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1.  Analysis of Prognostic Factors and Treatment Modality Changes in Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Study in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(3):465-473.
To determine the effects of new breast cancer treatments and to provide a baseline for monitoring the development of breast cancer in Korean women, we conducted an analysis at our institution to determine long-term clinicopathological features, survival rates, and prognostic factors.
Materials and Methods
This study retrospectively analyzed 2,403 patients between Sep 1994 and Dec 2002, who underwent breast cancer surgery at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. Demographic data, pathologic records and surgical records were collected.
After a median follow-up duration of 121.9 (range: 2-158.1) months, the 5-year disease free survival (DFS) was 82.8% and the 10-year DFS was 74.7%. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 89.4% and 82.9%, respectively. Using multivariate analyses, we determined that the nodal status (p < 0.001), angioinvasion (p < 0.001), positive PR (p < 0.001), and C-erb-B2 (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for OS. The frequency of breast conserving surgery was 33.9% before Dec 1999, and increased up to 44.1% by year Dec 2002.
Most of the prognostic variables and clinical characteristics of the Korean breast cancer patients were similar to those reported for Western populations. However, the age distribution in Korean patients seemed to be different from that in patients from Western countries.
PMCID: PMC2628104  PMID: 17594155
Breast cancer; survival; disease free survival; breast conserving surgery
2.  Experience of treatment of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis 
To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM.
Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively.
Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%).
The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study.
PMCID: PMC3699681  PMID: 23833753
Breast; Granulomatous mastitis; Treatment; Excision
3.  Changing Patterns in the Clinical Characteristics of Korean Breast Cancer from 1996-2010 Using an Online Nationwide Breast Cancer Database 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(4):393-400.
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in Korean women, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate. Since 1996, the Korean Breast Cancer Society has collected nationwide breast cancer data using an online registration program and analyzed the data biennial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Korean breast cancer and to analyze changes in these characteristics over the period of time.
Data were collected from 41 medical schools (74 hospitals), 24 general hospitals, and 6 private clinics. Data on the total number, gender, and age of newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients were collected through a questionnaire. Additional data were collected and analyzed from the online database.
In 2010, 16,398 patients in Korea were newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer was 67.2 cases per 100,000, and the median age at diagnosis was 49 years. The incidence of breast cancer was highest in patients aged between 40 and 49 years. Since 1996, there has been a significant increase in the proportion of early-stage cancers (detected in stage 1 or 2), the percentage of estrogen receptor-positive cancers, and in the proportion of patients receiving breast-conserving surgery.
The incidence and clinical characteristics of Korean breast cancer are slowly changing to the patterns of Western countries. To understand changing patterns in the characteristics of Korean breast cancer, the nationwide data should be continuously analyzed.
PMCID: PMC3542846  PMID: 23346167
Breast neoplasms; Korea; Online registration program
4.  Simultaneous Chest Wall Reconstruction after Sternectomy and Modified Radical Mastectomy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer with Solitary Sternal Metastasis 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(4):462-467.
Bone is the most common metastatic organ in patients with breast cancer. The most significant clinical symptom of bone metastasis is pain which reduces quality of life in cancer patients. We report a case of chest wall reconstruction after partial sternal resection for solitary sternal metastasis and modified radical mastectomy in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer. The sternal defect was reconstructed with a 2 mm thick Gore-Tex patch. Postoperative pain was acceptable and the patient was discharged without any complications. The patient received the endocrine and bisphosphonate therapy combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. No recurrence or complications were observed during a follow-up period of 36 months. We describe our good surgical management results of sternal metastatic lesion in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer. We suggest that simultaneous sternectomy is a safe and curative surgical method for a solitary sternal metastasis when no evidence of systemic spread is noted.
PMCID: PMC3542856  PMID: 23346177
Breast carcinoma; Metastasectomy; Neoplasm metastasis; Sternum
5.  Occult Breast Cancers Manifesting as Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Men: A Two-Case Report 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(3):359-363.
Occult breast cancer is a type of breast cancer without any symptoms on the breasts or any abnormalities upon radiologic examination such as mammography. In males, there are few cases of breast cancer, the rate of diagnosis of occult breast cancer is very low, and little is known about this disease. We experienced two cases of occult breast cancers manifesting as axillary lymph node metastasis in men. They had a palpable lesion on axillary area several years ago and had not seen a doctor about it. As such there was no abnormality on evaluations for cancer except for axillary lymph node showing signs of carcinoma (primary or metastatic) on biopsy and estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive on immunohistochemistry. The patients were diagnosed with occult breast cancer, and treatments were performed. Herein, we report the rare cases of occult breast cancers in men.
PMCID: PMC3468792  PMID: 23091551
Axilla; Breast neoplasms; Male; Neoplasm metastasis; Occult primary neoplasms
6.  Long-Term Outcome of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Detected by Lymphoscintigraphy in Early Breast Cancer 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(1):98-104.
Internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) metastasis is an important prognostic indicator in breast cancer. However, the necessity of internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy for accurate staging, for choosing adjuvant treatment, and as a prognostic indicator, has remained controversial.
From January 2001 to December 2006, 525 female breast cancer patients underwent radical surgery after preoperative lymphatic scintigraphy. We retrospectively analyzed the follow-up results, recurrences, and deaths of all patients.
There was no significant difference in the clinicopathological characteristics between the axilla and the IMLN groups. The median follow-up period was 118.8 months (range, 7-122 months) in the axilla group and 107.7 months (range, 14-108 months) in the IMLN group. During the median follow-up period, the breast cancer-related death rate in the axilla group was 3.6%, which was not significantly different from that of the IMLN group (1.3%) (p=0.484). The five-year survival rates did not differ between the two groups (p=0.306). The overall recurrence rate and the locoregional recurrence rate also did not differ between the two groups (p=0.835 and p=0.582, respectively). The recurrence rate of IMLN (both ipsilateral and contralateral) metastasis was very low, accounting for 0.5% in the axilla group and 1.3% in the IMLN group (p=0.416).
The long-term follow-up results showed that there was no significant difference in both overall outcome and regional recurrence between the two groups. Therefore, the requirement for identification of nodal basins outside the axilla or IMLN sentinel biopsy should be reconsidered.
PMCID: PMC3318182  PMID: 22493635
Breast; Carcinoma; Internal mammary; Prognosis; Sentinel lymph node biopsy
7.  Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast in Comparison with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(4):308-313.
Mucinous carcinoma (MC) of the breast is a rare histologic type of mammary neoplasm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of MC.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all MC cases reported to a database between 1994 and 2010. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival of 268 MC cases were reviewed and compared with 2,455 invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) cases.
The MC cases were of a younger age, involved less lymph nodes, lower stage, more expression of hormonal receptors, and less HER2 overexpression compared to the IDC-NOS cases. The 5-year DFS rate for MC was 95.2% compared to 92.0% for IDC-NOS. The 5-year OS rate for MC was 98.9% compared to 94.9% for IDC-NOS. Multivariate analysis using Cox regression revealed that the mucinous type was a significant prognostic factor for DFS with lower nodal status (N stage) and hormonal therapy. For OS, only N stage was the most significant prognostic factor followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy.
MC was shown to be associated with a better DFS than IDC-NOS, but it had a similar OS. Nodal status and adjuvant therapy appear to be more significant predictors of prognosis than histologic subtype.
PMCID: PMC3268928  PMID: 22323918
Adenocarcinoma; Breast; Invasive ductal carcinoma; Mucinous; Prognosis
8.  Does Immediate Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy affect the Initiation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy? 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(4):322-327.
The frequency of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is increasing, and the types of reconstruction used are diverse. Adjuvant chemotherapy is a life-saving intervention in selected high-risk breast cancer patients. The aim of our study was to determine how IBR and type of reconstruction affect the timing of the initiation of chemotherapy.
We obtained data from female breast cancer patients treated by mastectomy with IBR (IBR group) and without IBR (mastectomy only group) who received adjuvant chemotherapy between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. We retrospectively collected data including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment details, and treatment outcomes from our institutional electronic patient database and medical treatment records. The reconstruction types were categorized as deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and tissue expander/implant (TEI).
In total, 595 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 43 underwent mastectomy with IBR (IBR group) and 552 patients did not undergo reconstruction (mastectomy only group). There was significant difference in the timing of the initiation of chemotherapy between the two groups (p<0.0001). There were no cases of delays of more than 12 weeks. In the IBR group, 20 patients received TEI, 9 patients were treated by the insertion DIEP flaps, and 14 patients were treated by LD flaps. There were no significant differences in the timing of chemotherapy according to the type of reconstruction (p=0.095).
IBR delays the initiation of chemotherapy, but does not lead to omission or significant clinical delay in chemotherapy. Further, the type of reconstruction does not affect the timing of chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3268930  PMID: 22323920
Adjuvant chemotherapy; Breast neoplasms; Breast reconstruction
9.  Results from Over One Year of Follow-Up for Absorbable Mesh Insertion in Partial Mastectomy 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(5):803-808.
Recently, several clinicians have reported the advantages of simplicity and cosmetic satisfaction of absorbable mesh insertion. However, there is insufficient evidence regardint its long-term outcomes. We have investigated the surgical complications and postoperative examination from the oncologic viewpoint.
Materials and Methods
From February 2008 to March 2009, 34 breast cancer patients underwent curative surgery with absorbable mesh insertion in Samsung Medical Center. Patient characteristics and follow up results including complications, clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively investigated.
The mean age of the study population was 50.1±8.9 years old (range 31-82) with a mean tumor size of 3±1.8 cm (range 0.8-10.5), and the excised breast tissue showed a mean volume of 156.1±99.8 mL (range 27-550). Over the median follow-up period of 18±4.6 months (range 3-25), mesh associated complications, including severe pain or discomfort, edema, and recurrent fluid collection, occurred in nine patients (26.5%). In three cases (8.8%), recurrent mastitis resulted in mesh removal or surgical intervention. In the postoperative radiologic survey, the most common finding was fluid collection, which occurred in five patients (16.1%), including one case with organizing hematoma. Fat necrosis and microcalcifications were found in three patients (9.7%).
Absorbable mesh insertion has been established as a technically feasible, time-saving procedure after breast excision. However, the follow-up results showed some noticeable side effects and the oncologic safety of the procedure is unconfirmed. Therefore, we suggest that mesh insertion should be considered only in select cases and should be followed-up carefully.
PMCID: PMC3159934  PMID: 21786446
Breast neoplasms; mastectomy; segmental; absorbable implants
10.  Implications of Bone-Only Metastases in Breast Cancer: Favorable Preference with Excellent Outcomes of Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer 
The aim of the current study was to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes of "bone-only metastases" in patients with breast cancer and to analyze the impact of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status on prognosis.
Materials and Methods
Between 1994 and 2007, of 968 patients with metastatic breast cancer who underwent palliative management at Samsung Medical Center, 565 (57%) relapsed with distant metastases. Of the 968, 146 (15%) had bone-only metastases during a median follow-up period of 75 months. Among the 146 patients with bone-only metastases, 122 (84%) were relapsed patients after curative surgery and 24 (26%) were initially metastatic cases.
The median time from primary surgery to bone-only metastases of the 122 patients was 37 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 46 months). Bone-only metastases were more common in the HR-positive group than in the other subtypes (85% for HR+; 8.2% for HER2+; 6.8% for triple negative. Among all 146 patients, 75 (51%) were treated with hormone therapy. The median post-relapse progression-free survival was 15 months (95%CI, 13 to 17 months). The median overall survival was much longer in the HR+ patients than the HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer patients with marginal statistical significance (65 vs. 40 vs. 40 months, p=0.077).
Breast cancer patients with "bone-only metastases" had excellent clinical outcomes. Further study is now warranted to reveal the underlying biology that regulates the behavior of this indolent tumor, as it should identify 'favorable tumor characteristics' in addition to 'favorable preferential metastatic site.'
PMCID: PMC3138922  PMID: 21811424
Bone; Neoplasm metastasis; Breast neoplasms; Estrogen receptors; Progesterone receptors; HER2
12.  LYN is a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and target of dasatinib in breast cancer 
Cancer research  2010;70(6):2296-2306.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a switch of polarized epithelial cells to a migratory, fibroblastoid phenotype, is considered a key process driving tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. Using breast cancer cell lines as a model system, we sought to discover gene-expression signatures of EMT with clinical and mechanistic relevance. A supervised comparison of epithelial and mesenchymal breast cancer lines defined a 200-gene EMT signature that was prognostic across multiple breast cancer cohorts. Immunostaining of LYN, a top-ranked EMT signature gene and Src-family tyrosine kinase, was associated with significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.02), and correlated with the basal-like (“triple-negative”) phenotype. In mesenchymal breast cancer lines, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LYN inhibited cell migration and invasion, but not proliferation. Dasatinib, a dual-specificity tyrosine kinase inhibitor, also blocked invasion (but not proliferation) at nanomolar concentrations that inhibit LYN kinase activity, suggesting that LYN is a likely target and invasion a relevant endpoint for dasatinib therapy. Our findings define a prognostically-relevant EMT signature in breast cancer, and identify LYN as a mediator of invasion and possible new therapeutic target (and theranostic marker for dasatinib response), with particular relevance to clinically-aggressive basal-like breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC2869247  PMID: 20215510
Breast cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; transcriptional profiling; LYN; dasatinib
13.  The 70-Gene Prognostic Signature for Korean Breast Cancer Patients 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(1):33-38.
A 70-gene prognostic signature has prognostic value in patients with node-negative breast cancer in Europe. This diagnostic test known as "MammaPrint™ (70-gene prognostic signature)" was recently validated and implementation was feasible. Therefore, we assessed the 70-gene prognostic signature in Korean patients with breast cancer. We compared the risk predicted by the 70-gene prognostic signature with commonly used clinicopathological guidelines among Korean patients with breast cancer. We also analyzed the 70-gene prognostic signature and clinicopathological feature of the patients in comparison with a previous validation study.
Forty-eight eligible patients with breast cancer (clinical T1-2N0M0) were selected from four hospitals in Korea. Fresh tumor samples were analyzed with a customized microarray for the 70-gene prognostic signature. Concordance between the risk predicted by the 70-gene prognostic signature and risk predicted by commonly used clinicopathological guidelines (St. Gallen guidelines, National Institutes of Health [NIH] guideline, and Adjuvant! Online) was evaluated.
Prognosis signatures were assessed in 36 patients. No significant differences were observed in the clinicopathological features of patients compared with previous studies. The 70-gene prognosis signature identified five (13.9%) patients with a low-risk prognosis signature and 31 (86.1%) patients with a high-risk prognosis signature. Clinical risk was concordant with the prognosis signature for 29 patients (80.6%) according to the St. Gallen guidelines; 30 patients (83.4%) according to the NIH guidelines; and 23 patients (63.8%) according to the Adjuvant! Online. Our results were different from previous validation studies in Europe with about a 40% low-risk prognosis and about a 60% high-risk prognosis. The high incidence in the high-risk group was consistent with data in Japan.
The results of 70-gene prognostic signature of Korean patients with breast cancer were somewhat different from those identified in Europe. This difference should be studied as whether there is a gene disparity between Asians and Europeans. Further large-scale studies with a follow-up evaluation are required to assess whether the use of the 70-gene prognostic signature can predict the prognosis of Korean patients with breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3148507  PMID: 21847392
Breast neoplasms; Gene expression profiling; Korea
14.  Patterns of Recurrence after Breast-Conserving Treatment for Early Stage Breast Cancer by Molecular Subtype 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(1):46-51.
To study clinical features and patterns of recurrence after breast-conserving treatment (BCT) for three molecular subtypes of early stage breast cancer.
The sample studied included 596 patients with T1-2N0-1 breast cancer who received BCT. Three groups were defined by receptor status. Luminal: estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive; triple negative (TN): ER, PR, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) receptor negative; and HER2 overexpressing: ER and PR negative but HER2 receptor positive.
The number of patients in each group was 408 (68.5%), 105 (17.6%), and 83 (13.9%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 79 months. The TN and HER2 subtypes occurred in younger patients (p=0.0007) and had higher nuclear grade and poorer histologic grade (p<0.0001 and 0.0071, respectively). During the follow-up period, locoregional recurrence was detected as the first site of recurrence in 26 (6.4%), 11 (10.5%), and 9 (10.8%) patients in the luminal, TN, and HER2 subtypes, respectively (p=0.1924). Thirty-one (7.6%), 7 (6.7%), and 7 (8.4%) patients in each group had distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence (p=0.8996). Median time to locoregional and distant recurrence was shorter in the HER2 subtype (p=0.0889 and 0.0780, respectively), and the HER2 subtype was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p=0.0009).
After BCT in Korean women with early stage breast cancer, the patterns of recurrence were not different among the molecular subtypes, although the TN and HER2 subtypes were associated with younger age, higher nuclear grade, and poorer histologic grade.
PMCID: PMC3148515  PMID: 21847394
Breast-conserving surgery; Breast neoplasms; erbB-2 receptor; Estrogen receptors; Progesterone receptors; Recurrence
15.  Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy in Patients Receiving Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(3):443-450.
Postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer has a number of associated complications. This study examined whether supervised moderate-intensity exercise could mitigate the complications that occur during radiotherapy.
Patients and Methods
Forty women were randomized before radiotherapy after various operations for breast cancer. Seventeen patients who were assigned to the exercise group performed supervised moderate-intensity exercise therapy for 50 min 3 times per week for 5 weeks. Twenty-three patients in the control group were asked to perform self-shoulder stretching exercise. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), brief fatigue inventory (BFI), range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder, and pain score were assessed before and after radiotherapy.
There were no significant differences noted at baseline between groups. In the exercise group, there was an increase in the WHOQOL-BREF and shoulder ROM and decrease in BFI and pain score after radiotherapy. On the other hand, patients in the control group showed decrease in the WHOQOL-BREF and shoulder ROM and increase in BFI and pain score after radiotherapy. There were statistically significant differences in the changes in the WHOQOL, BFI, shoulder ROM, and pain score between the groups.
Patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer may benefit in physical and psychological aspects from supervised moderate-intensity exercise therapy.
PMCID: PMC2615347  PMID: 18581595
Breast cancer; exercise therapy; quality of life; radiotherapy
16.  Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein is Overexpressed in Patients with Unfavorable Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(Suppl):S17-S23.
Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) is a recently identified inhibitor of apoptosis protein. However, the clinical relevance of NAIP expression is not completely understood. In an attempt to determine the clinical relevance of NAIP expression in breast cancer, the levels of NAIP and survivin expression were measured in 117 breast cancer samples and 10 normal breast tissues using quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. While there was no evidence of NAIP expression in the normal breast tissue, NAIP was expressed in all breast cancer samples. The level of NAIP expression in breast cancer was significantly higher (257 times) than in the universal tumor control. There was a strong correlation between the level of NAIP expression and the level of survivin expression (p=0.001). The level of NAIP expression in patients with a large tumor (≥T2) and patients with an unfavorable histology (nuclear grade III) was significantly higher than in those patients with a small tumor (T1) and patients with a favorable histology (nuclear grade I, II) (p=0.026 and p=0.050, respectively). Although the level of NAIP expression was higher in patients with other unfavorable prognostic factors, it was not significant. The three-year relapse-free survival rate was not significantly the patients showing high NAIP expression and patients showing low NAIP expression (86.47±4.79% vs. 78.74±6.57%). Further studies should include the expressions of NAIP in a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up to evaluate correlation with metastasis and treatment outcome. In conclusion, NAIP is overexpressed in breast cancer patients with unfavorable clinical features such as stage and tumor size, suggesting that NAIP would play a role in the disease manifestation.
PMCID: PMC2694398  PMID: 17923748
Breast Cancer; Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory rotein (NAIP); Apoptosis; Prognostic Factor; Clinical Relevance
17.  The Value of Ultrasound-Guided Tattooing Localization of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(4):295-301.
To investigate the value of ultrasound-guided tattooing localization (US-tattoo) using a charcoal suspension for breast lesions.
Materials and Methods
One hundred sixty-four nonpalpable breast lesions in 134 patients (mean age 47 years; range 30-74 years) were marked with a charcoal suspension under US guidance. The medical records associated with the US-tattoo, the pathology results and the follow-up US results were reviewed.
The average size of the localized lesions was 1.0 cm. The procedure time was < 5 minutes (range, 2-10 minutes) per lesion. The US-tattoo was well tolerated in all cases. The only technical difficulty encountered was a needle tip blockage caused by a large charcoal particle (4.9%). The surgeon easily identified the tattoo with the exception one case. In addition, surgery could be safely delayed from one to 57 days after the making US-tattoo. The pathology result was benign in 108 cases, borderline in five, and malignant in 51. The excised specimen was < 4 cm in 76.6% (82/107) of the benign cases (mean; 2.7 cm). The pathologist could identify the mass around the tattoo and was able to make a specific diagnosis in 81.3% (87/107) of benign lesions. The only complication encountered was residual charcoal marking along the incision scar (3.6%). All follow-up US documented the removal of the lesions.
An US-tattoo for nonpalpable breast lesions is a very simple and accurate method that can help surgeons design and schedule an open biopsy.
PMCID: PMC2627157  PMID: 17673840
Breast, nonpalpable lesions; Breast, biopsy; Biopsies, technology
18.  Immunoexpression of HBME-1, High Molecular Weight Cytokeratin, Cytokeratin 19, Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, and E-cadherin in Thyroid Carcinomas 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(5):853-859.
To examine the immunohistochemical alterations associated with the histological dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinomas, we performed staining for HBME-1, high molecular weight cytokeratin (HCK), CK 19, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and E-cadherin (E-CD) on 125 various types of thyroid carcinomas. The HBME-1 staining was strong and diffuse in follicular carcinoma (FC), papillary carcinoma (PC), and poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC), while it was rare in undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) as well as in benign lesions. Strong, diffuse staining for CK19 and HCK was predominantly found in PC, and these markers were not much found in other carcinomas. TTF-1 uniformly stained the tumor cells of all cases of PC, FC and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HC) and 42% of the PDC, while there was only focal staining in one case of the UC. Compared to the strong, diffuse reactivity in the benign lesions, E-CD staining was noted in 67% of PC, 80% of FC, 83% of HC, 58% of PDC and none of the UC. These results suggest that HBME-1 may be a marker for well-differentiated carcinomas while CK19 and HCK are phenotypic markers for papillary carcinoma. The loss or reduced expression of TTF-1 and E-CD may be markers for dedifferentiation.
PMCID: PMC2779285  PMID: 16224162
HBME-1 antigen; Keratin; thyroid nuclear factor 1; Cadherins; Thyroid Neoplasms
19.  E-cadherin and Cytokeratin Subtype Profiling in Effusion Cytology 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2004;19(6):826-833.
Diagnostic utility of E-cadherin (E-CD) and cytokeratin (CK) subtype profiling in effusion cytology was investigated, employing immunocytochemistry on cellblock sections available from 211 metastatic carcinomas (MC), 6 mesotheliomas and 73 reactive mesothelial hyperplasias (MH). E-CD and monoclonal carcinoembryonic anti-gen (mCEA) stained 85% (120/141) and 65% (138/211) of MC, respectively. E-CD staining of MC was frequently heterogeneous (76/120) and absent in all anaplastic carcinomas (0/2). E-CD stained none (0/57) of MH while mCEA and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) stained 12% (9/73) and 32% (16/32) of MH, respectively. Of 6 mesotheliomas, E-CD focally stained in 2 while mCEA stained none and EMA stained all. CK20 and CK17 stained none of MH or mesotheliomas. CK20 stained 15% of MC and CK 17 stained 22% of MC. CK5/6 and high molecular weight CK stained all mesotheliomas, 56% and 88% of MH, 26% and 39% of MC, respectively. MC showed predominant CK7+/20- expression, with the exceptions of MC from mucinous type of colon/rectum and ovary showing predominant CK20 positive. E-CD may be a useful positive marker for MC in effusion cytology, although it may focally stain in some mesotheliomas. Any positive staining for CK20 of MC suggests MC from the gastrointestinal tract or ovary among others.
PMCID: PMC2816286  PMID: 15608393
Pleural Effusion; Ascites; Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Neoplasms, Mesothelial; Cadherins; Keratin; Cytokeratin 20; Keratin 7
20.  Stereotactic Core-Needle Biopsy of Non-Mass Calcifications: Outcome and Accuracy at Long-Term Follow-Up 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2003;4(4):217-223.
To determine, by means of long-term follow-up evaluation, the outcome and accuracy of stereotactic core-needle biopsy (SCNB) of non-mass calcifications observed at mammography, and to analyze the factors contributing to false-negative findings.
Materials and Methods
Using a 14-gauge needle, SCNB was performed in cases involving 271 non-mass calcified lesions observed at mammography in 267 patients aged 23-72 (mean, 47) years. We compared the SCNB results with those of long-term follow-up which included surgery, mammography performed for at least six months, and reference to Korean Cancer Registry listings. We investigated the retrieval rate for calcifications observed at specimen mammography and histologic evaluation, and determined the incidence rate of cancer, sensitivity, and the underestimation rate for SCNB. False-negative cases were evaluated in terms of their mammographic findings, the effect of the operators' experience, and the retrieval rate for calcifications.
For specimen mammography and histologic evaluation of SCNB, the retrieval rate for calcifications was, respectively, 84% and 77%. At SCNB, 54 of 271 lesions (19.9%) were malignant [carcinoma in situ, 45/54 (83%)], 16 were borderline, and 201 were benign. SCNB showed that the incidence of cancer was 5.0% (6/120) in the benign mammographic category and 31.8% (48/151) in the malignant category. The findings revealed by immediate surgery and by long-term follow-up showed, respectively, that the sensitivity of SCNB was 90% and 82%. For borderline lesions, the underestimation rate was 10%. For false-negative cases, which were more frequent among the first ten cases we studied (p = 0.01), the most frequent mammographic finding was clustered amorphous calcifications. For true-negative and false-negative cases, the retrieval rate for calcifications was similar at specimen mammography (83% and 67%, respectively; p = 0.14) and histologic evaluation (79% and 75%, respectively; p = 0.47).
In this study group, most diagnosed cancers were in-situ lesions, and long-term follow-up showed that the sensitivity of SCNB was 82%. False-negative findings were frequent during the operators' learning period.
PMCID: PMC2698099  PMID: 14726638
Breast, biopsy; Breast neoplasms, diagnosis; Stereotaxis
21.  Foreign Body Granulomas of the Breast Presenting as Bilateral Spiculated Masses 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2001;2(2):113-116.
In Asia, mammography following the injection of foreign materials into the breasts for cosmetic augmentation is frequently seen and diagnosis based on the typical radiologic findings is straightforward.
We report the unusual radiologic findings in two patients with foreign body granulomas caused by injected foreign materials and discovered incidentally during screening work up. The mammographic findings were bilateral, hyperdense, spiculated masses, with occasional microcalcification, and at sonography, markedly hypoechoic, spiculated solid masses, located near the pectoralis muscle and partly extending into it, were observed. These radiologic findings mimicked malignancy.
PMCID: PMC2718101  PMID: 11752980
Breast, abnormalities; Breast radiography
22.  Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in non-familial breast cancer patients with high risks in Korea: The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) Study 
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment  2012;133(3):1143-1152.
Prevalence and phenotype of BRCA mutation can vary by race. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in non-familial breast cancer patients with high risks in Korea. A subset of 758 patients was selected for this study from the KOHBRA nationwide multicenter prospective cohort study. Mutations in BRCA1/2 genes were tested using fluorescent-conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography or direct sequencing. Mutation of BRCA1/2 genes were identified in 65 (8.6%) patients among total 758 patients [BRCA1 mutation: 25 (3.3%), BRCA2 mutation: 40 (5.3%)]. According to risk groups, mutation of BRCA1/2 genes were identified in 53 (8.5%) of 625 early onset patients (age ≤40), in 22 (17.7%) of 124 bilateral breast cancer patients, in 3 (50.0%) of 6 breast and ovarian cancer patients, in one (5.9%) of 17 male breast cancer patients, in 5 cases (7.6%) of 66 multiple organ cancer patients. The most common mutation was 509C>A for BRCA1 and 7708C>T for BRCA2. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations by age in early onset patients was significantly different (age <35 vs age ≥35; 10.0 vs 2.9%, p = 0.0007). BRCA1/2 mutations for non-familial Korean breast cancer patients were detected at a high rate, particularly, in patients with early onset of less than 35 years of age, bilateral breast cancer, and breast and ovarian cancer. Individualized genetic counseling should be offered for non-familial breast cancer patients with these risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3387491  PMID: 22382806
BRCA1; BRCA2; Hereditary breast cancer; Korean; Non-familial; Prevalence
24.  Triple-negative, basal-like, and quintuple-negative breast cancers: better prediction model for survival 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:507.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are known as poor outcome subtypes with a lack of targeted therapy. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the difference of prognostic significance between TNBCs and BLBCs. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prognostic features of TNBCs, in view of BLBCs and quintuple-negative breast cancers (QNBC/5NPs).
Using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical analysis, we categorized 951 primary breast cancers into four or five subtypes according to the expression of ER, PR, HER2, and basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR).
The results of this study showed that both TNBCs and BLBCs were associated with high histological and/or nuclear grades. When the TNBCs are divided into two subtypes by the presence of basal markers, the clinicopathologic characteristics of TNBCs were mainly maintained in the BLBCs. The 5-subgrouping was the better prediction model for both disease free and overall survival in breast cancers than the 4-subgrouping. After multivariate analysis of TNBCs, the BLBCs did not have a worse prognosis than the QNBC/5NPs. Interestingly, the patients with BLBCs showed significant adjuvant chemotherapy benefit. In addition, QNBC/5NPs comprised about 6~8% of breast cancers in publicly available breast cancer datasets
The QNBC/5NP subtype is a worse prognostic subgroup of TNBCs, especially in higher stage and this result may be related to adjuvant chemotherapy benefit of BLBCs, calling for caution in the identification of subgroups of patients for therapeutic classification.
PMCID: PMC2957395  PMID: 20860845

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