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1.  The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus) 
Ming, Ray | Hou, Shaobin | Feng, Yun | Yu, Qingyi | Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre | Saw, Jimmy H. | Senin, Pavel | Wang, Wei | Ly, Benjamin V. | Lewis, Kanako L. T. | Salzberg, Steven L. | Feng, Lu | Jones, Meghan R. | Skelton, Rachel L. | Murray, Jan E. | Chen, Cuixia | Qian, Wubin | Shen, Junguo | Du, Peng | Eustice, Moriah | Tong, Eric | Tang, Haibao | Lyons, Eric | Paull, Robert E. | Michael, Todd P. | Wall, Kerr | Rice, Danny W. | Albert, Henrik | Wang, Ming-Li | Zhu, Yun J. | Schatz, Michael | Nagarajan, Niranjan | Acob, Ricelle A. | Guan, Peizhu | Blas, Andrea | Wai, Ching Man | Ackerman, Christine M. | Ren, Yan | Liu, Chao | Wang, Jianmei | Wang, Jianping | Na, Jong-Kuk | Shakirov, Eugene V. | Haas, Brian | Thimmapuram, Jyothi | Nelson, David | Wang, Xiyin | Bowers, John E. | Gschwend, Andrea R. | Delcher, Arthur L. | Singh, Ratnesh | Suzuki, Jon Y. | Tripathi, Savarni | Neupane, Kabi | Wei, Hairong | Irikura, Beth | Paidi, Maya | Jiang, Ning | Zhang, Wenli | Presting, Gernot | Windsor, Aaron | Navajas-Pérez, Rafael | Torres, Manuel J. | Feltus, F. Alex | Porter, Brad | Li, Yingjun | Burroughs, A. Max | Luo, Ming-Cheng | Liu, Lei | Christopher, David A. | Mount, Stephen M. | Moore, Paul H. | Sugimura, Tak | Jiang, Jiming | Schuler, Mary A. | Friedman, Vikki | Mitchell-Olds, Thomas | Shippen, Dorothy E. | dePamphilis, Claude W. | Palmer, Jeffrey D. | Freeling, Michael | Paterson, Andrew H. | Gonsalves, Dennis | Wang, Lei | Alam, Maqsudul
Nature  2008;452(7190):991-996.
Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.
doi:10.1038/nature06856
PMCID: PMC2836516  PMID: 18432245
2.  Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia 
Biology Direct  2008;3:26.
Background
The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia.
Results
We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum) is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely acidic conditions including a major upward shift in the isoelectric points of proteins.
Conclusion
The results of genome analysis of M. infernorum support the monophyly of the PVC superphylum. M. infernorum possesses a streamlined genome but seems to have acquired numerous genes including those for enzymes of methylotrophic pathways via horizontal gene transfer, in particular, from Proteobacteria.
Reviewers
This article was reviewed by John A. Fuerst, Ludmila Chistoserdova, and Radhey S. Gupta.
doi:10.1186/1745-6150-3-26
PMCID: PMC2474590  PMID: 18593465

Results 1-2 (2)