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1.  Chylous ascites and lymphangiectasia in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis – a rare coexistence: a case report 
Introduction
Nephrotic syndrome is considered a rare cause of chylous ascites. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a background of chylous ascites and without any lymphatic obstruction has been reported in association with yellow nail syndrome, which is a rare clinical occurrence in itself. The existence of chylous ascites, duodenal and splenic lymphangiectasia (without any lymphatic obstruction) and nephrotic syndrome in the form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the same patient makes this case the first of its kind to be reported in the literature.
Case presentation
Here we report the case of a 54-year-old Asian man who presented with recurrent episodes of anasarca for approximately 25 years. He was subsequently found to have chylous ascites, lymphangiectasia and persistent proteinuria. A renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, not otherwise specified. A lymphangiogram, which was performed with the purpose of addressing the intestinal lymphangiectasia, failed to demonstrate any abnormality of lymphatic channels. He was put on oral steroids with consequent remission of his oedema and proteinuria.
Conclusions
This case highlights the fact that duodenal and splenic lymphangiectasia can exist in a scenario of chylous ascites without any obvious obstruction of lymphatic channels and in the absence of yellow nail syndrome. This case also signifies that chylous ascites may be a rare presenting feature of nephrotic syndrome and hence this aspect should be considered while in diagnostic dilemma regarding such a clinical presentation.
doi:10.1186/s13256-014-0507-2
PMCID: PMC4333874
Chylous ascites; Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; Lymphangiectasia
2.  A Rare Cause of Seizures, Parkinsonian, and Cerebellar Signs: Brain Calcinosis Secondary to Thyroidectomy 
Context:
Post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism presenting with Parkinsonian features and seizures with extensive intracranial calcifications is uncommon. Acquired intracranial calcification that affects structures other than the basal ganglia is rare.
Case Report:
We report a case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of total thyroidectomy who presented with Parkinsonian features, cerebellar signs, and seizures. Brain imaging revealed extensive intracranial calcifications secondary to long-standing hypoparathyroidism. The patient was treated with intravenous (IV) calcium gluconate therapy and shifted to oral calcium and calcitriol therapy. Her symptoms improved markedly. At four months of follow up, the patient had not suffered another episode of seizure and was being gradually weaned off anti-Parkinsonian therapy.
Conclusion:
This case describes the rare finding of extensive intracranial calcifications in a case of iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism secondary to thyroidectomy with its wide array of features and its remarkable response to restoration of calcium levels to normal limits.
doi:10.4103/1947-2714.143287
PMCID: PMC4215493  PMID: 25489568
Cerebellar and parkinsonian features after thyroidectomy; Hypoparathyroidism leading to seizures; Parkinsonism secondary to thyroidectomy
3.  Immunohistochemical analysis of factors related to apoptosis and cellular proliferation in relation to inflammation in dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst 
Background:
The effect of inflammation on pathogenesis and biological behavior of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and dentigerous cyst (DC) is not completely understood. Hence, we aimed to analyze the effect of inflammation on biological behavior of OKC and DC using a proliferative and anti-apoptotic marker, i.e., proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2, respectively.
Materials and Methods:
Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-PCNA and Bcl-2 antibody in 10 cases each of classical OKC, inflamed OKC and classical DC and inflamed DC.
Results:
Inflamed OKC and DC showed a significant increase in PCNA expression and decrease in Bcl-2 expression when compared with non-inflamed cyst. Correlation between inflammation and proliferative and anti-apoptotic activity was found to be statistically non-significant.
Conclusion:
Inflammation is responsible for change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC and hence should be treated meticulously, whereas in DC it is responsible for changes in the epithelial lining.
doi:10.4103/0976-9668.127300
PMCID: PMC3961914  PMID: 24678208
Apoptosis; dentigerous cyst; odontogenic cyst; odontogenic keratocyst; proliferative cellular nuclear antigen
4.  Bicentric bipolar hip prosthesis: A radiological study of movement at the interprosthetic joint 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2011;45(6):508-513.
Background:
The bipolar hip prostheses after some time functions as a unipolar device. There is a need to change the design of bipolar hip prostheses to make it function as a bipolar device over a prolonged period of time. A bicentric bipolar hip prosthesis was used as an implant for various conditions of the hip. We evaluated the movement of this newly developed prosthesis at the interprosthetic joint radiologically at periodic intervals.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty two cases were operarted with the Bicentric bipolar prosthesis for indications like fracture neck of femur and various other diseases of the hip and were followed up with serial radiographs at periodic intervals to evaluate, what fraction of the total abduction at the hip was occurring at the interprosthetic joint.
Results:
In cases of intracapsular fracture neck of femur, the percentage of total abduction occurring at the interprosthetic joint at 3 months follow-up was 33.74% (mean value of all the patients), which fell to 25.66% at 1.5 years. In indications for bipolar hemireplacement other than fracture neck of femur, the percentage of total abduction occurring at the interprosthetic joint at 3 months follow-up was 71.71% (mean value) and at 1.5 years it was 67.52%.
Conclusion:
This study shows the relative preservation of inner bearing movement in the bipolar hip prosthesis with time probably due its refined design. Further refinements are needed to make the prosthesis work better in patients of intracapsular fracture neck femur.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.87120
PMCID: PMC3227354  PMID: 22144743
Bicentric bipolar prosthesis; inner bearing; interprosthetic joint
5.  The BHU bicentric bipolar prosthesis in fracture neck femur in active elderly 
Background
55 BHU bicentric bipolar hemiarthroplasties were reviewed after a mean follow up of 4 years (range 1–5 years). Patients with displaced subcapital fractures were selected for operation on the basis of good mobility before the fracture. Object of the study was to see the efficacy of BHU bipolar prostheses and functional outcome.
Results
There were no incidences of dislocation. Modified Harris hip scoring system scoring system was used which included sitting crosslegged and squatting in view of the sociocultural needs of the patients of Indian subcontinent. Modified Harris hip scoring system 89% had a good or excellent result and 94% had no or only occasional pain. Majority of the patients returned to their prefracture activity.
Conclusion
Thus at follow up of 4 year the BHU bicentric bipolar prosthesis has been shown to be a good option for intracapsular fractures of neck femur with encouraging results.
doi:10.1186/1752-2897-2-7
PMCID: PMC2586620  PMID: 18817566

Results 1-5 (5)