR = 4.74, p = 0.11). Comorbidity significantly increased the likelihood of “obese” frailty (p=0.01) and falls (OR 2.02, p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Men with BCR on ADT are frailer using proposed modified “obese” frailty criteria. They may have lower performance status and more falls. A larger, prospective trial is necessary to establish a causal link between ADT use and progression of frailty and disability.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2010.11.024
PMCID: PMC3074039  PMID: 21269665
prostate cancer; biochemical recurrence; androgen deprivation therapy; frailty; older adults
2.  Management of complications of androgen deprivation therapy in the older man☆ 
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in older men. With the aging of the population, the number of older men with prostate cancer will grow rapidly. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of treatment for men with systemic disease and is increasingly utilized as primary therapy or in combination with other therapies for localized disease. Side effects of therapy are multifold and include hot flashes, osteoporosis, and adverse psychological and metabolic effects. Recent research has illustrated that ADT can negatively impact the functional, cognitive, and physical performance of older men. Patients with prostate cancer, despite recurrence of the disease, have a long life expectancy and may be subjected to the side effects of ADT for many years. This review highlights the complications of ADT and approaches to management. We also provide recommendations for assessment and management of ADT complications among the most vulnerable and frail older male patients.
doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2008.09.004
PMCID: PMC3074615  PMID: 18952456
Disability; Geriatric assessment; Prostate cancer; Vulnerable elders; Functional impairment; Androgen deprivation; Quality of life; Complications
3.  Falls and Physical Performance Deficits in Older Patients With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy 
Urology  2008;72(2):422-427.
OBJECTIVES
Men experience a decrease in lean muscle mass and strength during the first year of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The prevalence of falls and physical and functional impairment in this population have not been well described.
METHODS
A total of 50 men aged 70 years and older (median 78) receiving ADT for systemic prostate cancer (80% biochemical recurrence) underwent functional and physical assessments. The functional assessments included Katz’s Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Lawton’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Patients completed the Vulnerable Elder’s Survey-13, a short screening tool of self-perceived functional and physical performance ability. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. The history of falls was recorded. Of the 50 patients, 40 underwent follow-up assessment with the same instruments 3 months after the initial assessment.
RESULTS
Of the 50 men, 24% had impairment in the ADLs, 42% had impairment in the IADLs, 56% had abnormal Short Physical Performance Battery findings, and 22% reported falls within the previous 3 months. Within the Short Physical Performance Battery, deficits occurred within all subcomponents (balance, walking, and chair stands). On univariate analysis, age, deficits in ADLs and IADLs, and abnormal cognitive and functional screen findings were associated with an increased risk of abnormal physical performance. ADL deficits, the use of an assistive device, and abnormal functional screen findings were associated with an increased risk of falling.
CONCLUSIONS
The results of our study have shown that older men with prostate cancer receiving long-term ADT exhibit significant functional and physical impairment and are at risk of falls that is greater than that for similar-aged cohorts. Careful assessment of the functional and physical deficits in older patients receiving ADT is warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2008.03.032
PMCID: PMC3032402  PMID: 18561991
4.  Cognitive effects of androgen deprivation therapy in an older cohort of men with prostate cancer 
Objective
To determine the baseline prevalence of cognitive impairment in older men treated with ADT and to assess changes in cognitive performance over time.
Methods and results
Thirty-two patients (median age of 71 years, range 51–87) were administrated an extensive neuropsychological testing battery prior to ADT initiation, with 21 (65%) completing post-treatment evaluations 6 months later. At baseline, 45% scored >1.5 standard deviations below the mean on ≥2 neuropsychological measures. Using standardized inferential statistics, no change in cognition was documented following treatment. The Reliable Change Index revealed that, on a case-by-case basis, 38% demonstrated a decline in measures of executive functioning and 48% showed improvement on measures of visuospatial abilities. Within exploratory analyses, patients who scored below expectation at baseline displayed no change in cognition, while patients with average or better scores at baseline displayed improvements in visuospatial planning and timed tests of phonemic fluency.
Conclusions
We found a high prevalence of lower than expected cognitive performance among a sample of patients just starting ADT for prostate cancer. Assessment of baseline cognitive function should be taken into account for future research and to inform clinical management.
doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2010.06.009
PMCID: PMC3028591  PMID: 20656210
Cognition; Androgen deprivation; Prostate; Elderly
5.  Patient Anxiety About Prostate Cancer Independently Predicts Early Initiation of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Biochemical Cancer Recurrence in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(10):1557-1563.
Purpose
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is first-line therapy for patients with prostate cancer (PCA) who experience biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, the optimal timing of ADT initiation is uncertain, and earlier ADT initiation can cause toxicities that lower quality of life (QOL). We tested the hypothesis that elevated cancer anxiety leads to earlier ADT initiation for BCR in older men.
Patients and Methods
We conducted a prospective cohort study of older patients with BCR of PCA (n = 67). Patients completed questionnaires at presentation and each follow-up visit until initiation of ADT. PCA-specific anxiety was measured with the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Other collected data included demographics, clinical information, and general anxiety information. Treating oncologists were surveyed about their recommendations for ADT initiation. The primary outcome was the time to ADT initiation. Univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and time-to-event analyses were conducted to evaluate whether cancer anxiety was a predictor of earlier initiation of ADT.
Results
Thirty-three percent of patients initiated ADT at the first or second clinic visit. Elevated PCA anxiety (MAX-PC > 16) was the most robust predictor in multivariate analyses of early initiation (odds ratio [OR], 9.19; P = .01). PSA also independently correlated with early initiation (OR, 1.31; P = .01). PSA did not correlate with MAX-PC.
Conclusion
Cancer anxiety independently and robustly predicts earlier ADT initiation in older men with BCR. For older patients with PCA, earlier ADT initiation may not change life expectancy and can negatively impact QOL. PCA-specific anxiety is a potential target for a decision-making intervention in this setting.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.5850
PMCID: PMC2738613  PMID: 19255325

Results 1-5 (5)