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1.  The Reference Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Then and Now 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2013;4(3):389-398.
The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called “S288C 2010,” was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science.
doi:10.1534/g3.113.008995
PMCID: PMC3962479  PMID: 24374639
Saccharomyces cerevisiae; model organism; reference sequence; genome release; S288C
2.  Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast 
Nucleic Acids Research  2011;40(Database issue):D700-D705.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD, http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the community resource for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SGD project provides the highest-quality manually curated information from peer-reviewed literature. The experimental results reported in the literature are extracted and integrated within a well-developed database. These data are combined with quality high-throughput results and provided through Locus Summary pages, a powerful query engine and rich genome browser. The acquisition, integration and retrieval of these data allow SGD to facilitate experimental design and analysis by providing an encyclopedia of the yeast genome, its chromosomal features, their functions and interactions. Public access to these data is provided to researchers and educators via web pages designed for optimal ease of use.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkr1029
PMCID: PMC3245034  PMID: 22110037
3.  Comparison of the Complete Protein Sets of Worm and Yeast: Orthology and Divergence 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  1998;282(5396):2022-2028.
Comparative analysis of predicted protein sequences encoded by the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that most of the core biological functions are carried out by orthologous proteins (proteins of different species that can be traced back to a common ancestor) that occur in comparable numbers. The specialized processes of signal transduction and regulatory control that are unique to the multicellular worm appear to use novel proteins, many of which re-use conserved domains. Major expansion of the number of some of these domains seen in the worm may have contributed to the advent of multicellularity. The proteins conserved in yeast and worm are likely to have orthologs throughout eukaryotes; in contrast, the proteins unique to the worm may well define metazoans.
PMCID: PMC3057080  PMID: 9851918
4.  Genetic and physical maps of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Nature  1997;387(6632 Suppl):67-73.
Genetic and physical maps for the 16 chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. The genetic map is the result of 40 years of genetic analysis. The physical map was produced from the results of an international systematic sequencing effort. The data for the maps are accessible electronically from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD: http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Saccharomyces/).
PMCID: PMC3057085  PMID: 9169866
5.  Expanding Yeast Knowledge Online 
Yeast (Chichester, England)  1998;14(16):1453-1469.
The completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequencing project11 and the continued development of improved technology for large-scale genome analysis have led to tremendous growth in the amount of new yeast genetics and molecular biology data. Efficient organization, presentation, and dissemination of this information are essential if researchers are to exploit this knowledge. In addition, the development of tools that provide efficient analysis of this information and link it with pertinent information from other systems is becoming increasingly important at a time when the complete genome sequences of other organisms are becoming available. The aim of this review is to familiarize biologists with the type of data resources currently available on the World Wide Web (WWW).
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(199812)14:16<1453::AID-YEA348>3.0.CO;2-G
PMCID: PMC3037831  PMID: 9885151
World Wide Web; Saccharomyces Genome Database; Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences; Yeast Protein Database
6.  Saccharomyces genome database: Underlying principles and organisation 
Briefings in bioinformatics  2004;5(1):9-22.
A scientific database can be a powerful tool for biologists in an era where large-scale genomic analysis, combined with smaller-scale scientific results, provides new insights into the roles of genes and their products in the cell. However, the collection and assimilation of data is, in itself, not enough to make a database useful. The data must be incorporated into the database and presented to the user in an intuitive and biologically significant manner. Most importantly, this presentation must be driven by the user’s point of view; that is, from a biological perspective. The success of a scientific database can therefore be measured by the response of its users – statistically, by usage numbers and, in a less quantifiable way, by its relationship with the community it serves and its ability to serve as a model for similar projects. Since its inception ten years ago, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has seen a dramatic increase in its usage, has developed and maintained a positive working relationship with the yeast research community, and has served as a template for at least one other database. The success of SGD, as measured by these criteria, is due in large part to philosophies that have guided its mission and organisation since it was established in 1993. This paper aims to detail these philosophies and how they shape the organisation and presentation of the database.
PMCID: PMC3037832  PMID: 15153302
S. cerevisiae; database; genome-wide analysis; bioinformatics; yeast
7.  Gene Ontology: tool for the unification of biology 
Nature genetics  2000;25(1):25-29.
Genomic sequencing has made it clear that a large fraction of the genes specifying the core biological functions are shared by all eukaryotes. Knowledge of the biological role of such shared proteins in one organism can often be transferred to other organisms. The goal of the Gene Ontology Consortium is to produce a dynamic, controlled vocabulary that can be applied to all eukaryotes even as knowledge of gene and protein roles in cells is accumulating and changing. To this end, three independent ontologies accessible on the World-Wide Web (http://www.geneontology.org) are being constructed: biological process, molecular function and cellular component.
doi:10.1038/75556
PMCID: PMC3037419  PMID: 10802651
8.  Saccharomyces Genome Database provides mutant phenotype data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D433-D436.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is a scientific database for the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly known as baker’s or budding yeast. The information in SGD includes functional annotations, mapping and sequence information, protein domains and structure, expression data, mutant phenotypes, physical and genetic interactions and the primary literature from which these data are derived. Here we describe how published phenotypes and genetic interaction data are annotated and displayed in SGD.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp917
PMCID: PMC2808950  PMID: 19906697
9.  Gene Ontology annotations at SGD: new data sources and annotation methods 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D577-D581.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org/) collects and organizes biological information about the chromosomal features and gene products of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although published data from traditional experimental methods are the primary sources of evidence supporting Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for a gene product, high-throughput experiments and computational predictions can also provide valuable insights in the absence of an extensive body of literature. Therefore, GO annotations available at SGD now include high-throughput data as well as computational predictions provided by the GO Annotation Project (GOA UniProt; http://www.ebi.ac.uk/GOA/). Because the annotation method used to assign GO annotations varies by data source, GO resources at SGD have been modified to distinguish data sources and annotation methods. In addition to providing information for genes that have not been experimentally characterized, GO annotations from independent sources can be compared to those made by SGD to help keep the literature-based GO annotations current.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm909
PMCID: PMC2238894  PMID: 17982175
10.  Expanded protein information at SGD: new pages and proteome browser 
Nucleic Acids Research  2006;35(Database issue):D468-D471.
The recent explosion in protein data generated from both directed small-scale studies and large-scale proteomics efforts has greatly expanded the quantity of available protein information and has prompted the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; ) to enhance the depth and accessibility of protein annotations. In particular, we have expanded ongoing efforts to improve the integration of experimental information and sequence-based predictions and have redesigned the protein information web pages. A key feature of this redesign is the development of a GBrowse-derived interactive Proteome Browser customized to improve the visualization of sequence-based protein information. This Proteome Browser has enabled SGD to unify the display of hidden Markov model (HMM) domains, protein family HMMs, motifs, transmembrane regions, signal peptides, hydropathy plots and profile hits using several popular prediction algorithms. In addition, a physico-chemical properties page has been introduced to provide easy access to basic protein information. Improvements to the layout of the Protein Information page and integration of the Proteome Browser will facilitate the ongoing expansion of sequence-specific experimental information captured in SGD, including post-translational modifications and other user-defined annotations. Finally, SGD continues to improve upon the availability of genetic and physical interaction data in an ongoing collaboration with BioGRID by providing direct access to more than 82 000 manually-curated interactions.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkl931
PMCID: PMC1669759  PMID: 17142221
11.  Genome Snapshot: a new resource at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) presenting an overview of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;34(Database issue):D442-D445.
Sequencing and annotation of the entire Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome has made it possible to gain a genome-wide perspective on yeast genes and gene products. To make this information available on an ongoing basis, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) () has created the Genome Snapshot (). The Genome Snapshot summarizes the current state of knowledge about the genes and chromosomal features of S.cerevisiae. The information is organized into two categories: (i) number of each type of chromosomal feature annotated in the genome and (ii) number and distribution of genes annotated to Gene Ontology terms. Detailed lists are accessible through SGD's Advanced Search tool (), and all the data presented on this page are available from the SGD ftp site ().
doi:10.1093/nar/gkj117
PMCID: PMC1347479  PMID: 16381907
12.  Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides tools to identify and analyze sequences from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related sequences from other organisms 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(Database issue):D311-D314.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org/), a scientific database of the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has recently developed several new resources that allow the comparison and integration of information on a genome-wide scale, enabling the user not only to find detailed information about individual genes, but also to make connections across groups of genes with common features and across different species. The Fungal Alignment Viewer displays alignments of sequences from multiple fungal genomes, while the Sequence Similarity Query tool displays PSI-BLAST alignments of each S.cerevisiae protein with similar proteins from any species whose sequences are contained in the non-redundant (nr) protein data set at NCBI. The Yeast Biochemical Pathways tool integrates groups of genes by their common roles in metabolism and displays the metabolic pathways in a graphical form. Finally, the Find Chromosomal Features search interface provides a versatile tool for querying multiple types of information in SGD.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh033
PMCID: PMC308767  PMID: 14681421
13.  Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides biochemical and structural information for budding yeast proteins 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(1):216-218.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD: http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Saccharomyces/) has recently developed new resources to provide more complete information about proteins from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PDB Homologs page provides structural information from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) about yeast proteins and/or their homologs. SGD has also created a resource that utilizes the eMOTIF database for motif information about a given protein. A third new resource is the Protein Information page, which contains protein physical and chemical properties, such as molecular weight and hydropathicity scores, predicted from the translated ORF sequence.
PMCID: PMC165501  PMID: 12519985
14.  Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides secondary gene annotation using the Gene Ontology (GO) 
Nucleic Acids Research  2002;30(1):69-72.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) resources, ranging from genetic and physical maps to genome-wide analysis tools, reflect the scientific progress in identifying genes and their functions over the last decade. As emphasis shifts from identification of the genes to identification of the role of their gene products in the cell, SGD seeks to provide its users with annotations that will allow relationships to be made between gene products, both within Saccharomyces cerevisiae and across species. To this end, SGD is annotating genes to the Gene Ontology (GO), a structured representation of biological knowledge that can be shared across species. The GO consists of three separate ontologies describing molecular function, biological process and cellular component. The goal is to use published information to associate each characterized S.cerevisiae gene product with one or more GO terms from each of the three ontologies. To be useful, this must be done in a manner that allows accurate associations based on experimental evidence, modifications to GO when necessary, and careful documentation of the annotations through evidence codes for given citations. Reaching this goal is an ongoing process at SGD. For information on the current progress of GO annotations at SGD and other participating databases, as well as a description of each of the three ontologies, please visit the GO Consortium page at http://www.geneontology.org. SGD gene associations to GO can be found by visiting our site at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Saccharomyces/.
PMCID: PMC99086  PMID: 11752257
15.  The Stanford Microarray Database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(1):152-155.
The Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) stores raw and normalized data from microarray experiments, and provides web interfaces for researchers to retrieve, analyze and visualize their data. The two immediate goals for SMD are to serve as a storage site for microarray data from ongoing research at Stanford University, and to facilitate the public dissemination of that data once published, or released by the researcher. Of paramount importance is the connection of microarray data with the biological data that pertains to the DNA deposited on the microarray (genes, clones etc.). SMD makes use of many public resources to connect expression information to the relevant biology, including SGD [Ball,C.A., Dolinski,K., Dwight,S.S., Harris,M.A., Issel-Tarver,L., Kasarskis,A., Scafe,C.R., Sherlock,G., Binkley,G., Jin,H. et al. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 77–80], YPD and WormPD [Costanzo,M.C., Hogan,J.D., Cusick,M.E., Davis,B.P., Fancher,A.M., Hodges,P.E., Kondu,P., Lengieza,C., Lew-Smith,J.E., Lingner,C. et al. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 73–76], Unigene [Wheeler,D.L., Chappey,C., Lash,A.E., Leipe,D.D., Madden,T.L., Schuler,G.D., Tatusova,T.A. and Rapp,B.A. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 10–14], dbEST [Boguski,M.S., Lowe,T.M. and Tolstoshev,C.M. (1993) Nature Genet., 4, 332–333] and SWISS-PROT [Bairoch,A. and Apweiler,R. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 45–48] and can be accessed at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/microarray.
PMCID: PMC29818  PMID: 11125075
16.  Saccharomyces Genome Database provides tools to survey gene expression and functional analysis data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2001;29(1):80-81.
Upon the completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic sequence in 1996 [Goffeau,A. et al. (1997) Nature, 387, 5], several creative and ambitious projects have been initiated to explore the functions of gene products or gene expression on a genome-wide scale. To help researchers take advantage of these projects, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has created two new tools, Function Junction and Expression Connection. Together, the tools form a central resource for querying multiple large-scale analysis projects for data about individual genes. Function Junction provides information from diverse projects that shed light on the role a gene product plays in the cell, while Expression Connection delivers information produced by the ever-increasing number of microarray projects. WWW access to SGD is available at genome-www.stanford.edu/Saccharomyces/.
PMCID: PMC29796  PMID: 11125055
17.  Integrating functional genomic information into the Saccharomyces Genome Database 
Nucleic Acids Research  2000;28(1):77-80.
The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) stores and organizes information about the nearly 6200 genes in the yeast genome. The information is organized around the ‘locus page’ and directs users to the detailed information they seek. SGD is endeavoring to integrate the existing information about yeast genes with the large volume of data generated by functional analyses that are beginning to appear in the literature and on web sites. New features will include searches of systematic analyses and Gene Summary Paragraphs that succinctly review the literature for each gene. In addition to current information, such as gene product and phenotype descriptions, the new locus page will also describe a gene product’s cellular process, function and localization using a controlled vocabulary developed in collaboration with two other model organism databases. We describe these developments in SGD through the newly reorganized locus page. The SGD is accessible via the WWW at http://genome-www. stanford. edu/Saccharomyces/
PMCID: PMC102447  PMID: 10592186

Results 1-17 (17)