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1.  Tricyclic GyrB/ParE (TriBE) Inhibitors: A New Class of Broad-Spectrum Dual-Targeting Antibacterial Agents 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84409.
Increasing resistance to every major class of antibiotics and a dearth of novel classes of antibacterial agents in development pipelines has created a dwindling reservoir of treatment options for serious bacterial infections. The bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, are validated antibacterial drug targets with multiple prospective drug binding sites, including the catalytic site targeted by the fluoroquinolone antibiotics. However, growing resistance to fluoroquinolones, frequently mediated by mutations in the drug-binding site, is increasingly limiting the utility of this antibiotic class, prompting the search for other inhibitor classes that target different sites on the topoisomerase complexes. The highly conserved ATP-binding subunits of DNA gyrase (GyrB) and topoisomerase IV (ParE) have long been recognized as excellent candidates for the development of dual-targeting antibacterial agents with broad-spectrum potential. However, to date, no natural product or small molecule inhibitors targeting these sites have succeeded in the clinic, and no inhibitors of these enzymes have yet been reported with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing the majority of Gram-negative pathogens. Using structure-based drug design (SBDD), we have created a novel dual-targeting pyrimidoindole inhibitor series with exquisite potency against GyrB and ParE enzymes from a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Inhibitors from this series demonstrate potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens of clinical importance, including fluoroquinolone resistant and multidrug resistant strains. Lead compounds have been discovered with clinical potential; they are well tolerated in animals, and efficacious in Gram-negative infection models.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084409
PMCID: PMC3873466  PMID: 24386374
2.  Comparative Genomic Analysis of Archaeal Genotypic Variants in a Single Population and in Two Different Oceanic Provinces 
Planktonic crenarchaeotes are present in high abundance in Antarctic winter surface waters, and they also make up a large proportion of total cell numbers throughout deep ocean waters. To better characterize these uncultivated marine crenarchaeotes, we analyzed large genome fragments from individuals recovered from a single Antarctic picoplankton population and compared them to those from a representative obtained from deeper waters of the temperate North Pacific. Sequencing and analysis of the entire DNA insert from one Antarctic marine archaeon (fosmid 74A4) revealed differences in genome structure and content between Antarctic surface water and temperate deepwater archaea. Analysis of the predicted gene products encoded by the 74A4 sequence and those derived from a temperate, deepwater planktonic crenarchaeote (fosmid 4B7) revealed many typical archaeal proteins but also several proteins that so far have not been detected in archaea. The unique fraction of marine archaeal genes included, among others, those for a predicted RNA-binding protein of the bacterial cold shock family and a eukaryote-type Zn finger protein. Comparison of closely related archaea originating from a single population revealed significant genomic divergence that was not evident from 16S rRNA sequence variation. The data suggest that considerable functional diversity may exist within single populations of coexisting microbial strains, even those with identical 16S rRNA sequences. Our results also demonstrate that genomic approaches can provide high-resolution information relevant to microbial population genetics, ecology, and evolution, even for microbes that have not yet been cultivated.
doi:10.1128/AEM.68.1.335-345.2002
PMCID: PMC126555  PMID: 11772643

Results 1-2 (2)