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1.  P16INK4a overexpression and survival in osteosarcoma patients: a meta analysis 
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary bone malignancies. Although there is a significant improvement of survival on osteosarcoma patients in the past decades, treatment of osteosarcoma is still unsatisfactory for the development of pulmonary metastasis. The potential prognostic value of p16INK4a in osteosarcoma has been investigated, however, the results from different studies were somewhat controversial. To elucidate whether p16INK4a is indeed a prognostic factor of osteosarcoma, we conducted a meta-analysis of the published literatures to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the significance of p16INK4a expression in patients with osteosarcoma. Eight studies with a total of 354 patients with osteosarcoma were examined. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to evaluate the effect of p16INK4a expression on overall survival. Meta-analysis showed that patients with high p16INK4a expression were significantly associated with favourable overall survival when compared to their counterparts with low or undetectable p16INK4a expression (OR = 0.270, 95% CI 0.162-0.451, P < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis suggested the pooled OR was stable and not significantly changed when a single study was removed. In conclusion, the results from this meta-analysis highlight that p16INK4a is an effective biomarker of survival in patients with osteosarcoma.
PMCID: PMC4203227  PMID: 25337256
Osteosarcoma P16INK4a expression; survival; meta-analysis
2.  Antisense Oligonucleotides Delivered to the Mouse CNS Ameliorate Symptoms of Severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy 
Science translational medicine  2011;3(72):72ra18.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene that result in a deficiency of SMN protein. One approach to treat SMA is to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to redirect the splicing of a paralogous gene, SMN2, to boost production of functional SMN. Injection of a 2′-O-2-methoxyethyl–modified ASO (ASO-10-27) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of mice with a severe form of SMA resulted in splice-mediated increases in SMN protein and in the number of motor neurons in the spinal cord, which led to improvements in muscle physiology, motor function and survival. Intrathecal infusion of ASO-10-27 into cynomolgus monkeys delivered putative therapeutic levels of the oligonucleotide to all regions of the spinal cord. These data demonstrate that central nervous system–directed ASO therapy is efficacious and that intrathecal infusion may represent a practical route for delivering this therapeutic in the clinic.
PMCID: PMC3140425  PMID: 21368223
3.  CNS-targeted gene therapy improves survival and motor function in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2010;120(4):1253-1264.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by a deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) due to mutations in the SMN1 gene. In this study, an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human SMN (AAV8-hSMN) was injected at birth into the CNS of mice modeling SMA. Western blot analysis showed that these injections resulted in widespread expression of SMN throughout the spinal cord, and this translated into robust improvement in skeletal muscle physiology, including increased myofiber size and improved neuromuscular junction architecture. Treated mice also displayed substantial improvements on behavioral tests of muscle strength, coordination, and locomotion, indicating that the neuromuscular junction was functional. Treatment with AAV8-hSMN increased the median life span of mice with SMA-like disease to 50 days compared with 15 days for untreated controls. Moreover, injecting mice with SMA-like disease with a human SMN–expressing self-complementary AAV vector — a vector that leads to earlier onset of gene expression compared with standard AAV vectors — led to improved efficacy of gene therapy, including a substantial extension in median survival to 157 days. These data indicate that CNS-directed, AAV-mediated SMN augmentation is highly efficacious in addressing both neuronal and muscular pathologies in a severe mouse model of SMA.
PMCID: PMC2846065  PMID: 20234094

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