Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity are, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.
virus; pathogen; metagenome; virome; virus discovery; assembly; viral metagenomics
Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection represents a commonly used infectious animal model to study various aspects of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In susceptible SJL mice, dominant activity of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the CNS partly contributes to viral persistence and progressive demyelination. On the other hand, resistant C57BL/6 mice rapidly clear the virus by mounting a strong antiviral immune response. However, very little is known about the role of Tregs in regulating antiviral responses during acute encephalitis in resistant mouse strains.
In this study, we used DEREG mice that express the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under control of the foxp3 locus to selectively deplete Foxp3+ Tregs by injection of DT prior to infection and studied the effect of Treg depletion on the course of acute Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis (TME).
As expected, DEREG mice that are on a C57BL/6 background were resistant to TMEV infection and cleared the virus within days of infection, regardless of the presence or absence of Tregs. Nevertheless, in the absence of Tregs we observed priming of stronger effector T cell responses in the periphery, which subsequently resulted in a transient increase in the frequency of IFNγ-producing T cells in the brain at an early stage of infection. Histological and flow cytometric analysis revealed that this transiently increased frequency of brain-infiltrating IFNγ-producing T cells in Treg-depleted mice neither led to an augmented antiviral response nor enhanced inflammation-mediated tissue damage. Intriguingly, Treg depletion did not change the expression of IL-10 in the infected brain, which might play a role for dampening the inflammatory damage caused by the increased number of effector T cells.
We therefore propose that unlike susceptible mice strains, interfering with the Treg compartment of resistant mice only has negligible effects on virus-induced pathologies in the CNS. Furthermore, in the absence of Tregs, local anti-inflammatory mechanisms might limit the extent of damage caused by strong anti-viral response in the CNS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12974-014-0180-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Regulatory T cells; Theiler’s virus; Interleukin-10
Bunyaviruses have evolved a variety of strategies to counteract the antiviral defence systems of mammalian cells. Here we show that the NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) induces the degradation of the RPB1 subunit of RNA polymerase II and consequently inhibits global cellular protein synthesis and the antiviral response. In addition, we show that the SBV NSs protein enhances apoptosis in vitro and possibly in vivo, suggesting that this protein could be involved in SBV pathogenesis in different ways.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a member of the genus morbillivirus, which is known to cause a variety of disorders in dogs including demyelinating leukoencephalitis (CDV-DL). In recent years, substantial progress in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of CDV-DL has been made. In vivo and in vitro investigations provided new insights into its pathogenesis with special emphasis on axon-myelin-glia interaction, potential endogenous mechanisms of regeneration, and astroglial plasticity. CDV-DL is characterized by lesions with a variable degree of demyelination and mononuclear inflammation accompanied by a dysregulated orchestration of cytokines as well as matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. Despite decades of research, several new aspects of the neuropathogenesis of CDV-DL have been described only recently. Early axonal damage seems to represent an initial and progressive lesion in CDV-DL, which interestingly precedes demyelination. Axonopathy may, thus, function as a potential trigger for subsequent disturbed axon-myelin-glia interactions. In particular, the detection of early axonal damage suggests that demyelination is at least in part a secondary event in CDV-DL, thus challenging the dogma of CDV as a purely primary demyelinating disease. Another unexpected finding refers to the appearance of p75 neurotrophin (NTR)-positive bipolar cells during CDV-DL. As p75NTR is a prototype marker for immature Schwann cells, this finding suggests that Schwann cell remyelination might represent a so far underestimated endogenous mechanism of regeneration, though this hypothesis still remains to be proven. Although it is well known that astrocytes represent the major target of CDV infection in CDV-DL, the detection of infected vimentin-positive astrocytes in chronic lesions indicates a crucial role of this cell population in nervous distemper. While glial fibrillary acidic protein represents the characteristic intermediate filament of mature astrocytes, expression of vimentin is generally restricted to immature or reactive astrocytes. Thus, vimentin-positive astrocytes might constitute an important cell population for CDV persistence and spread, as well as lesion progression. In vitro models, such as dissociated glial cell cultures, as well as organotypic brain slice cultures have contributed to a better insight into mechanisms of infection and certain morphological and molecular aspects of CDV-DL. Summarized, recent in vivo and in vitro studies revealed remarkable new aspects of nervous distemper. These new perceptions substantially improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of CDV-DL and might represent new starting points to develop novel treatment strategies.
axon; canine distemper virus; central nervous system; cytokine; distemper leukoencephalitis; immature astrocyte; matrix metalloproteinase; p75 neurotrophin receptor; Schwann cell; vimentin
Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in the center of interest since the first anecdotal description of their potential usefulness as an anti-tumor treatment concept. Though first reports referred to an incidental measles virus infection causing tumor regression in a patient suffering from lymphoma several decades ago, no final treatment concept has been developed since then. However, numerous viruses, such as herpes-, adeno- and paramyxoviruses, have been investigated, characterized, and modified with the aim to generate a new anti-cancer treatment option. Among the different viruses, measles virus still represents a highly interesting candidate for such an approach. Numerous different tumors of humans including malignant lymphoma, lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and ovarian cancer, have been studied in vitro and in vivo as potential targets. Moreover, several concepts using different virus preparations are now in clinical trials in humans and may proceed to a new treatment option. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated viral oncolysis in veterinary medicine. The close relationship between measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), both are morbilliviruses, and the fact that numerous tumors in dogs exhibit similarities to their human counterpart, indicates that both the virus and species dog represent a highly interesting translational model for future research in viral oncolysis. Several recent studies support such an assumption. It is therefore the aim of the present communication to outline the mechanisms of morbillivirus-mediated oncolysis and to stimulate further research in this potentially expanding field of viral oncolysis in a highly suitable translational animal model for the benefit of humans and dogs.
canine distemper virus; measles virus; tumor treatment; viral oncolysis
Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.
Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs (Canis familiaris) is suggested to represent a naturally occurring translational model for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis in humans. The aim of this study was a hypothesis-free microarray analysis of the transcriptional changes within cerebellar specimens of five cases of acute, six cases of subacute demyelinating, and three cases of chronic demyelinating and inflammatory CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to twelve non-infected control dogs. Frozen cerebellar specimens were used for analysis of histopathological changes including demyelination, transcriptional changes employing microarrays, and presence of CDV nucleoprotein RNA and protein using microarrays, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis revealed 780 differentially expressed probe sets. The dominating change was an up-regulation of genes related to the innate and the humoral immune response, and less distinct the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune response in all subtypes of CDV leukoencephalitis as compared to controls. Multiple myelin genes including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein displayed a selective down-regulation in subacute CDV leukoencephalitis, suggestive of an oligodendrocyte dystrophy. In contrast, a marked up-regulation of multiple immunoglobulin-like expressed sequence tags and the delta polypeptide of the CD3 antigen was observed in chronic CDV leukoencephalitis, in agreement with the hypothesis of an immune-mediated demyelination in the late inflammatory phase of the disease. Analysis of pathways intimately linked to demyelination as determined by morphometry employing correlation-based Gene Set Enrichment Analysis highlighted the pathomechanistic importance of up-regulated genes comprised by the gene ontology terms “viral replication” and “humoral immune response” as well as down-regulated genes functionally related to “metabolite and energy generation”.
Multiple microarray analyses of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its experimental models have been published in the last years.
Meta-analyses integrate the information from multiple studies and are suggested to be a powerful approach in detecting highly relevant and commonly affected pathways.
ArrayExpress, Gene Expression Omnibus and PubMed databases were screened for microarray gene expression profiling studies of MS and its experimental animal models.
Study eligibility criteria
Studies comparing central nervous system (CNS) samples of diseased versus healthy individuals with n >1 per group and publically available raw data were selected.
Material and Methods
Included conditions for re-analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were MS, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats, proteolipid protein-induced EAE in mice, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD), and a transgenic tumor necrosis factor-overexpressing mouse model (TNFtg). Since solely a single MS raw data set fulfilled the inclusion criteria, a merged list containing the DEGs from two MS-studies was additionally included. Cross-study analysis was performed employing list comparisons of DEGs and alternatively Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA).
The intersection of DEGs in MS, EAE, TMEV-IDD, and TNFtg contained 12 genes related to macrophage functions. The intersection of EAE, TMEV-IDD and TNFtg comprised 40 DEGs, functionally related to positive regulation of immune response. Over and above, GSEA identified substantially more differentially regulated pathways including coagulation and JAK/STAT-signaling.
A meta-analysis based on a simple comparison of DEGs is over-conservative. In contrast, the more experimental GSEA approach identified both, a priori anticipated as well as promising new candidate pathways.
Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) and Schwann cells (SC) is a promising therapeutic strategy to promote axonal growth and remyelination after spinal cord injury. Previous studies mainly focused on the rat model though results from primate and porcine models differed from those in the rat model. Interestingly, canine OECs show primate-like in vitro characteristics, such as absence of early senescence and abundance of stable p75NTR expression indicating that this species represents a valuable translational species for further studies. So far, few investigations have tested different glial cell types within the same study under identical conditions. This makes it very difficult to evaluate contradictory or confirmatory findings reported in various studies. Moreover, potential contamination of OEC preparations with Schwann cells was difficult to exclude. Thus, it remains rather controversial whether the different glial types display distinct cellular properties.
Here, we established cultures of Schwann cell-free OECs from olfactory bulb (OB-OECs) and mucosa (OM-OECs) and compared them in assays to Schwann cells. These glial cultures were obtained from a canine large animal model and used for monitoring migration, phagocytosis and the effects on in vitro neurite growth. OB-OECs and Schwann cells migrated faster than OM-OECs in a scratch wound assay. Glial cell migration was not modulated by cGMP and cAMP signaling, but activating protein kinase C enhanced motility. All three glial cell types displayed phagocytic activity in a microbead assay. In co-cultures with of human model (NT2) neurons neurite growth was maximal on OB-OECs.
These data provide evidence that OB- and OM-OECs display distinct migratory behavior and interaction with neurites. OB-OECs migrate faster and enhance neurite growth of human model neurons better than Schwann cells, suggesting distinct and inherent properties of these closely-related cell types. Future studies will have to address whether, and how, these cellular properties correlate with the in vivo behavior after transplantation.
Glia; Scratch wound assay; Large animal model; Human NT-2 neurons; Regeneration
For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model mimicking some aspects of multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear if this effect was achieved by systemic immunomodulation or if there is an active neuroregeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). In order to investigate remyelination and regeneration in the CNS we analysed the effects of intravenously and intranasally applied murine and human bone marrow-derived MSC on cuprizone induced demyelination, a toxic animal model which allows analysis of remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. In contrast to EAE no effects of MSC on de- and remyelination and glial cell reactions were found. In addition, neither murine nor human MSC entered the lesions in the CNS in this toxic model. In conclusion, MSC are not directed into CNS lesions in the cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier is intact and thus cannot provide support for regenerative processes.
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered Bunyavirus associated mainly with abortions, stillbirths and malformations of the skeletal and central nervous system (CNS) in newborn ruminants. In this study, a detailed immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells of the CNS of affected animals was carried out in order to increase our understanding of SBV pathogenesis. A total of 82 SBV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive neonatal ruminants (46 sheep lambs, 34 calves and 2 goat kids) were investigated for the presence of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. The study focused on 15 out of 82 animals (18.3%) showing inflammation in the CNS. All 15 neonates displayed lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalomyelitis affecting most frequently the mesencephalon and the parietal and temporal lobes. The majority of infiltrating cells were CD3-positive T cells, followed by CD79α-positive B cells and CD68-positive microglia/macrophages. Malformations like por- and hydranencephaly, frequently found in the temporal lobe, showed associated demyelination and axonal loss. SBV antigen was detected in 37 out of 82 (45.1%) neonatal brains by immunohistochemistry. In particular, SBV antigen was found in 93.3% (14 out of 15 ruminants) and 32.8% (22 out of 67 ruminants) of animals with and without encephalitis, respectively. Highest amounts of virus-protein expression levels were found in the temporal lobe. Our findings suggest that: (i) different brain regions display differential susceptibility to SBV infection; (ii) inflammatory cells in the CNS are found only in a minority of virus infected animals; (iii) malformations occur in association with and without inflammation in the CNS; and (iv) viral antigen is strongly associated with the presence of inflammation in naturally infected animals. Further studies are required to explore the cell tropism and pathogenesis of SBV infection in ruminants.
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging orthobunyavirus of ruminants associated with outbreaks of congenital malformations in aborted and stillborn animals. Since its discovery in November 2011, SBV has spread very rapidly to many European countries. Here, we developed molecular and serological tools, and an experimental in vivo model as a platform to study SBV pathogenesis, tropism and virus-host cell interactions. Using a synthetic biology approach, we developed a reverse genetics system for the rapid rescue and genetic manipulation of SBV. We showed that SBV has a wide tropism in cell culture and “synthetic” SBV replicates in vitro as efficiently as wild type virus. We developed an experimental mouse model to study SBV infection and showed that this virus replicates abundantly in neurons where it causes cerebral malacia and vacuolation of the cerebral cortex. These virus-induced acute lesions are useful in understanding the progression from vacuolation to porencephaly and extensive tissue destruction, often observed in aborted lambs and calves in naturally occurring Schmallenberg cases. Indeed, we detected high levels of SBV antigens in the neurons of the gray matter of brain and spinal cord of naturally affected lambs and calves, suggesting that muscular hypoplasia observed in SBV-infected lambs is mostly secondary to central nervous system damage. Finally, we investigated the molecular determinants of SBV virulence. Interestingly, we found a biological SBV clone that after passage in cell culture displays increased virulence in mice. We also found that a SBV deletion mutant of the non-structural NSs protein (SBVΔNSs) is less virulent in mice than wild type SBV. Attenuation of SBV virulence depends on the inability of SBVΔNSs to block IFN synthesis in virus infected cells. In conclusion, this work provides a useful experimental framework to study the biology and pathogenesis of SBV.
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was discovered in Germany (near the town of Schmallenberg) in November 2011 and since then has been found to be the cause of malformations and stillbirths in ruminants. SBV has spread very rapidly to many European countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. Very little is known about the biological properties of this virus and there is no vaccine available. In this study (i) we developed an approach (called reverse genetics) that allows the recovery of “synthetic” SBV under laboratory conditions; (ii) we developed a mouse model of infection for SBV; (iii) we showed that SBV replicates in neurons of experimentally infected mice similar to naturally infected lambs and calves; (iv) we developed viral mutants that are not as pathogenic as the original virus due to the inability to counteract the host cell defenses; and v) we identified mutations that are associated with increased virulence. This work provides the experimental tools to understand how this newly emerged virus causes disease in ruminants. In addition, it will now be possible to manipulate the SBV genome in order to develop highly effective vaccines.
Schmallenberg virus; in situ-hybridization; ruminants; malformation; brain; inflammation; central nervous system; CNS; viruses
The recognition of functional muscular disorders, (e.g. channelopathies like Myotonia) is rising in veterinary neurology. Morphologic (e.g. histology) and even genetic based studies in these diseases are not able to elucidate the functional pathomechanism. As there is a deficit of knowledge and skills considering this special task, the aim of the current pilot study was to develop a canine muscle cell culture system derived from muscle biopsies of healthy client-owned dogs, which allows sampling of the biopsies under working conditions in the daily veterinary practise.
Muscular biopsies from 16 dogs of different age and breed were taken during standard surgical procedures and were stored for one to three days at 4°C in a transport medium in order to simulate shipping conditions. Afterwards biopsies were professionally processed, including harvesting of satellite cells, inducing their proliferation, differentiating them into myotubes and recultivating myotubes after long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. Myogenic origin of cultured cells was determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistology and by their typical morphology after inducing differentiation. Subsequent to the differentiation into myotubes feasibility of patch-clamp recordings of voltage gated ion channels was successfully.
We have developed a canine muscle cell culture system, which allows sampling of biopsies from young and old dogs of different breeds under practical conditions. Patch clamp measurements can be carried out with the cultured myotubes demonstrating potential of these cells as source for functional research.
Myotubes; Voltage gated ion channels; Functional; Dog; Animal models
Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus infection and reaction pattern of brain cells focusing on its role for seizure induction. Viral antigen and glial markers were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Different levels of TNF in the CNS were provided by the use of heterozygous and homozygous TNF overexpressing mice. Transgenic TNF, total TNF (native and transgenic), TNF-receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2), IL-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) mRNA values were measured by real time RT-PCR. BDV-infection of TNF-transgenic mice resulted in non-purulent meningoencephalitis accompanied by epileptic seizures with a higher frequency in homozygous animals. This correlated with lower weight gain, stronger degree and progression of encephalitis and early, strong microglia activation in the TNF-transgenic mice, most obviously in homozygous animals. Activation of astroglia could be more intense and associated with an unusual hypertrophy in the transgenic mice. BDV-antigen distribution and infectivity in the CNS was comparable in TNF-transgenic and wild-type animals. Transgenic TNF mRNA-expression was restricted to forebrain regions as the transgene construct comprised the promoter of NMDA-receptor subunit2B and induced up-regulation of native TNF mRNA. Total TNF mRNA levels did not increase significantly after BDV-infection in the brain of transgenic mice but TNFR1, TNFR2 and IL-1 mRNA values, mainly in the TNF overexpressing brain areas. NR2B mRNA levels were not influenced by transgene expression or BDV-infection. Neuronal TNF-overexpression combined with BDV-infection leads to cytokine up-regulation, CNS inflammation and glial cell activation and confirmed the presensitizing effect of elevated cytokine levels for the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures when exposed to additional infectious noxi.
The importance of the adaptive immune response for secondary influenza infections and protection from a lethal challenge after vaccination has been well documented. However, some controversy still exists concerning the specific involvement of B and T cells during a primary infection. Here, we have followed the survival, weight loss, viral load and lung pathology in Rag2-/- knock-out mice after infection with influenza A virus (H1N1). Infected wild type mice initially lost weight early after infection but then cleared the virus and recovered. Rag2-/- mice, however, showed similar weight loss kinetics in the early stages after infection but weight loss continued post infection and culminated in death. In contrast to wild type mice, Rag2-/- mice were not able to clear the virus, despite an increased inflammatory response. Furthermore, they did not recruit virus-specific lymphocytes into the lung in the later stages after infection and exhibited sustained pulmonary lesions.
The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is considered to be one of the key regulators of transcription and translation. However, so far only limited knowledge exists regarding its cellular distribution in the adult brain.
Analysis of YB-1 immunolabelling as well as double-labelling with the neuronal marker NeuN in rat brain tissue revealed a predominant neuronal expression in the dentate gyrus, the cornu ammonis pyramidal cell layer, layer III of the piriform cortex as well as throughout all layers of the parahippocampal cortex. In the hilus of the hippocampus single neurons expressed YB-1. The neuronal expression pattern was comparable in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex of adult macaques and humans. Double-labelling of YB-1 with the endothelial cell marker Glut-1, the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein, and the astrocytic marker GFAP did not indicate a co-localization. Following status epilepticus in rats, no induction of YB-1 occurred in brain capillary endothelial cells and neurons.
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that YB-1 is predominantly expressed in neurons in the adult brain of rats, macaques and humans. Lack of a co-localization with Glut-1 and P-glycoprotein argues against a direct role of YB-1 in the regulation of blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein.
Canis familiaris; dog; mycobacteriosis; Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex; Mycobacterium avium subsp. Hominissuis; zoonoses; letter
Dolphin; distemper; morbillivirus; encephalitis; letter
Approximately 21,700 seals died during a morbillivirus epidemic in northwestern Europe in 2002. Phocine distemper virus 1 was isolated from seals in German waters. The sequence of the P gene showed 97% identity with the Dutch virus isolated in 1988. There was 100% identity with the Dutch isolate from 2002 and a single nucleotide mismatch with the Danish isolate.
harbor seal; phocine distemper virus; germany; RT-PCR; immunohistochemistry; serology
A virus, 78-238, isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with neurological dysfunction, was characterized as a paramyxovirus. This conclusion was supported by viral cytopathic effects and morphological appearance of virions and nucleocapsids in infected cells. Nucleocapsids were found in the cytoplasm of all infected cells and in the nuclei of 0.001% of these cells. Growth curves revealed that a high percentage (≥76%) of infectious progeny virus was cell released. Persistent infection of Vero cells with 78-238 showed a consistently high percentage of fluorescence-positive cells and a low proportion of hemadsorption-positive cells. Serological studies indicate that the virus was closely related to Simian virus 5 and reference canine parainfluenza virus.