AIM: To understand the neuroprotective mechanism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) against amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) exposed rat primary neurons.
METHODS: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hUCB-MSCs, the cells were co-cultured with Aβ42-exposed rat primary neuronal cells in a Transwell apparatus. To assess the involvement of soluble factors released from hUCB-MSCs in neuroprotection, an antibody-based array using co-cultured media was conducted. The neuroprotective roles of the identified hUCB-MSC proteins was assessed by treating recombinant proteins or specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for each candidate protein in a co-culture system.
RESULTS: The hUCB-MSCs secreted elevated levels of decorin and progranulin when co-cultured with rat primary neuronal cells exposed to Aβ42. Treatment with recombinant decorin and progranulin protected from Aβ42-neurotoxicity in vitro. In addition, siRNA-mediated knock-down of decorin and progranulin production in hUCB-MSCs reduced the anti-apoptotic effects of hUCB-MSC in the co-culture system.
CONCLUSION: Decorin and progranulin may be involved in anti-apoptotic activity of hUCB-MSCs exposed to Aβ42.
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells; Decorin; Progranulin; Aβ42; Anti-apoptosis
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are regarded as an alternative source of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells because collection of cord blood is less invasive than that of bone marrow. hUCB-MSCs have recently been studied for evaluation of their potential as a source of cell therapy. In this review, the general characteristics of hUCB-MSCs and their therapeutic effects on various diseases in vitro and in vivo will be discussed.
Regeneration; Immune modulation; Nursing effect; Mesenchymal stem cells
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the devastating types of stroke. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have potential benefits in recovery from brain damage following ICH. This study aimed to identify the beneficial effects of hUCB-MSCs and investigate whether they have anti-inflammatory effects on the ICH brain via neurotrophic factors or cytokines. hUCB-MSCs were transplanted into a collagenase-induced ICH rat model. At 2, 9, 16, and 30 days after ICH, rotarod and limb placement tests were performed to measure behavioral outcomes. ICH rats were sacrificed to evaluate the volume of lesion using H&E staining. Immunostaining was performed to investigate neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis at 4 weeks after transplantation. Inflammatory factors (TNF-α, COX-2, microglia, and neutrophils) were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, and Western blot at 3 days after transplantation. hUCB-MSCs were associated with neurological benefits and reduction in lesion volume. The hUCB-MSCs-treated group tended to reveal high levels of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis (significant for angiogenesis). The expression levels of inflammatory factors tended to be reduced in the hUCB-MSCs-treated group compared with the controls. Our study suggests that hUCB-MSCs may improve neurological outcomes and modulate inflammation-associated immune cells and cytokines in ICH-induced inflammatory responses.
intracerebral hemorrhage; hUCB-MSCs; neurogenesis; angiogenesis; apoptosis; inflammatory factor
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) secrete various beneficial molecules, which have anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation. However, the effect of hUCB-MSCs in melanogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we show that conditioned media (CM) derived from hUCB-MSCs inhibit melanogenesis by regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression via the ERK signalling pathway. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM strongly inhibited the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced hyperpigmentation in melanoma cells as well as melanocytes. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM induced ERK1/2 activation in melanocytes. In addition, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed the anti-pigmentation activity of the hUCB-MSC-CM in melanocytes and in vitro artificial skin models. We also found that the expression of MITF was appreciably diminished while expression of phosphorylated MITF, which leads to its proteasomal degradation, was increased in cells treated with hUCB-MSC-CM. These results suggested that hUCB-MSC-CM significantly suppresses melanin synthesis via MITF degradation by the ERK pathway activation.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes right ventricular failure due to a gradual increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. The purposes of this study were to confirm the engraftment of human umbilical cord blood-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) placed in the correct place in the lung and research on changes of hemodynamics, pulmonary pathology, immunomodulation and several gene expressions in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after hUCB-MSCs transfusion. The rats were grouped as follows: the control (C) group; the M group (MCT 60 mg/kg); the U group (hUCB-MSCs transfusion). They received transfusions via the external jugular vein a week after MCT injection. The mean right ventricular pressure (RVP) was significantly reduced in the U group after the 2 week. The indicators of RV hypertrophy were significantly reduced in the U group at week 4. Reduced medial wall thickness in the pulmonary arteriole was noted in the U group at week 4. Reduced number of intra-acinar muscular pulmonary arteries was observed in the U group after 2 week. Protein expressions such as endothelin (ET)-1, endothelin receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 significantly decreased at week 4. The decreased levels of ERA, eNOS and MMP-2 immunoreactivity were noted by immnohistochemical staining. After hUCB-MSCs were administered, there were the improvement of RVH and mean RVP. Reductions in several protein expressions and immunomodulation were also detected. It is suggested that hUCB-MSCs may be a promising therapeutic option for PAH.
Hypertension; Pulmonary; Monocrotaline; Cord Blood Stem Cell Transfusion; Gene Expression
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with structural alterations of lung vasculature. PAH is still a devastating disease needing an aggressive therapeutic approach. Despite the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the molecular parameters to define the stemness remain largely unknown. Using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays, the differential gene expression profiles between a fraction of mononuclear cells of human umbilical cord blood (UCB) and its MSC subpopulation were obtained. Of particular interest was a subset of 46 genes preferentially expressed at 7-fold or higher in the group treated with human UCB-MSCs. This subset contained numerous genes involved in the inflammatory response, immune response, lipid metabolism, cell adhesion, cell migration, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell growth, transport, cell proliferation, transcription, and signal transduction. Our results provide a foundation for a more reproducible and reliable quality control using genotypic analysis for the definition of human UCB-MSCs. Therefore, our results will provide a basis for studies on molecular mechanisms controlling the core properties of human MSCs.
Pulmonary hypertension; Monocrotaline; Umbilical mesenchymal stem cells; Microarray
Various source-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered for cell therapeutics in incurable diseases. To characterize MSCs from different sources, we compared human bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) for surface antigen expression, differentiation ability, proliferation capacity, clonality, tolerance for aging, and paracrine activity. Although MSCs from different tissues have similar levels of surface antigen expression, immunosuppressive activity, and differentiation ability, UCB-MSCs had the highest rate of cell proliferation and clonality, and significantly lower expression of p53, p21, and p16, well known markers of senescence. Since paracrine action is the main action of MSCs, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of each MSC under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Co-culture of UCB-MSCs with LPS-treated rat alveolar macrophage, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and IL-8 via angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). Using recombinant Ang-1 as potential soluble paracrine factor or its small interference RNA (siRNA), we found that Ang-1 secretion was responsible for this beneficial effect in part by preventing inflammation. Our results demonstrate that primitive UCB-MSCs have biological advantages in comparison to adult sources, making UCB-MSCs a useful model for clinical applications of cell therapy.
umbilical cord blood; bone marrow; adipo tissue; mesenchymal stem cell; expansion; senescence; anti-inflammation; angiopoietin-1; cell therapy
We conducted a pilot study of the infusion of intravenous autologous cord blood (CB) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to assess the safety and feasibility of the procedure as well as its potential efficacy in countering neurological impairment.
Patients diagnosed with CP were enrolled in this study if their parents had elected to bank their CB at birth. Cryopreserved CB units were thawed and infused intravenously over 10~20 minutes. We assessed potential efficacy over 6 months by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and various evaluation tools for motor and cognitive functions.
Twenty patients received autologous CB infusion and were evaluated. The types of CP were as follows: 11 quadriplegics, 6 hemiplegics, and 3 diplegics. Infusion was generally well-tolerated, although 5 patients experienced temporary nausea, hemoglobinuria, or urticaria during intravenous infusion. Diverse neurological domains improved in 5 patients (25%) as assessed with developmental evaluation tools as well as by fractional anisotropy values in brain MRI-DTI. The neurologic improvement occurred significantly in patients with diplegia or hemiplegia rather than quadriplegia.
Autologous CB infusion is safe and feasible, and has yielded potential benefits in children with CP.
Cerebral palsy; Cord blood; Mononuclear cells; Cell therapy
Transplantation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), expanded by culture in addition to whole bone marrow, has been shown to enhance engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Our hypothesis was that there might be an optimum ratio range that could enhance engraftment. We examined the percent donor chimerism according to the ratio of HSCs to MSCs in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. We tested a series of ratios of co-transplanted CD34+-selected bone marrow cells, and marrow-derived MSCs into sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice. In all experiments, 1×105 bone marrow derived human CD34+ cells were administered to each mouse and human MSCs from different donors were infused concomitantly. We repeated the procedure three times and evaluated engraftment with flow cytometry four weeks after each transplantation. Serial ratios of HSCs to MSCs were 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4, in the first experiment, 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 in the second and 1:0, 1:1, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 in the third. Cotransplantation of HSCs and MSCs enhanced engraftment as the dose of MSCs increased. Our results suggest that the optimal ratio of HSCs and MSCs for cotransplantation might be in the range of 1:8-1:16; whereas, an excessive dose of MSCs might decrease engraftment efficiency.
Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Transplantation; Mice, SCID; Engraftment
Clinical studies have demonstrated that intracoronary or intramyocardial transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) into ischemic myocardium improves cardiac function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of intramyocardial BMMNC transplantation into nongraftable areas in combination with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Five male patients with myocardial infarction lasting for more than 1 month and with nongraftable myocardium received autologous mononuclear cell transplantation during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Autologous bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crest. BMMNCs (mean 1.6, standard error [SE] 0.3 × 109) including CD34-positive cells (mean 6.8, SE 1.1 × 106) and AC133-positive cells (mean 3.1, SE 1.7 × 106) were injected into the nongraftable ischemic myocardium. Heart function was evaluated with the use of echocardiography, and myocardial perfusion was examined with single photon emission computed tomography technetium-99mTc sestamibi scans.
Two months after cell transplantation, the mean ejection fraction had increased by 7.4%, SE 1.9% (p = 0.016) compared with that before cell transplantation and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. The increase in ejection fraction was not correlated with the number of transplanted total mononuclear cells, CD34-positive cells and AC133-positive cells. Myocardial perfusion at the cell-transplanted area increased after cell transplantation and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. No arrhythmia was observed.
The present clinical study suggests that intramyocardial transplantation of autologous BMMNCs into the ischemic area during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is both feasible and safe and has beneficial effects on cardiac function.