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1.  Mismatch repair protein MSH2 regulates translesion DNA synthesis following exposure of cells to UV radiation 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;41(22):10312-10322.
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) can use specialized DNA polymerases to insert and/or extend nucleotides across lesions, thereby limiting stalled replication fork collapse and the potential for cell death. Recent studies have shown that monoubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in recruitment of Y-family TLS polymerases to stalled replication forks after DNA damage treatment. To explore the possible roles of other factors that regulate the ultraviolet (UV)-induced assembly of specialized DNA polymerases at arrested replication forks, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments combined with mass spectrometry and established that DNA polymerase kappa (Polκ) can partner with MSH2, an important mismatch repair protein associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. We found that depletion of MSH2 impairs PCNA monoubiquitination and the formation of foci containing Polκ and other TLS polymerases after UV irradiation of cells. Interestingly, expression of MSH2 in Rad18-deficient cells increased UV-induced Polκ and REV1 focus formation without detectable changes in PCNA monoubiquitination, indicating that MSH2 can regulate post-UV focus formation by specialized DNA polymerases in both PCNA monoubiquitination-dependent and -independent fashions. Moreover, we observed that MSH2 can facilitate TLS across cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers photoproducts in living cells, presenting a novel role of MSH2 in post-UV cellular responses.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt793
PMCID: PMC3905884  PMID: 24038355
2.  ABF1 BINDING SITES PROMOTE EFFICIENT GLOBAL GENOME NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2008;284(2):966-973.
Global genome repair (GG-NER) removes DNA damage from non-transcribing DNA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the RAD7 and RAD16 genes are specifically required for GG-NER. We reported that autonomously replicating sequence-binding factor 1 (A BF1) protein forms a stable complex with Rad7 and Rad16 proteins. ABF1 functions in transcription, replication, gene silencing and NER in yeast. We show that binding of ABF1 to its DNA recognition sequence found at multiple genomic locations promotes efficient GG-NER in yeast. Mutation of the I silencer ABF1 binding site at the HMLα locus causes loss of ABF1 binding, which results in a domain of reduced GG-NER efficiency on one side of the ABF1 binding site. During GG-NER, nucleosome positioning at this site is not altered, and this correlates with an inability of the GG-NER complex to reposition nucleosomes in vitro. We discuss how the GG-NER complex might facilitate GG-NER, whilst preventing unregulated gene transcription during this process.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M806830200
PMCID: PMC3443742  PMID: 18996839
3.  Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(1):206-219.
Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr704
PMCID: PMC3245927  PMID: 21911361
4.  Polk Mutant Mice Have a Spontaneous Mutator Phenotype 
DNA repair  2009;8(12):1355-1362.
Mice defective in the Polk gene (which encodes DNA polymerase kappa) are viable and do not manifest obvious phenotypes. The present studies document a spontaneous mutator phenotype in Polk−/− mice. The initial indication of enhanced spontaneous mutations in these mice came from the serendipitous observation of a postulated founder mutation that manifested in multiple disease states among a cohort of mice comprising all three possible Polk genotypes. Polk−/− and isogenic wild type controls carrying a reporter transgene (the λ-phage cII gene) were used for subsequent quantitative and qualitative studies on mutagenesis in various tissues. We observed significantly increased mutation frequencies in the kidney, liver, and lung of Polk−/− mice, but not in the spleen or testis. G:C base pairs dominated the mutation spectra of the kidney, liver, and lung. These results are consistent with the notion that Polκ is required for accurate translesion DNA synthesis past naturally occurring polycyclic guanine adducts, possibly generated by cholesterol and/or its metabolites.
doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2009.09.003
PMCID: PMC2787749  PMID: 19783230
5.  Oxidative stress alters base excision repair pathway and increases apoptotic response in Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox factor-1 haploinsufficient mice 
Free radical biology & medicine  2009;46(11):1488-1499.
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is the redox regulator of multiple stress-inducible transcription factors, such as NF-κB, and the major 5’-endonuclease in base excision repair (BER). We utilized mice containing heterozygous gene-targeted deletion of APE1/Ref-1 (Apex+/-) to determine the impact of APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency on the processing of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP) in the liver tissue of mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency results in a significant decline in NF-κB DNA binding activity in response to oxidative stress in liver. In addition, loss of APE1/Ref-1 increases the apoptotic response to oxidative stress where a significant increase in GADD45g expression, p53 protein stability and caspase activity are observed. Oxidative stress displays a differential impact on monofunctional (UDG) and bifunctional (OGG1) DNA glycosylase initiated BER in liver of Apex+/- mice. APE1/Ref-1 haploinsufficiency results in a significant decline in the repair of oxidized bases (e.g., 8-OHdG), while removal of uracil is increased in liver nuclear extracts of mice using an in vitro BER assay. Apex+/- mice exposed to 2-NP displayed a significant decline in 3’-OH-containing single-strand breaks and an increase in aldehydic lesions in their liver DNA suggesting an accumulation of repair intermediates of failed bifunctional DNA glycosylase initiated BER.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.02.021
PMCID: PMC2677124  PMID: 19268524
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1; Redox activity; Base Excision Repair; oxidative DNA damage; NF-κB; apoptosis; Liver
6.  Intergenerational and striatal CAG repeat instability in Huntington's disease knock-in mice involve different DNA repair genes 
Neurobiology of disease  2008;33(1):37-47.
Modifying the length of the Huntington's disease (HD) CAG repeat, the major determinant of age of disease onset, is an attractive therapeutic approach. To explore this we are investigating mechanisms of intergenerational and somatic HD CAG repeat instability. Here, we have crossed HD CAG knock-in mice onto backgrounds deficient in mismatch repair genes, Msh3 and Msh6, to discern the effects on CAG repeat size and disease pathogenesis. We find that different mechanisms predominate in inherited and somatic instability, with Msh6 protecting against intergenerational contractions and Msh3 required both for increasing CAG length and for enhancing an early disease phenotype in striatum. Therefore, attempts to decrease inherited repeat size may entail a full understanding of Msh6 complexes, while attempts to block the age-dependent increases in CAG size in striatal neurons and to slow the disease process will require a full elucidation of Msh3 complexes and their function in CAG repeat instability.
doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2008.09.014
PMCID: PMC2811282  PMID: 18930147
Huntington's disease; trinucleotide; instability; repeat; striatum; repair; mouse; knock-in; pathogenesis
7.  Rad10 exhibits lesion-dependent genetic requirements for recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(19):6429-6438.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad1–Rad10 protein complex participates in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR). During HR, the Rad1–Rad10 endonuclease cleaves 3′ branches of DNA and aberrant 3′ DNA ends that are refractory to other 3′ processing enzymes. Here we show that yeast strains expressing fluorescently labeled Rad10 protein (Rad10-YFP) form foci in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by a site-specific restriction enzyme, I-SceI or by ionizing radiation (IR). Additionally, for endonuclease-induced DSBs, Rad10-YFP localization to DSB sites depends on both RAD51 and RAD52, but not MRE11 while IR-induced breaks do not require RAD51. Finally, Rad10-YFP colocalizes with Rad51-CFP and with Rad52-CFP at DSB sites, indicating a temporal overlap of Rad52, Rad51 and Rad10 functions at DSBs. These observations are consistent with a putative role of Rad10 protein in excising overhanging DNA ends after homology searching and refine the potential role(s) of the Rad1–Rad10 complex in DSB repair in yeast.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp709
PMCID: PMC2770674  PMID: 19729509
8.  Comparative Analysis of in vivo Interactions Between Rev1 Protein and Other Y-Family DNA Polymerases in Animals and Yeasts 
DNA repair  2008;7(3):439-451.
Summary
Eukaryotes are endowed with multiple specialized DNA polymerases, some (if not all) of which are believed to play important roles in the tolerance of base damage during DNA replication. Among these DNA polymerases, Rev1 protein (a deoxycytidyl transferase) from vertebrates interacts with several other specialized polymerases via a highly conserved C-terminal region. The present studies assessed whether these interactions are retained in more experimentally tractable model systems, including yeasts, flies, and the nematode C. elegans. We observed a physical interaction between Rev1 protein and other Y-family polymerases in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, despite the fact that the C-terminal region of Drosophila and yeast Rev1 are conserved from vertebrates to a similar extent, such interactions were not observed in S. cerevisiae or S. pombe. With respect to regions in specialized DNA polymerases that are required for interaction with Rev1, we find predicted disorder to be an underlying structural commonality. The results of this study suggest that special consideration should be exercised when making mechanistic extrapolations regarding translesion DNA synthesis from one eukaryotic system to another.
doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2007.11.016
PMCID: PMC2363158  PMID: 18242152
Y-family of DNA polymerases; TLS; Rev1; polymerase η; polymerase ι; polymerase κ; protein-protein interactions
9.  Ubiquitin-Binding Motifs in REV1 Protein Are Required for Its Role in the Tolerance of DNA Damage▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(23):8892-8900.
REV1 protein is a eukaryotic member of the Y family of DNA polymerases involved in the tolerance of DNA damage by replicative bypass. The precise role(s) of REV1 in this process is not known. Here we show, by using the yeast two-hybrid assay and the glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, that mouse REV1 can physically interact with ubiquitin. The association of REV1 with ubiquitin requires the ubiquitin-binding motifs (UBMs) located at the C terminus of REV1. The UBMs also mediate the enhanced association between monoubiquitylated PCNA and REV1. In cells exposed to UV radiation, the association of REV1 with replication foci is dependent on functional UBMs. The UBMs of REV1 are shown to contribute to DNA damage tolerance and damage-induced mutagenesis in vivo.
doi:10.1128/MCB.01118-06
PMCID: PMC1636806  PMID: 16982685
10.  Celebrating 40 years of biochemistry in Europe 
Genome Biology  2004;5(9):344.
A report of the 29th Congress of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS), Warsaw, Poland, 26 June-1 July 2004.
A report of the 29th Congress of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS), Warsaw, Poland, 26 June-1 July 2004.
doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-9-344
PMCID: PMC522867  PMID: 15345044
11.  Cloning the human and mouse MMS19 genes and functional complementation of a yeast mms19 deletion mutant 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(9):1884-1891.
The MMS19 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a polypeptide of unknown function which is required for both nucleotide excision repair (NER) and RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription. Here we report the molecular cloning of human and mouse orthologs of the yeast MMS19 gene. Both human and Drosophila MMS19 cDNAs correct thermosensitive growth and sensitivity to killing by UV radiation in a yeast mutant deleted for the MMS19 gene, indicating functional conservation between the yeast and mammalian gene products. Alignment of the translated sequences of MMS19 from multiple eukaryotes, including mouse and human, revealed the presence of several conserved regions, including a HEAT repeat domain near the C-terminus. The presence of HEAT repeats, coupled with functional complementation of yeast mutant phenotypes by the orthologous protein from higher eukaryotes, suggests a role of Mms19 protein in the assembly of a multiprotein complex(es) required for NER and RNAP II transcription. Both the mouse and human genes are ubiquitously expressed as multiple transcripts, some of which appear to derive from alternative splicing. The ratio of different transcripts varies in several different tissue types.
PMCID: PMC37259  PMID: 11328871
12.  Yeast RNA Polymerase II Transcription In Vitro Is Inhibited in the Presence of Nucleotide Excision Repair: Complementation of Inhibition by Holo-TFIIH and Requirement for RAD26 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1998;18(5):2668-2676.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is essential both for transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA. We have established cell extracts which support RNAP II transcription from the yeast CYC1 promoter or NER of transcriptionally silent damaged DNA on independent plasmid templates and substrates. When plasmid templates and substrates for both processes are simultaneously incubated with these extracts, transcription is significantly inhibited. This inhibition is strictly dependent on active NER and can be complemented with purified holo-TFIIH. These results suggest that in the presence of active NER, TFIIH is preferentially mobilized from the basal transcription machinery for use in NER. Inhibition of transcription in the presence of active NER requires the RAD26 gene, the yeast homolog of the human Cockayne syndrome group B gene (CSB).
PMCID: PMC110646  PMID: 9566886
13.  Molecular Mechanisms of Pyrimidine Dimer Excision in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Incision of Ultraviolet-Irradiated Deoxyribonucleic Acid In Vivo 
Journal of Bacteriology  1981;146(2):692-704.
A group of genetically related ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been examined in terms of their survival after exposure to UV radiation, their ability to carry out excision repair of pyrimidine dimers as measured by the loss of sites (pyrimidine dimers) sensitive to a dimer-specific enzyme probe, and in terms of their ability to effect incision of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during post-UV incubation in vivo (as measured by the detection of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA). In addition to a haploid RAD+ strain (S288C), 11 different mutants representing six RAD loci (RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD4, RAD14, and RAD18) were examined. Quantitative analysis of excision repair capacity, as determined by the loss of sites in DNA sensitive to an enzyme preparation from M. luteus which is specific for pyrimidine dimers, revealed a profound defect in this parameter in all but three of the strains examined. The rad14-1 mutant showed reduced but significant residual capacity to remove enzyme-sensitive sites as did the rad2-4 mutant. The latter was the only one of three different rad2 alleles examined which was leaky in this respect. The UV-sensitive strain carrying the mutant allele rad18-1 exhibited normal loss of enzyme-sensitive sites consistent with its assignment to the RAD6 rather than the RAD3 epistatic group. All strains having mutant alleles of the RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD4, and RAD14 loci showed no detectable incubation-dependent strand breaks in nuclear DNA after exposure to UV radiation. These experiments suggest that the RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD4 (and probably RAD14) genes are all required for the incision of UV-irradiated DNA during pyrimidine dimer excision in vivo.
PMCID: PMC217014  PMID: 7012136
14.  Demonstration That Thymine Dimers are Excised as Oligonucleotides from Specifically Incised Ultraviolet-Irradiated Deoxyribonucleic Acid 
Journal of Bacteriology  1975;122(1):341-344.
The average size of the dimer-containing acid-soluble oligonucleotides after incubation of specifically incised DNA with two dimer excising nuclease activities has been determined to be about 8 nucleotides.
PMCID: PMC235678  PMID: 164436
15.  A DEMONSTRATION OF SEVERAL DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE ACTIVITIES IN MAMMALIAN CELL MITOCHONDRIA 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1974;62(3):695-706.
Extracts of purified mitochondria from adult rabbit liver and kidney have been prepared by lysis with Triton X-100. Such extracts contain deoxyribonuclease activity demonstrable at alkaline pH. Studies utilizing the effects of substrate variation, differing ionic strength, nucleoside di- and triphosphates, and SH-group inhibitors reveal the existence of at least five distinguishable deoxyribonuclease activities in these extracts. Assay of lysosomal and mitochondrial enzyme markers indicates no significant lysosomal contamination of the mitochondrial extracts. Further studies also suggest that the alkaline deoxyribonuclease activity is specifically located in or in association with mitochondria.
PMCID: PMC2109224  PMID: 4368324
16.  Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair in Bacteriophage T4: Observations on the Roles of the x and v Genes and of Host Factors 
Journal of Virology  1972;10(4):730-736.
Studies were carried out to determine the effect of mutation in the host pol I gene on survival of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated bacteriophage T4. Whereas a slightly reduced survival was observed in Escherichia coli strain P-3478 (pol A1) compared to strain W-3110 (pol A+), no such difference was observed in two strains isogenic except for the pol A gene. It was also shown that, whereas bacteriophage T4x is sensitive to UV irradiation, X irradiation, and treatment with methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), phage T4v1 is sensitive only to UV irradiation. The survival of damaged phage T4x is neither affected by the presence of the rec A, rec B, or pol A mutations in the host, nor is there evidence that phage T4 effects repair of rec A or pol A mutants previously treated with either UV or MMS.
PMCID: PMC356527  PMID: 4343548
17.  Dark Repair of Ultraviolet-Irradiated Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Bacteriophage T4: Purification and Characterization of a Dimer-Specific Phage-Induced Endonuclease 
Journal of Bacteriology  1971;106(2):500-507.
The purification and properties of an ultraviolet (UV) repair endonuclease are described. The enzyme is induced by infection of cells of Escherichia coli with phage T4 and is missing from extracts of cells infected with the UV-sensitive and excision-defective mutant T4V1. The enzyme attacks UV-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) containing either hydroxymethylcytosine or cytosine, but does not affect native DNA. The specific substrate in UV-irradiated DNA appears to be pyrimidine dimer sites. The purified enzyme alone does not excise pyrimidine dimers from UV-irradiated DNA. However, dimer excision does occur in the presence of the purified endonuclease plus crude extract of cells infected with the mutant T4V1.
PMCID: PMC285122  PMID: 4929862
19.  Impaired Genome Maintenance Suppresses the Growth Hormone–Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Axis in Mice with Cockayne Syndrome 
PLoS Biology  2006;5(1):e2.
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a photosensitive, DNA repair disorder associated with progeria that is caused by a defect in the transcription-coupled repair subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, complete inactivation of NER in Csbm/m/Xpa−/− mutants causes a phenotype that reliably mimics the human progeroid CS syndrome. Newborn Csbm/m/Xpa−/− mice display attenuated growth, progressive neurological dysfunction, retinal degeneration, cachexia, kyphosis, and die before weaning. Mouse liver transcriptome analysis and several physiological endpoints revealed systemic suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) somatotroph axis and oxidative metabolism, increased antioxidant responses, and hypoglycemia together with hepatic glycogen and fat accumulation. Broad genome-wide parallels between Csbm/m/Xpa−/− and naturally aged mouse liver transcriptomes suggested that these changes are intrinsic to natural ageing and the DNA repair–deficient mice. Importantly, wild-type mice exposed to a low dose of chronic genotoxic stress recapitulated this response, thereby pointing to a novel link between genome instability and the age-related decline of the somatotroph axis.
Studies in mice defective in two DNA repair pathways (global NER and TCR; an animal model for Cockayne syndrome) highlight a link between aging, a failure to repair DNA lesions, and metabolic alterations.
Author Summary
Normal metabolism routinely produces reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and other cellular components and is thought to contribute to the ageing process. Although DNA damage is typically kept in check by a variety of enzymes, several premature ageing disorders result from failure to remove damage from active genes. Patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), a genetic mutation affecting one class of DNA repair enzymes, display severe growth retardation, neurological symptoms, and signs of premature ageing followed by an early death. Whereas mouse models for CS exhibit relatively mild deficits, we show that concomitant inactivation of a second DNA repair gene elicits severe CS pathology and ageing. Moreover, a few days after birth, these mice undergo systemic suppression of genes controlling growth, an unexpected decrease in oxidative metabolism, and an increased antioxidant response. Similar physiological changes are also triggered in normal mice by chronic exposure to DNA-damaging oxidative stress. From these findings, we conclude that DNA damage triggers a response aimed at limiting oxidative DNA damage levels (and associated tissue degeneration) to extend lifespan and promote healthy ageing. Better understanding of the ageing process will help to delineate intervention strategies to combat age-associated pathology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050002
PMCID: PMC1698505  PMID: 17326724

Results 1-19 (19)