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1.  CBP and p300 acetylate PCNA to link its degradation with nucleotide excision repair synthesis 
Nucleic Acids Research  2014;42(13):8433-8448.
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein serves as a molecular platform recruiting and coordinating the activity of factors involved in multiple deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) transactions. To avoid dangerous genome instability, it is necessary to prevent excessive retention of PCNA on chromatin. Although PCNA functions during DNA replication appear to be regulated by different post-translational modifications, the mechanism regulating PCNA removal and degradation after nucleotide excision repair (NER) is unknown. Here we report that CREB-binding protein (CBP), and less efficiently p300, acetylated PCNA at lysine (Lys) residues Lys13,14,77 and 80, to promote removal of chromatin-bound PCNA and its degradation during NER. Mutation of these residues resulted in impaired DNA replication and repair, enhanced the sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, and prevented proteolytic degradation of PCNA after DNA damage. Depletion of both CBP and p300, or failure to load PCNA on DNA in NER deficient cells, prevented PCNA acetylation and degradation, while proteasome inhibition resulted in accumulation of acetylated PCNA. These results define a CBP and p300-dependent mechanism for PCNA acetylation after DNA damage, linking DNA repair synthesis with removal of chromatin-bound PCNA and its degradation, to ensure genome stability.
PMCID: PMC4117764  PMID: 24939902
2.  Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins Impair Endothelial Function by Inhibiting Non-Genomic Action of Thyroid Hormone–Mediated Nitric Oxide Production in Human Endothelial Cells 
Thyroid  2013;23(2):231-238.
Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in the modulation of cardiac function, including contractility and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of TH, induces the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase via PI3K/AKT non-genomic signaling. Hypothyroidism is associated with an increase in SVR and serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may impair endothelial-dependent vascular relaxation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of both native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL on T3-mediated AKT phosphorylation, nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production in human endothelial cells.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to either nLDL or oxLDL for 3 hours and then stimulated with T3 (10−7 M) or pretreated with an antioxidant mixture of vitamins E and C for 12 hours before treatment with LDL. An analysis of AKT phosphorylation was performed by Western blot, and NO production was evaluated by using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular production of cGMP was measured by enzymatic immunoassay. LDL oxidation was carried out by incubating LDL with CuSO4, and α-tocopherol content of LDL was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography.
OxLDL impaired T3-mediated AKT phosphorylation at serine 473 and significantly decreased the production of both NO (oxLDL+T3 vs. T3, 9.79±0.5 AU vs. 80.75±2.8 AU, mean±standard deviation, p<0.0001) and cGMP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the antioxidant mixture obviated the inhibitory effect of LDL on T3 action.
The results of this study demonstrate that oxLDL may contribute to a blunting of the non-genomic action of T3 and impair the effect of T3 on NO and cGMP production in endothelial cells. These data suggest that oxLDL, apart from inducing the atherosclerotic process, may also promote a mechanism of peripheral resistance to T3, further amplifying the impact of hypothyroidism on endothelial function by increasing SVR.
PMCID: PMC3569959  PMID: 23072587
3.  Histone Methyltransferase DOT1L Drives Recovery of Gene Expression after a Genotoxic Attack 
PLoS Genetics  2013;9(7):e1003611.
UV-induced DNA damage causes repression of RNA synthesis. Following the removal of DNA lesions, transcription recovery operates through a process that is not understood yet. Here we show that knocking-out of the histone methyltransferase DOT1L in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFDOT1L) leads to a UV hypersensitivity coupled to a deficient recovery of transcription initiation after UV irradiation. However, DOT1L is not implicated in the removal of the UV-induced DNA damage by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Using FRAP and ChIP experiments we established that DOT1L promotes the formation of the pre-initiation complex on the promoters of UV-repressed genes and the appearance of transcriptionally active chromatin marks. Treatment with Trichostatin A, relaxing chromatin, recovers both transcription initiation and UV-survival. Our data suggest that DOT1L secures an open chromatin structure in order to reactivate RNA Pol II transcription initiation after a genotoxic attack.
Author Summary
Through the deformation of the genomic DNA structure, UV-induced DNA lesions have repressive effect on various nuclear processes including replication and transcription. As a matter of fact, the removal of these lesions is a priority for the cell and takes place at the expense of fundamental cellular processes that are paused to circumvent the risks of mutations that may lead to cancer. The molecular mechanism underlying transcription inhibition and recovery is not clearly understood and appears more complicated than anticipated. Here we analyzed the process of transcription recovery after UV-irradiation and found that it depends on DOT1L, a histone methyltransferase that promotes the reformation of the transcription machinery at the promoters of UV-repressed genes. Our discovery shows that transcription recovery after a genotoxic attack is an active process under the control of chromatin remodelling enzymes.
PMCID: PMC3701700  PMID: 23861670
4.  Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 correlate with histological grade in breast cancer patients 
Oncology Letters  2012;5(1):316-320.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes involved in the process of tumor invasion and metastasis that are found throughout tissues and also in the plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the evaluation of plasma concentrations of MMPs 2, 3 and 9 may have clinical significance in breast cancer. Therefore, sera obtained from 80 patients with breast neoplasia (50 carcinomas and 30 fibroadenomas) were collected before and 96 h after surgery and the concentrations of MMPs 2, 3 and 9 were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean expression level of MMP 2 was significantly higher in carcinoma compared with that in fibroadenoma patients, while there was no significant difference for MMPs 3 and 9. In addition, the group of carcinoma patients was analyzed in order to compare the mean values for each MMP obtained before and after surgery. However, the differences between pre- and post-surgery values for all three MMPs were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the plasma levels of each MMP were correlated with certain clinicopathological parameters of the tumors and we observed a significant and direct correlation between the concentrations of MMPs 2 and 9 and tumor histological grade. These data suggest that the quantification of plasma MMP 2 and MMP 9 levels may provide additional clinical information of the tumor and it is, therefore, a possible prognostic index for breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3525480  PMID: 23255941
matrix metalloproteinase; breast cancer; plasma markers; tumor grade; histological grade
5.  Cloning the human and mouse MMS19 genes and functional complementation of a yeast mms19 deletion mutant 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(9):1884-1891.
The MMS19 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a polypeptide of unknown function which is required for both nucleotide excision repair (NER) and RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription. Here we report the molecular cloning of human and mouse orthologs of the yeast MMS19 gene. Both human and Drosophila MMS19 cDNAs correct thermosensitive growth and sensitivity to killing by UV radiation in a yeast mutant deleted for the MMS19 gene, indicating functional conservation between the yeast and mammalian gene products. Alignment of the translated sequences of MMS19 from multiple eukaryotes, including mouse and human, revealed the presence of several conserved regions, including a HEAT repeat domain near the C-terminus. The presence of HEAT repeats, coupled with functional complementation of yeast mutant phenotypes by the orthologous protein from higher eukaryotes, suggests a role of Mms19 protein in the assembly of a multiprotein complex(es) required for NER and RNAP II transcription. Both the mouse and human genes are ubiquitously expressed as multiple transcripts, some of which appear to derive from alternative splicing. The ratio of different transcripts varies in several different tissue types.
PMCID: PMC37259  PMID: 11328871
6.  Relationship of the Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group E DNA Repair Defect to the Chromatin and DNA Binding Proteins UV-DDB and Replication Protein A 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1998;18(6):3182-3190.
Cells from complementation groups A through G of the heritable sun-sensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) show defects in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. Proteins representing groups A, B, C, D, F, and G are subunits of the core recognition and incision machinery of repair. XP group E (XP-E) is the mildest form of the disorder, and cells generally show about 50% of the normal repair level. We investigated two protein factors previously implicated in the XP-E defect, UV-damaged DNA binding protein (UV-DDB) and replication protein A (RPA). Three newly identified XP-E cell lines (XP23PV, XP25PV, and a line formerly classified as an XP variant) were defective in UV-DDB binding activity but had levels of RPA in the normal range. The XP-E cell extracts did not display a significant nucleotide excision repair defect in vitro, with either UV-irradiated DNA or a uniquely placed cisplatin lesion used as a substrate. Purified UV-DDB protein did not stimulate repair of naked DNA by DDB− XP-E cell extracts, but microinjection of the protein into DDB− XP-E cells could partially correct the repair defect. RPA stimulated repair in normal, XP-E, or complemented extracts from other XP groups, and so the effect of RPA was not specific for XP-E cell extracts. These data strengthen the connection between XP-E and UV-DDB. Coupled with previous results, the findings suggest that UV-DDB has a role in the repair of DNA in chromatin.
PMCID: PMC108900  PMID: 9584159

Results 1-6 (6)