A dispersed particle gel (DPG) was successfully prepared from a polymer gel at room temperature. The polymer gel system, morphology, viscosity changes, size distribution, and zeta potential of DPG particles were investigated. The results showed that zirconium gel systems with different strengths can be cross-linked within 2.5 h at low temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed that the particles were polygonal particles with nano-size distribution. According to the viscosity changes, the whole preparation process can be divided into two major stages: the bulk gel cross-linking reaction period and the DPG particle preparation period. A polymer gel with a 3-dimensional network was formed in the bulk gel cross-linking reaction period whereas shearing force and frictional force were the main driving forces for the preparation of DPG particles, and thus affected the morphology of DPG particles. High shearing force and frictional force reduced the particle size distribution, and then decreased the zeta potential (absolute value). The whole preparation process could be completed within 3 h at room temperature. It could be an efficient and energy-saving technology for preparation of DPG particles.
To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model.
In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively.
Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe) revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis.
We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus) is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research.
The formation of fusion protein in biosynthetic pathways usually improves metabolic efficiency either channeling intermediates and/or colocalizing enzymes. In the metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways, generating unnatural protein fusions between sequential biosynthetic enzymes is a useful method to increase system efficiency and product yield. Here, we reported a special case. The malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR) of Chloroflexus aurantiacus catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), and is a key enzyme in microbial production of 3HP, an important platform chemical. Functional domain analysis revealed that the N-terminal region of MCR (MCR-N; amino acids 1-549) and the C-terminal region of MCR (MCR-C; amino acids 550-1219) were functionally distinct. The malonyl-CoA was reduced into free intermediate malonate semialdehyde with NADPH by MCR-C fragment, and further reduced to 3HP by MCR-N fragment. In this process, the initial reduction of malonyl-CoA was rate limiting. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the TGXXXG(A)X(1-2)G and YXXXK motifs were important for enzyme activities of both MCR-N and MCR-C fragments. Moreover, the enzyme activity increased when MCR was separated into two individual fragments. Kinetic analysis showed that MCR-C fragment had higher affinity for malonyl-CoA and 4-time higher Kcat/Km value than MCR. Dissecting MCR into MCR-N and MCR-C fragments also had a positive effect on the 3HP production in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Our study showed the feasibility of protein dissection as a new strategy in biosynthetic systems.
Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most significant threats to the giant panda’s survival, responsible for half of the deaths reported from 2001 to 2005. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been identified as one of the key factors for gene regulations at the post-transcriptional level, and also considered as a potential control and treatment target against infectious diseases.
The present study investigated the miRNA profile of B. schroederi via high throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR.
A total of 18.07 million raw reads were obtained and 18.01 million were identified with high quality. By analysis of standard stem-loop structures, 108 miRNA candidates were predicted, including 60 known miRNAs and 48 novel ones. Target prediction revealed that the “chitinase” was the most abundant target with 483 sequences, and 263 targets were related to ovarian and egg development. The ribosomal protein related sequences occupied 449 sequences.
Previous studies have shown that some parasites secrete chitinases for exsheathment and/or for penetrating the peritrophic matrix of the host. It therefore seems that B. schroederi may be effectively regulated by miRNAs for development, invasion, and reproduction. Given that chitinases have been identified as important biological control agents for pests, identification of microRNAs in B. schroederi of the giant panda would provide useful information for the development of biological control strategies and/or vaccines against B. schroederi infection in the giant panda.
Baylisascaris schroederi; Giant panda; microRNA (miRNA); miRNA target
Tick is one of important ectoparasites capable of causing direct damage to their hosts and also acts as vectors of relevant infectious agents. In the present study, the taxa of 10 ticks, collected from Qinling giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) in Qinling Mountains of China in April 2010, were determined using morphology and molecular markers (nucleotide ITS2 rDNA and mitochondrial 16S). Microscopic observation demonstrated that the morphological features of these ticks were similar to Haemaphysalis flava. Compared with other Haemaphysalis species, genetic variations between Haemaphysalis collected from A. m. qinlingensis and H. flava were the lowest in ITS2 rDNA and mitochondrial 16S, with sequence differences of 2.06%–2.40% and 1.30%–4.70%, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships showed that all the Haemaphysalis collected from A. m. qinlingensis were grouped with H. flava, further confirmed that the Haemaphysalis sp. is H. flava. This is the first report of ticks in giant panda by combining with morphology and molecular markers. This study also provided evidence that combining morphology and molecular tools provide a valuable and efficient tool for tick identification.
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF). Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1) reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2) improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3) increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium.
A simple two-step method was employed for preparing nano-sized gold nanoparticles-graphene composite to construct a GNPs-GR-SDS modified electrode. Hemoglobin (Hb) was successfully immobilized on the surface of a basal plane graphite (BPG) electrode through a simple dropping technique. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of the hemoglobin-modified electrode was investigated. The as-prepared composites showed an obvious promotion of the direct electro-transfer between hemoglobin and the electrode. A couple of well-defined and quasi-reversible Hb CV peaks can be observed in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The separation of anodic and cathodic peak potentials is 81 mV, indicating a fast electron transfer reaction. The experimental results also clarified that the immobilized Hb retained its biological activity for the catalysis toward NO. The biosensor showed high sensitivity and fast response upon the addition of NO, under the conditions of pH 7.0, potential -0.82 V. The time to reach the stable-state current was less than 3 s, and the linear response range of NO was 0.72-7.92 μM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991.
hemoglobin; graphene; gold nanoparticles; nitric oxide; biosensor
The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A has been proven to reduce the rejection rate and prolong the survival time of transplanted hearts. But some reports showed that cyclosporine A did not completely suppress the rejection. We performed in vitro studies to model a time course to observe the effect of cyclosporin A. Methods: The experiment was divided into a control group (group I), an antigen group (group II), a cyclosporin A group (group III) and an antigen + cyclosporin A group (group IV). After transplantation, at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, leukocyte molecules were monitored. Results: The expression of IL-2R peaked at 12 h in group II and at 6 h in group III. There was a gradual decline in the expression of the P59 gene in group I, positive expression at 2 h and between 12 h and 24 h in group II, in group IV, there was a decrease at 48 h. The expression of the CD4 gene was lowest at 2 h in group I and at 6 h in group II. CD4 expression then quickly increased to a maximum at 48 h in group III, at 2 h in group IV. There was a minimal expression was reached at 12 h in group I and IV and at 6 h in group III in the expression of the CD8 gene. Conclusions: Alloantigen induced lymphocytes to release IL-2R and P59 and stimulated the induction of the CD4 gene’ transcription for 6 h. Cyclosporin A stimulated the release of IL-2R for 2 h. These results provide an in vitro basis for describing the time phases of rejection inhibited by cyclosporin A.
Transplantation rejection model in vitro; early expression’ time phase; cyclosporin A
The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.
Cyclospora spp. have been identified as one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing protracted diarrhea in animals and human beings. To determine the Cyclospora species in the non-human primate Rhinopithecus roxellanae, a total of 71 fecal samples from 19 endangered snub-nosed monkeys in Shaanxi province were collected and examined using Sheater’s sugar flotation technique and by sequencing the fragments of 18S rDNA. Only two Cyclospora isolates from 2 golden snub-nosed monkeys (R. roxellanae) were obtained and identified between July 2011 and August of 2012. The sequences of the 18S rDNA for the two Cyclospora isolates were 477 bp, with no nucleotide variation between them. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the two Cyclospora isolates were posited into the clade Cyclospora spp. and sistered to C. colobi. These results first showed that Cyclospora infection occurred in R. roxellanae in hot and rainy weather, which would provide useful information for further understanding the molecular epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. and the control of Cyclospora infection in non-human primates as well as in human beings.
Despite the wide range of available colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests, less than 50% of cases are detected at early stages. However, the identification of differentially expressed proteins or novel protein biomarkers in CRC may have some utility and, ultimately, improve patient care and survival. Proteomics combined with mass spectroscopy and liquid chromatography are emerging as powerful tools that have led to the discovery of potential markers in cancer biomarker discovery in several types of cancers. This article describes a novel technology that uses isotopic reagents to tag selected proteins that show a consistent pattern of differential expression in CRC.
To identify and validate potential biomarkers of colorectal adenocarcinoma using a proteomic approach.
Multidimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze biological samples labelled with isobaric mass tags for relative and absolute quantitation to identify differentially expressed proteins in human colorectal adenocarcinoma and paired normal mucosa for the discovery of cancerous biomarkers. Cancerous and noncancerous samples were compared using online and offline separation. Protein identification was performed using mass spectrometry. The downregulation of gelsolin protein in colorectal adenocarcinoma samples was confirmed by Western blot analysis and validated using immunohistochemistry.
A total of 802 nonredundant proteins were identified in colorectal adenocarcinoma samples, 82 of which fell outside the expression range of 0.8 to 1.2, and were considered to be potential cancer-specific proteins. Immunohistochemistry revealed a complete absence of gelsolin expression in 86.89% of samples and a reduction of expression in 13.11% of samples, yielding a sensitivity of 86.89% and a specificity of 100% for distinguishing colorectal adenocarcinoma from normal tissue.
These findings suggest that decreased expression of gelsolin is a potential biomarker of colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Biomarker; Colorectal cancer; Gelsolin; Proteomic
Thioesterases remove the fatty acyl moiety from the fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), releasing them as free fatty acids (FFAs), which can be further used to produce a variety of fatty acid-based biofuels, such as biodiesel, fatty alcohols and alkanes. Thioesterases play a key role in the regulation of the fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Therefore, exploring more promising thioesterases will contribute to the development of industrial microbial lipids production.
We cloned and expressed a cytosolic Acinetobacter baylyi thioesterase (‘AcTesA) in E. coli by deleting its leader sequence. Protein sequence alignment, structure modeling and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Ser10, Gly48, Asn77, Asp158 and His161 residues composed the active centre of ‘AcTesA. The engineered strain that overexpressed ‘AcTesA achieved a FFAs titer of up to 501.2 mg/L in shake flask, in contrast to only 20.5 mg/L obtained in wild-type E. coli, demonstrating that the expression of ‘AcTesA indeed boosted the synthesis of FFAs. The ‘AcTesA exhibited a substrate preference towards the C8-C16 acyl groups, with C14:0, C16:1, C12:0 and C8:0 FFAs being the top four components. Optimization of expression level of ‘AcTesA made the FFAs production increase to 551.3 mg/L. The FFAs production further increased to 716.1 mg/L by optimization of the culture medium. Fed-batch fermentation was also carried out to evaluate the FFAs production in a scaleable process. Finally, 3.6 g/L FFAs were accumulated within 48 h, and a maximal FFAs yield of 6.1% was achieved in 12–16 h post induction.
For the first time, an A. baylyi thioesterase was cloned and solubly expressed in the cytosol of E. coli. This leaderless thioesterase (‘AcTesA) was found to be capable of enhancing the FFAs production of E. coli. Without detailed optimization of the strain and fermentation, the finally achieved 3.6 g/L FFAs is encouraging. In addition, ‘AcTesA exhibited different substrate specificity from other thioesterases previously reported, and can be used to supply the fatty acid-based biofuels with high quality of FFAs. Altogether, this study provides a promising thioesterase for FFAs production, and is of great importance in enriching the library of useful thioesterases.
Thioesterase; Acinetobacter baylyi; Escherichia coli; Free fatty acid; Substrate specificity; Active-site residues
Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, identification of biomarkers for early detection of CRC represents a relevant target. The present study aims to determine serum peptidome patterns for CRC diagnosis.
Methods. The present work focused on serum proteomic analysis of 32 health volunteers and 38 CRC by ClinProt Kit combined with mass spectrometry. This approach allowed the construction of a peptide patterns able to differentiate the studied populations. An independent group of serum (including 33 health volunteers, 34 CRC, 16 colorectal adenoma, 36 esophageal carcinoma, and 31 gastric carcinoma samples) was used to verify the diagnostic and differential diagnostic capability of the peptidome patterns blindly. An immunoassay method was used to determine serum CEA of CRC and controls. Results. A quick classifier algorithm was used to construct the peptidome patterns for identification of CRC from controls. Two of the identified peaks at m/z 741 and 7772 were used to construct peptidome patterns, achieving an accuracy close to 100% (>CEA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the peptidome patterns could differentiate validation group with high accuracy.
Conclusions. These results suggest that the ClinProt Kit combined with mass spectrometry yields significantly higher accuracy for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CRC.
AIM: To determine the prognostic value of lymphatic and/or blood vessel invasion (LBVI) in patients with stage II gastric cancer.
METHODS: From January 2001 to December 2006, 487 patients with histologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma were diagnosed with stage II gastric cancer according to the new 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer stage classification at the Department of Gastric Cancer and Soft Tissue Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. All patients underwent curative gastrectomy with standard lymph node (LN) dissection. Fifty-one patients who died in the postoperative period, due to various complications or other conditions, were excluded. Clinicopathological findings and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Patients were subdivided into four groups according to the status of LBVI and LN metastases. These four patient groups were characterized with regard to age, sex, tumor site, pT category, tumor grading and surgical procedure (subtotal resection vs total resection), and compared for 5-year overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: The study was composed of 320 men and 116 women aged 58.9 ± 11.5 years (range: 23-88 years). The 5-year overall survival rates were 50.7% and the median survival time was 62 mo. Stage IIa cancer was observed in 334 patients, including 268 T3N0, 63 T2N1, and three T1N2, and stage IIb was observed in 102 patients, including 49 patients T3N1, 51 T2N2, one T1N3, and one T4aN0. The incidence of LBVI was 28.0% in stage II gastric cancer with 19.0% (51/269) and 42.5% (71/167) in LN-negative and LN-positive patients, respectively. In 218 patients (50.0%), there was neither a histopathologically detectable LBVI nor LN metastases (LBVI−/LN−, group I); in 51 patients (11.7%), LBVI with no evidence of LN metastases was detected (LBVI+/LN−, group II). In 167 patients (38.3%), LN metastases were found. Among those patients, LBVI was not determined in 96 patients (22.0%) (LBVI−/LN+, group III), and was determined in 71 patients (16.3%) (LBVI+/LN+, group IV). Correlation analysis showed that N category and the number of positive LNs were significantly associated with the presence of LBVI (P < 0.001). The overall 5-year survival was significantly longer in LN-negative patients compared with LN-positive patients (56.1% vs 42.3%, P = 0.015). There was a significant difference in the overall 5-year survival between LBVI-positive and LBVI-negative tumors (39.6% vs 54.8%, P = 0.006). Overall 5-year survival rates in each group were 58.8% (I), 45.8% (II), 45.7% (III) and 36.9% (IV), and there was a significant difference in overall survival between the four groups (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis in stage II gastric cancer patients revealed that LBVI independently affected patient prognosis in LN-negative patients (P = 0.018) but not in LN-positive patients (P = 0.508).
CONCLUSION: In LN-negative stage II gastric cancer patients, LBVI is an additional independent prognostic marker, and may provide useful information to identify patients with poorer prognosis.
Stage II cancer; Gastric cancer; Lymphatic invasion; Blood vessel invasion; Prognosis
With the increasing stress from oil price and environmental pollution, aroused attention has been paid to the microbial production of chemicals from renewable sources. The C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols are important feedstocks for the production of surfactants and detergents, which are widely used in the most respected consumer detergents, cleaning products and personal care products worldwide. Though bioproduction of fatty alcohols has been carried out in engineered E. coli, several key problems have not been solved in earlier studies, such as the quite low production of C16/18 alcohol, the lack of optimization of the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, and the uncharacterized performance of the engineered strains in scaled-up system.
We improved the fatty alcohol production by systematically optimizing the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, mainly targeting three key steps from fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) to fatty alcohols, which are sequentially catalyzed by thioesterase, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase and fatty acyl-CoA reductase. By coexpression of thioesterase gene BTE, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene acr1, 210.1 mg/L C12/14 alcohol was obtained. A further optimization of expression level of BTE, fadD and acr1 increased the C12/14 alcohol production to 449.2 mg/L, accounting for 75.0% of the total fatty alcohol production (598.6 mg/L). In addition, by coexpression of thioesterase gene ‘tesA, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene FAR, 101.5 mg/L C16/18 alcohol was obtained, with C16/18 alcohol accounting for 89.2% of the total fatty alcohol production.
To our knowledge, this is the first report on selective production of C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols by microbial fermentation. This work achieved high-specificity production of both C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols. The encouraging 598.6 mg/L of fatty alcohols represents the highest titer reported so far. In addition, the 101.5 mg/L 89.2% C16/18 alcohol suggests an important breakthrough in C16/18 alcohol production. A more detailed optimization of the expression level of fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway may contribute to a further improvement of fatty alcohol production.
Fatty alcohol; Escherichia coli; Pathway optimization; Selective production; Fermentation
The depleting petroleum reserve, increasingly severe energy crisis, and global climate change are reigniting enthusiasm for seeking sustainable technologies to replace petroleum as a source of fuel and chemicals. In this paper, the efficiency of the MVA pathway on isoprene production has been improved as follows: firstly, in order to increase MVA production, the source of the “upper pathway” which contains HMG-CoA synthase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and HMG-CoA reductase to covert acetyl-CoA into MVA has been changed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Enterococcus faecalis; secondly, to further enhance the production of MVA and isoprene, a alanine 110 of the mvaS gene has been mutated to a glycine. The final genetic strain YJM25 containing the optimized MVA pathway and isoprene synthase from Populus alba can accumulate isoprene up to 6.3 g/L after 40 h of fed-batch cultivation.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and the
identification of biomarkers for the early detection of breast cancer is a
relevant target. The present study aims to determine serum peptidome patterns for
screening of breast cancer.
The present work focused on the serum proteomic analysis of 36 healthy volunteers
and 37 breast cancer patients using a ClinProt Kit combined with mass spectrometry
(MS). This approach allows the determination of peptidome patterns that are able
to differentiate the studied populations. An independent group of sera (36 healthy
volunteers and 37 breast cancer patients) was used to verify the diagnostic
capabilities of the peptidome patterns blindly. An immunoassay method was used to
determine the serum mucin 1 (CA15-3) of validation group samples.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) Algorithm was used to construct the peptidome
patterns for the identification of breast cancer from the healthy volunteers.
Three of the identified peaks at m/z 698, 720 and 1866 were used to construct the
peptidome patterns with 91.78% accuracy. Furthermore, the peptidome patterns could
differentiate the validation group achieving a sensitivity of 91.89% (34/37) and a
specitivity of 91.67% (33/36) (> CA 15–3,
P < 0.05).
These results suggest that the ClinProt Kit combined with MS shows great
potentiality for the diagnosis of breast cancer.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Breast neoplasms; Diagnosis; Proteomics; Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
The higher order chromatin structure has recently been revealed as a critical new layer of gene transcriptional control. Changes in higher order chromatin structures were shown to correlate with the availability of transcriptional factors and/or MAR (matrix attachment region) binding proteins, which tether genomic DNA to the nuclear matrix. How posttranslational modification to these protein organizers may affect higher order chromatin structure still pending experimental investigation. The type III histone deacetylase silent mating type information regulator 2, S. cerevisiae, homolog 1 (SIRT1) participates in many physiological processes through targeting both histone and transcriptional factors. We show that MAR binding protein SATB1, which mediates chromatin looping in cytokine, MHC-I and β-globin gene loci, as a new type of SIRT1 substrate. SIRT1 expression increased accompanying erythroid differentiation and the strengthening of β-globin cluster higher order chromatin structure, while knockdown of SIRT1 in erythroid k562 cells weakened the long-range interaction between two SATB1 binding sites in the β-globin locus, MARHS2 and MARε. We also show that SIRT1 activity significantly affects ε-globin gene expression in a SATB1-dependent manner and that knockdown of SIRT1 largely blocks ε-globin gene activation during erythroid differentiation. Our work proposes that SIRT1 orchestrates changes in higher order chromatin structure during erythropoiesis, and reveals the dynamic higher order chromatin structure regulation at posttranslational modification level.
Streptomyces lincolnensis is a producer of lincomycin, which is a lincosamide antibiotic for the treatment of infective diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria. S. lincolnensis is refractory to introducing plasmid DNA into cells because of resistance of foreign DNAs and poor sporulation. In this study, a simple and efficient method of transferring plasmids into S. lincolnensis through the intergeneric Escherichia coli-mycelia conjugation was established and optimized for the first time. The recipient mycelia of S. lincolnensis were prepared in liquid SM medium containing 10.3% sucrose for three days. The dispersed mycelia were conjugated with competent E. coli donor cells. The exconjugants were regenerated efficiently on solid mannitol soya flour (MS) medium containing 20 mM MgCl2. The average conjugation frequency was observed at 1.1 × 10−4 per input donor cell and validated functionally by transferring two types of vectors containing lincomycin resistance genes lmrA, lmrB and lmrC into S. lincolnensis mycelia. The data of fermentation in shaking flasks showed the lincomycin yield of the exconjugants increased by 52.9% for the multiple copy vector and 38.3% for the integrative one, compared with the parental strain. The efficient and convenient method of intergeneric E. coli-mycelia conjugation in this study provides a promising procedure to introduce plasmid DNA into other refractory streptomycetes.
Streptomyces lincolnensis; lincomycin; intergeneric conjugation; E. coli-mycelia conjugation; lmrABC
We show that a short mercury-specific aptamer (MSA) along with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) can be used to determine Hg(II) ion by a combination of a QCM-based sensor and a flow system. The MSA binds specifically to Hg(II), and the Au-NPs can amplify the signal to enhance sensitivity. Specifically, the short thiolated MSAs are immobilized on the surface of the QCM as the capture probe, and the MSAs are linked to the Au-NPs as the linking probe. The two components can form a sandwich structure of the T-Hg(II)-T type in the presence of Hg(II) ions. This leads to change in the mass on the QCM and a change in the resonance frequency. Hg(II) can be determined with a detection limit of 0.24 ± 0.06 nM which is better by three orders of magnitude than previous methods. The sensor can be regenerated by disrupting the T-Hg(II)-T base pairs with a solution of cysteine.
mercury ion; aptamer; gold nanoparticle; quartz crystal microbalance; flow system
In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Apis cerana, the Asiatic cavity-nesting honeybee. We present here an analysis of features of its gene content and genome organization in comparison with Apis mellifera to assess the variation within the genus Apis and among main groups of Hymenoptera. The size of the entire mt genome of A. cerana is 15,895 bp, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. These genes are transcribed from both strands and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 83.96% for A. cerana. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. There are a total of 3672 codons in all 13 protein-coding genes, excluding termination codons. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.52%), followed by Ile (12.85%), Phe (10.10%), Ser (9.15%) and Met (8.96%). Intergenic regions in the mt genome of A. cerana are 705 bp in total. The order and orientation of the gene arrangement pattern is identical to that of A. mellifera, except for the position of the tRNA-Ser(AGN) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (NJ, MP and ML), all revealed two distinct groups with high statistical support, indicating that A. cerana and A. mellifera are two separate species, consistent with results of previous morphological and molecular studies. The complete mtDNA sequence of A. cerana provides additional genetic markers for studying population genetics, systematics and phylogeographics of honeybees.
Stanniocalcin-1(STC-1) is up-regulated in several cancers including gastric cancer. Evidences suggest that STC-1 is associated with carcinogenesis and angiogenic process. However, it is unclear on the exact role for STC-1 in inducing angiogenesis and tumorigeneisis.
BGC/STC cells (high-expression of STC-1) and BGC/shSTC cells (low- expression of STC-1) were constructed to investigate the effect of STC-1 on the xenograft tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. ELISA assay was used to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the supernatants. Neutralizing antibody was used to inhibit VEGF expression in supernatants. The expression of phosphorylated -PKCβII, phosphorylated -ERK1/2 and phosphorylated -P38 in the BGC treated with STC-1protein was detected by western blot.
STC-1 could promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and the angiogenesis was consistent with VEGF expression in vitro. Inhibition of VEGF expression in supernatants with neutralizing antibody markedly abolished angiogenesis induced by STC-1 in vitro. The process of STC-1-regulated VEGF expression was mediated via PKCβII and ERK1/2.
STC-1 promotes the expression of VEGF depended on the activation of PKCβII and ERK1/2 pathways. VEGF subsequently enhances tumor angiogenesis which in turn promotes the gastric tumor growth.
STC-1; angiogenesis; VEGF; PKCβII; ERK1/2
Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China.
Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection.
The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province.
Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men) attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3 g kg−1day−1 of ethanol (20%, w/v) or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72 h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05). Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05). Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01). Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan). Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05). In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05). These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system.
In the zwitterionic molecule of the title compound, C10H7N3O4·H2O, one carboxyl group is deprotonated and the pyridine N atom is protonated. The pyridinium and imidazole rings form a dihedral angle of 5.23 (1)°. An intramolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the zwitterions and water molecules into sheets parallel to (102).