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1.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 hnRNP A/B-Dependent Exonic Splicing Silencer ESSV Antagonizes Binding of U2AF65 to Viral Polypyrimidine Tracts 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2003;23(23):8762-8772.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exonic splicing silencers (ESSs) inhibit production of certain spliced viral RNAs by repressing alternative splicing of the viral precursor RNA. Several HIV-1 ESSs interfere with spliceosome assembly by binding cellular hnRNP A/B proteins. Here, we have further characterized the mechanism of splicing repression using a representative HIV-1 hnRNP A/B-dependent ESS, ESSV, which regulates splicing at the vpr 3′ splice site. We show that hnRNP A/B proteins bound to ESSV are necessary to inhibit E complex assembly by competing with the binding of U2AF65 to the polypyrimidine tracts of repressed 3′ splice sites. We further show evidence suggesting that U1 snRNP binds the 5′ splice site despite an almost complete block of splicing by ESSV. Possible splicing-independent functions of U1 snRNP-5′ splice site interactions during virus replication are discussed.
doi:10.1128/MCB.23.23.8762-8772.2003
PMCID: PMC262674  PMID: 14612416
2.  RNA Splicing at Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 3′ Splice Site A2 Is Regulated by Binding of hnRNP A/B Proteins to an Exonic Splicing Silencer Element 
Journal of Virology  2001;75(18):8487-8497.
The synthesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNAs is a complex process by which more than 30 different mRNA species are produced by alternative splicing of a single primary RNA transcript. HIV-1 splice sites are used with significantly different efficiencies, resulting in different levels of mRNA species in infected cells. Splicing of Tat mRNA, which is present at relatively low levels in infected cells, is repressed by the presence of exonic splicing silencers (ESS) within the two tat coding exons (ESS2 and ESS3). These ESS elements contain the consensus sequence PyUAG. Here we show that the efficiency of splicing at 3′ splice site A2, which is used to generate Vpr mRNA, is also regulated by the presence of an ESS (ESSV), which has sequence homology to ESS2 and ESS3. Mutagenesis of the three PyUAG motifs within ESSV increases splicing at splice site A2, resulting in increased Vpr mRNA levels and reduced skipping of the noncoding exon flanked by A2 and D3. The increase in Vpr mRNA levels and the reduced skipping also occur when splice site D3 is mutated toward the consensus sequence. By in vitro splicing assays, we show that ESSV represses splicing when placed downstream of a heterologous splice site. A1, A1B, A2, and B1 hnRNPs preferentially bind to ESSV RNA compared to ESSV mutant RNA. Each of these proteins, when added back to HeLa cell nuclear extracts depleted of ESSV-binding factors, is able to restore splicing repression. The results suggest that coordinate repression of HIV-1 RNA splicing is mediated by members of the hnRNP A/B protein family.
doi:10.1128/JVI.75.18.8487-8497.2001
PMCID: PMC115094  PMID: 11507194
3.  Splicing Regulatory Elements within tat Exon 2 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Characteristic of Group M but Not Group O HIV-1 Strains 
Journal of Virology  1999;73(12):9764-9772.
In the NL4-3 strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), regulatory elements responsible for the relative efficiencies of alternative splicing at the tat, rev, and the env/nef 3′ splice sites (A3 through A5) are contained within the region of tat exon 2 and its flanking sequences. Two elements affecting splicing of tat, rev, and env/nef mRNAs have been localized to this region. First, an exon splicing silencer (ESS2) in NL4-3, located approximately 70 nucleotides downstream from the 3′ splice site used to generate tat mRNA, acts specifically to inhibit splicing at this splice site. Second, the A4b 3′ splice site, which is the most downstream of the three rev 3′ splice sites, also serves as an element inhibiting splicing at the env/nef 3′ splice site A5. These elements are conserved in some but not all HIV-1 strains, and the effects of these sequence changes on splicing have been investigated in cell transfection and in vitro splicing assays. SF2, another clade B virus and member of the major (group M) viruses, has several sequence changes within ESS2 and uses a different rev 3′ splice site. However, splicing is inhibited by the two elements similarly to NL4-3. As with the NL4-3 strain, the SF2 A4b AG dinucleotide overlaps an A5 branchpoint, and thus the inhibitory effect may result from competition of the same site for two different splicing factors. The sequence changes in ANT70C, a member of the highly divergent outlier (group O) viruses, are more extensive, and ESS2 activity in tat exon 2 is not present. Group O viruses also lack the rev 3′ splice site A4b, which is conserved in all group M viruses. Mutagenesis of the most downstream rev 3′ splice site of ANT70C does not increase splicing at A5, and all of the branchpoints are upstream of the two rev 3′ splice sites. Thus, splicing regulatory elements in tat exon 2 which are characteristic of most group M HIV-1 strains are not present in group O HIV-1 strains.
PMCID: PMC113023  PMID: 10559286

Results 1-3 (3)