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1.  Time and temperature stability of T-cell subsets evaluated by a dual-platform method 
Introduction
T-cell subset enumeration in HIV patients is routinely performed for monitoring infection stage and response to antiretroviral therapy. Studies have examined the effect of specimen refrigeration and age for single-platform (SP) methods, but there is limited data for time and temperature requirements of dual-platform (DP) methods.
Methods
Using a DP method, we analyzed peripheral blood (PB) from 52 HIV patients at room temperature (RT) at 24, 72, and 96 hours. PBs from 34 HIV patients had baseline RT analysis within 24 hours, and then were refrigerated and analyzed at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The coefficient of variation (CV) and residuals (changes in lymphocyte subsets) were recorded at each time point and compared to assess the precision and bias under the various conditions. Testing performance under different conditions was compared by linear regression.
Results
Mean CV was ≤7.3% and median residuals were <30/μl for absolute CD4 and CD8 determinations. There was good correlation between baseline analysis data at RT and at various time points, both at RT and 4°C.
Conclusions
Our results are similar to those published for SP methods for aging or refrigerated specimens. The high level of agreement between measurements supports the robustness of this DP methodology.
PMCID: PMC3384401  PMID: 22762032
HIV; Absolute CD4 counts; flow cytometry; dual platform; specimen stability
2.  Sperm in peritoneal fluid from a man with ascites: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:192.
Introduction
The finding of sperm in body fluids such as peritoneal fluid is unusual, and has been mostly described in female patients.
Case presentation
We are reporting the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with complaints of increased abdominal girth, weight gain and epigastric pain. He was subsequently found to have spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sperm in the peritoneal fluid. We describe the laboratory findings and clinical course in this patient.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first report of sperm in peritoneal fluid in a male patient.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-192
PMCID: PMC2783147  PMID: 19946502
3.  Immunophenotypic studies of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance 
Background
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a common plasma cell dyscrasia, comprising the most indolent form of monoclonal gammopathy. However, approximately 25% of MGUS cases ultimately progress to plasma cell myeloma (PCM) or related diseases. It is difficult to predict which subset of patients will transform. In this study, we examined the immunophenotypic differences of plasma cells in MGUS and PCM.
Methods
Bone marrow specimens from 32 MGUS patients and 32 PCM patients were analyzed by 4-color flow cytometry, using cluster analysis of ungated data, for the expression of several markers, including CD10, CD19, CD20, CD38, CD45, CD56 and surface and intracellular immunoglobulin light chains.
Results
All MGUS patients had two subpopulations of plasma cells, one with a "normal" phenotype [CD19(+), CD56(-), CD38(bright +)] and one with an aberrant phenotype [either CD19(-)/CD56(+) or CD19(-)/CD56(-)]. The normal subpopulation ranged from 4.4 to 86% (mean 27%) of total plasma cells. Only 20 of 32 PCM cases showed an identifiable normal subpopulation at significantly lower frequency [range 0–32%, mean 3.3%, p << 0.001]. The plasma cells in PCM were significantly less likely to express CD19 [1/32 (3.1%) vs. 13/29 (45%), p << 0.001] and more likely to express surface immunoglobulin [21/32 (66%) vs. 3/28 (11%), p << 0.001], compared to MGUS. Those expressing CD19 did so at a significantly lower level than in MGUS, with no overlap in mean fluorescence intensities [174 ± 25 vs. 430 ± 34, p << 0.001]. There were no significant differences in CD56 expression [23/32 (72%) vs. 18/29 (62%), p = 0.29], CD45 expression [15/32 (47%) vs. 20/30 (67%), p = 0.10] or CD38 mean fluorescence intensities [6552 ± 451 vs. 6365 ± 420, p = 0.38]. Two of the six MGUS cases (33%) with >90% CD19(-) plasma cells showed progression of disease, whereas none of the cases with >10% CD19(+) plasma cells evolved to PCM.
Conclusion
MGUS cases with potential for disease progression appeared to lack CD19 expression on >90% of their plasma cells, displaying an immunophenotypic profile similar to PCM plasma cells. A higher relative proportion of CD19(+) plasma cells in MGUS may be associated with a lower potential for disease progression.
doi:10.1186/1472-6890-8-13
PMCID: PMC2606678  PMID: 19040735

Results 1-3 (3)