Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in many types of tumors, while many hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display high resistance to TRAIL. Another outstanding limitation of TRAIL is the short half-life in vivo. Stem cell-based therapies provide a promising approach for the treatment of many types of tumors because of the ability of tropism. Therefore, as a new therapeutic strategy, the combination of chemotherapeutic agents and TRAIL gene modified MSCs (TRAIL-MSCs) would improve the therapeutic efficacy of HCC in vivo. This is the first time to show the potential of combination of chemotherapeutic agents and MSCs as a gene vector in the therapy of HCC.
TRAIL; bioluminescence imaging; cisplatin; hepatocellular carcinoma; lentiviral; mesenchymal stem cells; synergistic effect
Gadd45a, the first well-defined p53 downstream gene, can be induced by multiple DNA-damaging agents, which plays important roles in the control of cell cycle checkpoint, DNA repair process and signaling transduction. Our previous findings suggested that Gadd45a maintains cell-cell adhesion and cell contact inhibition. However, little is known about how Gadd45a participates in the suppression of malignancy in human cancer cells. To examine the functions of Gadd45a in cell invasion and metastasis, we performed the adhesion, wound-healing and transwell assays in Gadd45a+/+ and Gadd45a−/− MEF cell lines. We found the adhesion, migration and invasive abilities were much higher in Gadd45a deficient cells. We furthermore applied high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis and bioinformatics analysis to analyze the mechanisms of Gadd45a gene in invasion and metastasis. Compared with the Gadd45a wild type cells, the Gadd45a deficient cells showed a wide range of transcripts alterations. The altered gene pathways were predicted by the MAS software, which indicated focal adhesion,cell communication,ECM-receptor interaction as the three main pathways. Real-time PCR was employed to validate the differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, we figured out that the deregulations of these genes are caused neither by genomic aberrations nor methylation status. These findings provided a novel insight that Gadd45a may involve in tumor progression by regulating related genes expressions.
Gadd45a; adhesion; migration; invasion; microarray; methylation
Natural killer (NK) cells can kill tumor cells in a non-MHC-restricted manner. However, cancer cells frequently escape from the attack of NK cells by multiple ways. In this study, we investigated the effect of gefitinib on the interaction between NK cells and lung cancer cells.
51Cr release assay, CD107a assay, and IFN-γ secretion assay were performed to detect the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1975 to NK cells cytotoxicity in the presence of gefitinib. Human NK cells were co-cultured with A549 and H1975 cell lines in the presence of gefitinib. NKG2D ligands, ULBP1, ULBP2, MICA, and MHC-I on tumor cells, and NKG2D, NKp44 and NKp46 on NK cells were evaluated with flow cytometry. 51Cr release assay was performed when NKG2D antibody were added into the co-culture system. Expressions of stat3 and LC3 I/II on tumor cells were determined with western blot after co-cultured with NK cells. After treated with gefitinib, mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR) on H1975 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. 51Cr release assay were performed when MPR antagonist were used.
Gefitinib increased cytotoxicity of NK cells to human lung cancer H1975 cells with EGFR L858R + T790M mutations, while not in A549 cells with wild type EGFR. Gefitinib could block the immune escape by up-regulating the expression of NKG2D ligands ULBP1, ULBP2 or MICA on tumor cells and NKG2D on NK cells in the co-culture system. Gefitinib and NK cells up-regulated MHC-I expression in A549 while not in H1975 cells. NKG2D antibody blocked the enhanced NK cytotoxicity by gefitinib. The combination of NK cells and gefitinib could significantly down-regulate stat3 expression. Furthermore, NK cells-mediated tumor cell autophagy was observed in A549 cells while not in H1975 cells. Notably, gefitinib increased autophagy and MPR expression in H1975 cells, which improved the sensitivity to NK cell-based immunotherapy.
Gefitinib greatly enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells with EGFR L858R + T790M resistance mutation. Combination of EGFR tyrokinase inhibitors and NK cells adoptive immunotherapy may represent a potentially effective strategy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Gefitinib; Natural killer cells; Immunotherapy; EGFR; NSCLC
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), inducing and accelerating dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss. Autophagy, a critical mechanism for clearing misfolded or aggregated proteins such as α-synuclein (α-SYN), may affect DA neuron survival in the midbrain. However, whether autophagy contributes to neuroinflammation-induced toxicity in DA neurons remains unknown.
Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg) into young (3-month-old) and aged (16-month-old) male C57BL/6J mice was observed to cause persistent neuroinflammation that was associated with a delayed and progressive loss of DA neurons and accumulation of α-SYN in the midbrain. The autophagic substrate-p62 (SQSTM1) persistently increased, whereas LC3-II and HDAC6 exhibited early increases followed by a decline. In vitro studies further demonstrated that TNF-α induced cell death in PC12 cells. Moreover, a sublethal dose of TNF-α (50 ng/ml) increased the expression of LC3-II, p62, and α-SYN, implying that TNF-α triggered autophagic impairment in cells.
Neuroinflammation may cause autophagic impairment, which could in turn result in DA neuron degeneration in midbrain.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from many sources, including adults and fetuses. Previous studies have demonstrated that, compared with their adult counterpart, fetal MSCs with several remarkable advantages may be a better resource for clinical applications. In this study, we successfully isolated a rapidly proliferating cell population from limb bud of aborted fetus and termed them “human limb bud–derived mesenchymal stem cells” (hLB-MSCs). Characteristics of their morphology, phenotype, cell cycle, and differentiation properties were analyzed. These adherent cell populations have a typically spindle-shaped morphology. Flow cytometry analysis showed that hLB-MSCs are positive for CD13, CD29, CD90, CD105, and CD106, but negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD34, CD45, CD45RA, and HLA-DR. The detection of cell cycle from different passages indicated that hLB-MSCs have a similar potential for propagation during long culture in vitro. The most novel finding here is that, in addition to their mesodermal differentiation (osteoblasts and adipocytes), hLB-MSCs can also differentiated into extramesenchymal lineages, such as neural (ectoderm) and hepatic (endoderm) progenies. These results indicate that hLB-MSCs have a high level of plasticity and can differentiate into cell lineages from all three embryonic layers in vitro.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is mediated by the activation of recipient dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequent proliferation of donor T cells. Recently complement system has been shown to modulate adaptive immunity through the interaction between the complement system and lymphocytes. Complement proteins participate in the activation of DCs, antigen presentation to T cells, and proliferation of T cells. Our studies with a murine model of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) demonstrate that complement system regulates alloimmune responses in GVHD. Mice deficient in the central component of the complement system (C3−/−) had significantly lower GVHD-related mortality and morbidity compared to the wild type (WT) recipient mice. The number of donor-derived T cells including IFNγ+, IL17+ and IL17+IFNγ+ subsets was decreased in secondary lymphoid organs of C3−/− recipients. Furthermore, there was a reduction of recipient CD8α+CD11c+ in lymphoid organs. We conclude C3 regulates Th1/17 differentiation in BMT, and define a novel function of the complement system in GVHD.
Npro is a multifunctional autoprotease unique to pestiviruses. The interacting partners of the Npro protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), a swine pestivirus, have been insufficiently defined. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) as a novel interacting partner of the CSFV Npro protein and confirmed this by coimmunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown, and confocal assays. Knockdown of PCBP1 by small interfering RNA suppressed CSFV growth, while overexpression of PCBP1 promoted CSFV growth. Furthermore, we showed that type I interferon was downregulated by PCBP1, as well as Npro. Our results suggest that cellular PCBP1 positively modulates CSFV growth.
Astrovirus; diarrhea; China; children; viruses; enteric infections
Considering the fact that iRGD (tumor-homing peptide) demonstrates tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating activity, and that B16-F10 (murine melanoma) cells overexpress both αv integrin receptor and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), the purpose of this study was to prepare a novel doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded, iRGD-modified, sterically-stabilized liposome (SSL) (iRGD-SSL-DOX) in order to evaluate its antitumor activity on B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The iRGD-SSL-DOX was prepared using a thin-film hydration method. The characteristics of iRGD-SSL-DOX were evaluated. The in vitro leakage of DOX from iRGD-SSL-DOX was tested. The in vitro tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating characteristics of iRGD-modified liposomes on B16-F10 cells were investigated. The in vivo tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating activities of iRGD-modified liposomes were performed in B16-F10 tumor-bearing nude mice. The antitumor effect of iRGD-SSL-DOX was evaluated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice in vivo. The average particle size of the iRGD-SSL-DOX was found to be 91 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.16. The entrapment efficiency of iRGD-SSL-DOX was 98.36%. The leakage of DOX from iRGD-SSL-DOX at the 24-hour time point was only 7.5%. The results obtained from the in vitro flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, as well as in vivo biodistribution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, indicate that the tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating activity of the iRGD-modified SSL was higher than that of unmodified SSL. In vivo antitumor activity results showed that the antitumor effect of iRGD-SSL-DOX against melanoma tumors was higher than that of SSL-DOX in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, the iRGD-SSL-DOX is a tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating peptide modified liposome which has significant antitumor activity against melanoma tumors.
tumor-targeting and tumor-penetrating; integrin receptor; NRP-1; iRGD; liposome; doxorubicin
Purpose. MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulated expression of target gene and implicate the progress of cancer proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether microRNA-21 (miR-21), a specific microRNA implicated in multiple aspects of carcinogenesis, promoted breast cancer metastasis by regulating the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) gene. Methods. miR-21 of serum and tissue from 40 patients (30 patients with breast cancer) were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). TIMP-3 of tissue from the patient was tested by real-time RT-qPCR. Protein expression of TIMP-3 was evaluated by western blotting. Correlation analysis was performed between miR-21 and TIMP-3. Results. Of the 40 samples from tissue and serum analyzed, the miR-21 expression was significantly higher in high invasion metastasis group (HIMG) that in low invasion metastasis group (LIMG); the latter was higher than that in normal group (NG). Additionally, the TIMP-3 expression was significantly lower in HIMG than in LIMG; the latter was lower than that in NG. There was significantly inverse correlation between miR-21 and TIMP-3 extracted from tissue. Conclusion. Our data suggest that miR-21 could promote metastasis in breast cancer via the regulation of TIMP3 translation, and there was consistency between miR-21 of serum and miR-21 in tissue.
The in vitro isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are necessary for understanding their properties and function; however, the preparation of high-quality single-cell suspensions from adult pancreas is prerequisite. In this study, we applied a cold trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestion method to disassociate adult mouse pancreata into single cells. The yield of single cells and the viability of the harvested cells were much higher than those obtained via the two commonly used warm digestion methods. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the ratio of ductal or BCRP1-positive cells in cell suspensions prepared through cold digestion was consistent with that found in vivo. Cell culture tests showed that pancreatic epithelial cells prepared by cold digestion maintained proliferative capacity comparable to those derived from warm collagenase digestion. These results indicate that cold trypsin-EDTA digestion can effectively disassociate an adult mouse pancreas into viable single cells with minimal cell loss, and can be used for the isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells.
Mouse; Pancreas; Disassociation; Single cells; Viability; Cold digestion
The present study examined the neural mechanisms of attention modulation on timing using ERP and sLORETA measurements in a dual-task paradigm. We parametrically varied the attention to the durations of a 1000-Hz pure tone and further localized the cortical regions that were sensitive to the attention modulation on timing. Results demonstrated that the attention modulation might happen at early stage, approximately 200 ms after stimulus presentation. The P2 component at frontal area served as an early neural correlate of attention effects on timing. More importantly, the contingent negative variation (CNV) appeared at fronto-central area was sensitive to the attention effect. In addition, the supplementary motor area (SMA) was assumed to be one of the key regions for selectively attending to and estimating time. These findings provide temporal and spatial correlates of attention-modulated time processing and potentially help to investigate the neural mechanisms of patients with time perception deficits.
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic virus that produces neuropsychiatric dysfunction in a wide range of warm-blooded species. Several studies have associated BDV with human psychiatric illness, but the findings remain controversial. Although oligodendrocytes are a major glial component of brain white matter and play a pivotal role in neuronal cell function, BDV's effects on human oligodendrocytes have not been clarified. Here, the effects of two BDV strains, Hu-H1 (isolated from a bipolar patient) and Strain V (a laboratory strain), on the proliferation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes were investigated. Three experimental cell lines were constructed: Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglioma (Hu-H1) cells, Strain V-infected oligodendroglioma (Strain V) cells, and non-infected oligodendroglioma (control) cells. BDV infection was assayed by BDV nucleoprotein (p40) immunofluorescence, cell proliferation was assayed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), and cell cycle phases and apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometry. Expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blotting. p40 expression was confirmed in Hu-H1 and Strain V on and after day three post-infection. Strain V cells showed significantly greater cellular proliferation than Hu-H1 cells on and after day three post-infection. In Hu-H1 cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In contrast, in Strain V cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In conclusion, Hu-H1 inhibits cellular proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation. In contrast, Strain V promotes cellular proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax downregulation and Bcl-2 upregulation. The effects of the Hu-H1 strain (isolated from a bipolar patient) are opposite from those of Strain V (a laboratory strain), thereby providing a proof of authenticity for both.
The effective treatment for pancreatic carcinoma remains critically needed. Herein, this current study showed that spiclomazine treatment caused a reduction in viability in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines CFPAC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 in vitro. It was notable in this regard that, compared with pancreatic carcinoma cells, normal human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver (HL-7702) cells were more resistant to the antigrowth effect of spiclomazine. Biochemically, spiclomazine treatment regulated the expression of protein levels in the apoptosis related pathways. Consistent with this effect, spiclomazine reduced the mitochondria membrane potential, elevated reactive oxygen species, and activated caspase-3/9. In addition, a key finding from this study was that spiclomazine suppressed migration and invasion of cancer cells through down-regulation of MMP-2/9. Collectively, the proposed studies did shed light on the antiproliferation effect of spiclomazine on pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, and further clarified the mechanisms that spiclomazine induced apoptosis associated with the suppression of migration and invasion.
MiR-145 is known as a tumor suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, its role in tumor angiogenesis remains poorly defined. In this study, we found that miR-145 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues by using 106 cases of normal and cancer tissues as well as in breast cancer cells. MiR-145 exhibited inhibitory role in tumor angiogenesis, cell growth and invasion and tumor growth through the post-transcriptional regulation of the novel targets N-RAS and VEGF-A. In addition, we provide evidence that the expression levels of miR-145 correlate inversely with malignancy stages of breast tumors, although there is no association between miR-145 levels and hormone receptor levels in breast cancer. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-145 plays important inhibitory role in breast cancer malignancy by targeting N-RAS and VEGF-A, which may be potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets.
angiogenesis; breast cancer; miR-145; N-RAS; VEGF-A
Ankyrin repeat domain 12 (ANKRD12), is encoding a 224 kDa nuclear protein and most conserved at its N-terminal ankyrin repeats region and the C-terminal co-activator interacting domain. The aim of this study was to investigate the ANKRD12 mRNA expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor tissues and the normal adjacent mucosa and its potential relevance to clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis.
Surgical specimens of tumor tissues (n = 68) and adjacent normal mucosa (n = 51) were obtained from CRC patients. The ANKRD12 mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between ANKRD12 mRNA expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed by appropriate statistics. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlation between ANKRD12 expression and prognosis of CRC patients.
The relative mRNA expression of ANKRD12 were significantly lower in CRC tumor tissues than in the normal adjacent mucosa (P < 0.001), and the cases with low ANKRD12 expression showed a higher frequency of liver metastasis (P = 0.015). Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that patients (CRC without liver metastasis) with low ANKRD12 expression had poor overall survival (P = 0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that low ANKRD12 expression was an independent predictor of overall survival.
This study revealed that ANKRD12 mRNA were down regulated in CRC tumor tissues and low ANKRD12 expression was correlated with liver metastasis and poor survival of CRC patients.
Ankyrin repeat domain 12 (ANKRD12); Colorectal cancer; Metastasis; Prognostic factor
Brain pericytes play a critical role in blood vessel stability and blood–brain barrier maturation. Despite this, how brain pericytes function in these different capacities is only beginning to be understood. Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor Foxc1 is expressed by brain pericytes during development and is critical for pericyte regulation of vascular development in the fetal brain. Conditional deletion of Foxc1 from pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells leads to late-gestation cerebral micro-hemorrhages as well as pericyte and endothelial cell hyperplasia due to increased proliferation of both cell types. Conditional Foxc1 mutants do not have widespread defects in BBB maturation, though focal breakdown of BBB integrity is observed in large, dysplastic vessels. qPCR profiling of brain microvessels isolated from conditional mutants showed alterations in pericyte-expressed proteoglycans while other genes previously implicated in pericyte–endothelial cell interactions were unchanged. Collectively these data point towards an important role for Foxc1 in certain brain pericyte functions (e.g. vessel morphogenesis) but not others (e.g. barriergenesis).
Angiogenesis; Blood brain barrier; foxc1; Neurovascular development; Pericyte
Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease.
Background and Aims
Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) can protect against intestinal injury and tumor formation, but how this probiotic yeast controls protective mucosal host responses is unclear. Angiogenesis is an integral process of inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and required for mucosal remodeling during restitution. The aim of this study was to determine whether Sb alters VEGFR (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) signaling, a central regulator of angiogenesis.
HUVEC were used to examine the effects of Sb on signaling and on capillary tube formation (using the ECMatrix™ system). The effects of Sb on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis were examined in vivo using an adenovirus expressing VEGF-A(164) in the ears of adult nude mice (NuNu). The effects of Sb on blood vessel volume branching and density in DSS-induced colitis was quantified using VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) software.
1) Sb treatment attenuated weight-loss (p<0.01) and histological damage (p<0.01) in DSS colitis. VESGEN analysis of angiogenesis showed significantly increased blood vessel density and volume in DSS-treated mice compared to control. Sb treatment significantly reduced the neo-vascularization associated with acute DSS colitis and accelerated mucosal recovery restoration of the lamina propria capillary network to a normal morphology. 2) Sb inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the mouse ear model. 3) Sb also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro in the capillary tube assay in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). 4) In HUVEC, Sb reduced basal VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in response to VEGF as well as activation of the downstream kinases PLCγ and Erk1/2.
Our findings indicate that the probiotic yeast S boulardii can modulate angiogenesis to limit intestinal inflammation and promote mucosal tissue repair by regulating VEGFR signaling.
Persistently increasing incident of cancer in human beings has served to emphasize the importance of studies on mechanism of antitumor substances. Chlorogenic acid (CA), extracted from folium cortex eucommiae, has been confirmed to have lots of biological activities encompassing inhibition of tumor. However, the anticancer mechanism of CA remains unclear. Here, we have utilized a whole mouse genome oligo microarray (4∗44K) to analyze gene expression level of female BALB/c mice (implanted with EMT-6 sarcoma cells) after treatment with low, medium, and high-dose CA (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg), docetaxel, interferon, and normal saline separately at 6 time points (3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th days after administration). Differentially expressed genes screened out by time-series analysis, GO analysis, and pathway analysis, and four immune-related genes were selected for further confirmation using RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that CA is able to change gene expression and that the responsive genes (CaN, NFATC2, NFATC2ip, and NFATC3) involved in immune pathways had been significantly upregulated by CA. Expression of immune factors such as IL-2R and IFN-γ can be improved by CA to promote activation and proliferation of T cells, macrophages, and NK cells, thus enhancing their surveillance and killing abilities, further suppressing the growth rate of tumor cells.
It is generally believed that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in limiting the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in determining the outcome of the infection, and this effect may partly depend on which HIV product is preferentially targeted. To address the correlation between HIV-1-specific CTL responses and virus replication in a cohort of former plasma donors (FPDs), 143 antiretroviral therapy naive FPDs infected with HIV-1 clade B' strains were assessed for HIV-1-specific CTL responses with an IFN-γ Elispot assay at single peptide level by using overlapping peptides (OLPs) covering the whole consensus clade B proteome. By using a Spearman's rank correlation analysis, we found that the proportion of Gag-specific CTL responses among the total virus-specific CTL activity was inversely correlated with viral loads while being positively correlated to CD4 counts, as opposed to Pol- and Env-specific responses that were associated with increased viral loads and decreased CD4 counts. In addition, Vpr-specifc CTL responses showed a similar protective effect with Gag responses, but with a much lower frequency of recognition. Significantly, we also observed an association between HLA-A*30/B*13/Cw*06 haplotype and lower viral loads that was probably due to restricted Gag-specific CTL responses. Thus, our data demonstrate the prominent role of Gag-specific CTL responses in disease control. The advantage of HLA-A*30/B*13/Cw*06 haplotype in viral control may be associated with the contribution of Gag-specific CTL responses in the studied individuals.
human immunodeficiency virus type 1; cytotoxic T lymphocytes; human leukocyte antigen class I; Gag
The anti-norovirus (anti-NoV) effect of grape seed extract (GSE) was examined by plaque assay for murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), cell-binding reverse transcription-PCR for human NoV GII.4, and saliva-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human NoV GII.4 P particles, with or without the presence of interfering substances (dried milk and lettuce extract). GSE at 0.2 and 2 mg/ml was shown to reduce the infectivity of MNV-1 (>3-log PFU/ml) and the specific binding ability of NoV GII.4 to Caco-2 cells (>1-log genomic copies/ml), as well as of its P particles to salivary human histo-blood group antigen receptors (optical density at 450 nm of >0.8). These effects were decreased as increasing concentrations of dried milk (0.02 and 0.2%) or lettuce extract were added. Under an electron microscope, human NoV GII.4 virus-like particles showed inflation and deformation after treatment with GSE. Under conditions that simulated applications in the food industry, the anti-NoV effect of GSE using MNV-1 as a target organism was shown to be limited in surface disinfection (<1-log PFU/ml, analyzed in accordance with EN 13697:2001). However, a 1.5- to 2-log PFU/ml reduction in MNV-1 infectivity was noted when 2 mg of GSE/ml was used to sanitize water in the washing bath of fresh-cut lettuce, and this occurred regardless of the chemical oxygen demand (0 to 1,500 mg/ml) of the processing water.
A new antibacterial chlorinated benzophenone derivative, (±)-pestalachloride D (1), along with a related analog, (±)-pestalachloride C (2), was recently isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from Yongxing Island in the South China Sea. Both chiral HPLC analysis and single-crystal X-ray data indicated that 1 is a racemic mixture. Interestingly, 1 did not exhibit any effect in the zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay, while 2 led to abnormal growth. The potential impact on zebrafish embryo growth is discussed based on their crystal structures. The main difference of crystal structures between 1 and 2 is that the six-member non-aromatic ring (O4, C10, C9, C8, C2′, and C3′) in 1 exhibits a distorted chair conformation, while 2 shows a distorted boat conformation. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited moderate antibacterial activity.
(±)-pestalachloride D; antibacterial activity; zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay; marine-derived fungus; Pestalotiopsis sp.; single-crystal X-ray
Clinical markers of cardiac autonomic function, such as heart rate and response to exercise, are important predictors of cardiovascular risk. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for enzymes with roles in cardiac autonomic function, including tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase. Synthesis of BH4 is regulated by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), encoded by GCH1. Recent clinical studies report associations between GCH1 variants and increased heart rate, but the mechanistic importance of GCH1 and BH4 in autonomic function remains unclear. We investigate the effect of BH4 deficiency on the autonomic regulation of heart rate in the hph-1 mouse model of BH4 deficiency.
Methods and results
In the hph-1 mouse, reduced cardiac GCH1 expression, GTPCH enzymatic activity, and BH4 were associated with increased resting heart rate; blood pressure was not different. Exercise training decreased resting heart rate, but hph-1 mice retained a relative tachycardia. Vagal nerve stimulation in vitro induced bradycardia equally in hph-1 and wild-type mice both before and after exercise training. Direct atrial responses to carbamylcholine were equal. In contrast, propranolol treatment normalized the resting tachycardia in vivo. Stellate ganglion stimulation and isoproterenol but not forskolin application in vitro induced a greater tachycardic response in hph-1 mice. β1-adrenoceptor protein was increased as was the cAMP response to isoproterenol stimulation.
Reduced GCH1 expression and BH4 deficiency cause tachycardia through enhanced β-adrenergic sensitivity, with no effect on vagal function. GCH1 expression and BH4 are novel determinants of cardiac autonomic regulation that may have important roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology.
Tetrahydrobiopterin; Autonomic function; Exercise; Heart rate
Renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is critical for maintaining water balance and is associated with hypertension. Anti-hypertensive drugs, including imidapril, improve kidney function; however, it remains unclear whether these effects are mediated through the regulation of AQP2. In this study, the effects of imidapril on AQP2 expression in the kidneys and excretion in urine were assessed in hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in 24 rats, which were randomized into a control group, treated with water only, and an imidapril treatment group (n=12 per group). Blood and urine samples were collected from all rats to determine blood pressure (BP), serum Na+, urine volume and urine osmolality after 8 weeks of treatment. Molecular and immunological techniques were used to measure the expression of AQP2 in the kidneys. Urine AQP2 concentration was detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), a regulator of AQP2 was detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Hypertensive rats treated with imidapril exhibited reduced BP and 24-h urine osmolality, with a concomitant increase in 24-h urine volume, compared with control hypertensive rats (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of Aqp2 mRNA, detected by RT-PCR, and AQP2 protein, detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, in renal tissue significantly decreased (P<0.05). Finally, urine AQP2 concentration increased while plasma AVP concentration decreased following imidapril treatment (P<0.05). These findings indicate that imidapril reduces the expression level of AQP2 in renal tissue and accelerates its excretion.
imidaprilat; hypertensive rats; aquaporin-2; arginine vasopressin